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L.  1,.  LAXUSTKOTH.  AT  70, 


.  1-1  ■•-I  /'■'- 


Hive  and  Honey  Bee 

Revised,  Enlarged  and  Completed  by 







V  • 

I     .1  ...  I  ■  1 

I    I 


t        T..     .■-^  -  •    N"AT--  ^S 




„         V  «    •••    - 

.         V  . 


Printers  and  Binders, 

Keokuk,  Iowa. 


Bt  his  inyention  of  the  most  practical  movable- frame 
hive,  and  by  his  book,  "The  Hive  and  Honey-Bee* % — a 
book  as  attractive  as  a  novel,  —  Mr.  Langstroth  has  laid 
the  foundation  of  American  Apiculture,  whose  methods 
and  implements  have  become  popular  throughout  the  world. 

The  re- writing  of  the  "Hive  and  Honey-Bee"  was  en- 
trusted to  us,  in  1885,  by  Mr.  Langstroth,  as  his  feeble 
health  rendered  him  unable  to  attend  to  it  since  its  last  re- 
vision in  1859. 

In  this  difTicult  work,  which  demanded  a  review  of  the 
progress  accomplished  in  the  past  thirty  years,  we  have  had 
to  introduce  more  new  matter  than  we  had  anticipated. 
This  will  probably  please  the  Apiarists  who  have  already 

•  -    #        -  ^ 

read  former  editions,  and  who  have  been  waitihg  for  this 
long-promised  revision.  Yet,  we  have  retained  as  much  as 
possible  of  Mr.  Langstroth's  writings,  and  all  who  ^'.r':;  con- 
versant with  his  style  will  readily  recognize  bis'  filasterly 

Our  thanks  are  due  to  Mr.  C.  F.  Muth,  of  Cincinnati,  tt)r 
the  enthusiastic  interest  which  he  has  taken  in  this  book, 
and  to  the  able  teacher  and  writer,  Miss  Favard,  of  Keokuk, 
for  her  criticism  of  the  literary  part  of  the  work. 

As  bee-keeping,  like  all  other  sciences,  is  but  an  accumu- 
lation of  former  discoveries,  we  have  borrowed  much  from 
all  sides,  but  we  have  tried  to  give  due  credit  to  all.  Some 
of  the  engravings  given  are  not  original   with   the  works 



from  which  we  take  them.  Those  of  Girard,  for  instance, 
are  reduced  copies  of  the  beautiful  chromos  of  Clerici,  after 
the  microscopic  studies  of  Count  G.  Barbo,  of  Milan.  Text- 
books are  never  entirely  free  from  compilations  of  this  kind. 
Having  spared  neither  time  nor  expense  to  produce  a 
book  worth}*  of  the  father  of  American  Apiculture,  we  hope 
that  our  work  will  be  favorably  received  and  will  prove  of 
•ome  use  in  helping  progress. 


Dbckmbkr,  1888 

•  • 

•  • 

•  •  •• 

•  •  • 

•  ••    • 

•  •  •  • 

••  • 

•  •  • 


•  •  •  •     • 

a   •        •  •        • 
,.  .     •••     •• 

•  . 


Lorenzo  Lobraik  Lanqstroth,  the  "  father  of  American 
Apiculture/*  was  bom  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  December 
25,  1810.  He  early  showed  unusual  interest  in  insect  life. 
His  parents  were  intelligent  and  in  comfortable  circum- 
stances, but  they  were  not  pleased  to  see  him  ''  waste  so 
much  time  "  in  digging  holes  in  the  gravel  walks,  filling  them 
with  crumbs  of  bread  and  dead  flies,  to  watch  the  curious 
habits  of  the  ants.  No  books  of  any  kind  on  natural  history 
were  put  into  his  hands,  but,  on  the  contrary,  much  was  said 
to  discourage  his  *' strange  notions."  Still  he  persisted  in 
his  observations,  and  gave  to  them  much  of  the  time  that 
his  playmates  spent  in  sport. 

In  1827,  he  entered  Yale  College,  graduating  in  1831. 
His  father's  means  having  failed,  he  supported  himself  by 
teaching,  while  pursuing  his  theological  studies.  After  serv- 
ing as  mathematical  tutor  in  Yale  College  for  nearly  two 
years,  he  was  ordained  Pastor  of  a  Congregational  church 
in  Andover,  Massachusetts,  in  May,  1836,  and  was  married 
in  August  of  that  yearto  Miss  A.  M.  Tucker  of  New  Haven. 

Strange  to  say,  notwithstanding  his  passion  in  early  life 
for  studying  the  habits- of  insects,  he  took  no  interest  in 
such  pursuits  during  his  college  life.  In  1837,  the  sight  of 
a  glass  vessel  filled  with  beautiful  comb  hone}-,  on  the  table 
of  a  friend,  led  him  to  visit  the  attic  where  the  bees  were 
kept.  This  revived  all  his  enthusiasm,  and  before  he  went 
home  be  purchased  two  colonies  of  bees  in  old  box  hives. 


IT  BIOORAPHT  or   L.    L.    LAMOaTROTH. 

The  onl;  Uterar;  knowledge  which  he  then  had  of  bee-culture 
was  gleaned  from  the  Latin  writings  of  Virgil,  and  from  ■ 
modern  writer,  "  who  waa  somewhat  skeptical  as  to  the  exist- 
ence of  a  queen-bee." 

In  1839,  Hr.  Langstroth  removed  to  Greenfield,  Massachu- 
setta.  His  health  was  much  impaired,  and  be  had  resigned 
his  pastorate.  Increasing  very  gradually  the  number  of  his 
colonies,  he  sought  information  on  all  sides.  The  "Let- 
ters of  Huber"  and  the  work  of  Dr.  Bev&n  on  the  honey 
bee  (London,  1838),  fell  into  his  bands  and  gave  him  an 
introduction  to  the  vast  literature  of  bee-keeping. 

In  1848,  having  removed  to  Philadelphia,  Mr.  Langstroth, 
with  the  help  of  his  wife,  began  to  experiment  with  hives  of 
different  forms,  but  made  no  special  improvements  in  them 
until  1851,  when  he  devised  the  movable  frame  hive,  used  at 
the  present  day  in  preference  to  all  others.  This  is  re- 
corded In  his  journal,  under  the  date  of  October  30,  1851, 
with  the  following  remarks:  "  The  use  of  these  frames  will, 
I  am  persuaded,  give  a  new  impetus  to  the  easy  and  profit- 
able management  of  bees." 

This  invention,  which  gave  him  perfect  control  over  all 
the  combs  of  the  hive,  enabled  him  afterwards  to  make 
many  remarks  and  incidental  discoveries,  the  most  of  which 
he  recorded  in  his  book,  on  the  habits  and  the  oatural  his- 
tory of  the  honey-bee.  The  &rBt  edition  of  the  work  was 
pul'lisbed  in  1852.  and  in  its  preparation  he  was  greatly 
assisted  by  his  Bi-comph-^lii'l  wife.  A  rcvii-ed  edition  waa 
published  in  1k57.  Htn'iioi  m  is.'il),  ainl  lnr<;c  editions, 
without  further  reviuiuua,  Unw  BinuL'  bt't;ii  published. 

In  January.  18.^2.  Mr.  Lanir'trolh  applic<l  for  a  patent  on 
his  invention.  Tlii*  wa^*  Kranu'cl  him  ;  Imt  lie  was  deprived 
of  ell  the  pnilitH  ■)f  tlii..  .  i  ndle  di^n-i^vfrv,  by  infringe- 
ments and  mi lut-i '"■■'■  •  I-,  ivliiuli  irtijioverished  him 
and  gave  him  u-<  •  ■  .  (Iii);i;:;h  nn  doubt  remains 
ROW  In  the  n [.)  tin,'  ori;;inaIity  and  prior- 
ity of  hi*  <li-' 

BIOQRAPHT  or  L.    L.    LAK08TR0TH.  T 

Prom  the  very  beginning,  his  hive  was  adopted  by  such 
men  as  Quinby,  Grimm  and  others,  while  the  inventions  of 
Mann  and  Debeauvoys  are  now  boried  in  oblivion. 

Removing  to  Oxford,  Ohio,  in  1858,  Mr.  Langstroth,  with 
the  help  of  his  son,  engaged  in  the  propagation  of  the 
Italian  bee.  From  his  large  apiary  he  sold  in  one  season 
$2,000  worth  of  Italian  queens.  This  amount  looks  small 
at  the  present  stage  of  bee-keeping,  but  it  was  enormous  at 
a  time  when  so  few  people  were  interested  in  it. 

The  death  of  his  only  son,  and  repeated  attacks  of  a 
serious  head  trouble,  together  with  physical  infirmities 
caused  b}-  a  railroad  accident,  compelled  Mr.  Langstroth  to 
abandou  extensive  bee-culture  in  1874.  But  wlien  his  health 
Ijermitted,  his  ideas  were  always  turned  toward  iniprove- 
-ments  in  bee-culture.  On  the  19th  of  August,  181)5,  he 
wrote  us,  asking  us  to  try  the  feeding  of  bees  with  malted 
milk,  to  induce  the  rearing  of  brood.  lie  had  also  written 
to  others  on  the  same  subject.  On  the  lIHh  of  Septeinl>er 
he  wrote  in  the  American  Bee  Journal,  that,  after  compar- 
ative experiments  he  had  found  that  a  thirteen  eomb  Lang- 
stroth hive  gave  more  honey  than  the  ordinary  ten  frame 
hive,  thus  showing  that  his  mind  was  at  all  times  oceii})ied 
with  bees. 

Mr.  Langstroth  died  October  6th,  l«9o,  at  Dayton,  Ohio, 
while  delivering  a  sermon.  He  was  nearlv  eiirlitv-live  years 
ohl.  His  name  is  now  **venerated''  bv  American  ])ee- 
keepers,  who  are  aware  of  the  great  debt  due  him  by  the 
fraternity.  He  is  to  them  what  Dzierzon*  is  to  (merman 
Apiarists.  A  master  whose  teachings  will  be  retaine<l  for 

Mr.  Langstroth  was  an  eminent  scholar.  Ilis  ])ee  lil>rary 
was  one  of  the  most  extensive  in  the  world.  He  learned 
French  without  a  teacher,  simply  through  his  knowledge  of 

*  Pronounee  T$«erU(me, 


Latin,  tor  the  sole  purpoae  of  reading  tlie  many  valuable 
worka  on  bees  iti  the  French  language.  He  was  a  pleasant 
and  eloquent  speaker.  Ilig  writings  are  praise<l  by  all,  and 
we  can  not  close  his  biography  better  than  by  quoting  an 
able  writer,  who  calle<I  him  the  "Huber  of  America." 



Mr.  Charles  Dadant  was  born  May  22y  1817,  at  Vaux-Sous- 
Aubigny,  in  the  golden  hills  of  Biu*gundy,  France.  After  his 
education  in  the  College  of  Langres,  he  went  into  the  mercan- 
tile business  in  that  city,  but  ill-success  induced  him  to  remove 
to  America.  He  settled  in  Hamilton,  Illinois,  in  1863,  and 
found  a  profitable  occupation  in  bee-culture,  which  in  his  hands 
yielded  marvelous  results.  He  soon  became  noted  as  one  of 
the  leading  apiarists  of  the  world. 

After  a  few  years  of  trial  he  made  a  trip  to  Italy,  in  1873, 
to  import  the  bees  of  that  country  to  America.  Though  at  first 
unsuccessful,  he  persisted  in  his  efforts  and  finally  achieved 
g^eat  success.  He  was  the  first  to  lay  down  rules  for  the  safe 
transportation  of  queen  bees  across  the  sea,  which  is  now  a 
matter  of  daily  occm*ence. 

Later  on,  in  partnership  with  his  son  C.  P.  Dadant,  he  un- 
dertook the  manufacture  of  comb  foundation  which  has  been 
continued  by  the  firm,  together  with  the  management  of  sev- 
eral large  apiaries,  run  almost  exclusively  for  the  production  of 
extracted  honey. 

Although  well  versed  in  the  English  language  which  he  had 
mastered  at  the  age  of  forty-six,  with  the  help  of  a  pocket  dic- 
tionary, Mr.  Dadant  was  never  able  to  speak  it  fluently  and 
many  of  the  readers  of  his  numerous  writings  were  astonished 
when  meeting  him  to  find  that  he  could  converse  with  difficulty. 
His  writingps  were  not  confined  to  American  publications,  for  in 
1870  he  began  writing  for  European  bee-journals  and  continued 
to  do  so  until  his  methods  were  adopted,  especially  in  Switzer- 
land, France  and  Italy,  where  the  hive  which  he  recommended 
is  now  known  under  his  name.  For  twenty  years  he  was  a  reg- 
ular contributor  to  the  Revue  Internationale  D'Api-culture,  and 
the  result  has  been  that  there  is  probably  not  another  bee-\\Titer 
whose  name  is  so  thoroughly  known,  the  world  over. 

Mr.  Dadant  has  been  made  an  honorary  member  of  more 
than  twenty  bee-keepers  associations  throughout  the  world  and 
his  death  which  occm*ed  July  16,  1902,  was  lamented  by  every 
bee  publication  on  both  continents. 

Mr.  Dadant  was  a  congenial  man,  and  a  philosopher.  He 
retained  his  cheerfulness  of  spirit  to  his  last  day. 

In  addition  to  his  supervision  of  the  re\nsion  of  this  book, 
he  was  the  author  of  a  small  treatise  on  bees,  "Petit  Cours 
d' Apiculture  Pratique."  He  also  published  in  connection  with 
his   son  a  pamphlet  on  "Extracted  honey,"  1881,  now  out  of 

E-int.     The  translation  of  Langstroth  Revised  into  the  French 
anguage   was   also   undertaken  by  their  united  effort.     This 
book  has  since  been  re-translated  into  the  Russian  language. 

Table  of  Contents 


CHAFncs  I— Physiology  of  the  Honey-Bee 

1.  QcKSBAL  BicMiiRKS.     8.  The  Honey-bee.     S.  The  Hire.  '  4.  The  three 
kiade  of  InhmMtante. 

GnnniAL  CHABACfTSBieriGt.  —5.  The  akeleton.  6.  The  flrame  of  thel? 
bodiee  7.  Hatn.  8.  The  three  seetiODs  of  the  body.  9.  Byee. 
!•.  Their  etrucHue.  11.  Comperiton.  18.  Use  of  the  unell  eyee. 
IS.  Why  to  many  flneete  t  14.  Help  In  flnding  their  way  back.  15, 
18.  Colon  M  gnldea.  17, 18.  Color  not  their  ODly  gnlde.  19.  The 
•oteDBM.  SO.  Ovr  gratitude  to  Huber  and  his  serrant  Bomens.  21 .  His 
WlDi.  88.  His  ability.  88.  His  ezperiments  on  the  antenna.  24.  Can 
beesperofltTeeoiindat  85.  Where  is  their  hearing  located  ?  26.  Where 
sre  tbdr  smeUing  OTgmns  located  ?  87.  The  wonders  of  the  microscope. 
88.  Nunber  of  atoms  in  a  pin  head.  29.  Smelling  organs.  SO.  Mar- 
T^ova  power  of  smell.  81.  Smelling  blossoms  a  mile  away.  S8,  SS, 
Bemembxanea.  84.  Depriving  bees  of  their  aotennas.  S5.  Cannot  lire 
without  aateiUMS.  88.  Brain  of  beea.  87.  Onr  reverence  for  Swammer- 
dam.  88.  The  month.  89.  The  glands.  40.  Qneen  fed  by  theprodno- 
of  the  upper  pair.  41.  The  others  are  salirary.  42.  Mandibles  4S. 
Compared  with  those  of  hornets.  44.  Other  parts  of  the  month.  45.  Chin 
•ndtongne.  48.  Labial  palpi  and  maxilla.  47.  Thetongnelsnot  a  tnbe. 
48.  Afltionof  thetongne.  49.  Its  possible  improvement.  50.  The  thor- 
ax. 51.  Lega.  58.  Claws  and  pnlvilll.  5S.  How  the  pnlyilli  work. 
84.  Uaea  of  the  haixs  of  the  legs.  55 .  The  notch  of  the  llrst  pair.  56 .  The 
pin  of  the  aeoond  pair.  57.  The  pinoers  of  the  posterior  pair  58 .  The 
pollen  eomba.  59.  Pollen  basketa.  69.  The  wings.  61.  Their  power  and 
speed.  68.  Digesting  apparatns.  68.  Honey  sac  and  stomach  month. 
•4.  IsthelarralMby  theglandst  65,66.  Comparison  with  mammals . 
87.  Procees  of  digestion.  68.  Nerrons  system.  69.  The  heart.  70  The 
liuiga  or  trachea.  71.  Their  ooivectioa  with  the  flight.  72.  Bees  unable 
to  take  wing.  78.  Their  discharge  In  flight.  74.  Girard  on  the  trachea. 
75.  Tha  httmming.  78.  Langnage  of  beea.  77.  Stahala  on  this  subject. 
78.  ThestiBg.  79.  Poison  sack.  80,  81.  Shape  of  the  sting  and  how  it 
woifca.  88.  Kot  easily  withdrawn.  88.  Very  polished  weapon .  84.  Loss 
ofthastiag.  85.  Can  be  with<lrawn  86.  Bees  can  live  withoat  it.  87. 
Hm  odor  of  the  poison.  88.  The  sting  can  wound  after  removaL  89. 
When  liCl  in  tha  wound.  90.  Thanks  to  the  writers.  91.  Conelosions  ol 
Paakaid.    88.  Intelllganoe  of  some  insecta. 


Vin  TABLX   or   CONTXim. 

Tm  Qvin.— U.  Bba  wbi  tallad  klD(-bM.  9*.  Hat  nx  JUcwwJ  by 
Bntlv.  M.  BwunmanUm.  M.  Shadoci  Mtiomn,  *7.  Bw  IkMod- 
ttj.  M  lIowtotMtlt.  0»DlMla7im(mlD  Spring.  IM.  DcMTlpllon. 
!•■.  Lots  of  tha  bees  tor  thsli  qnnn.  109.  lotenatlDg  aipariinant. 
1*S.  BeprodnotlOD  of  tb*  qnaan.  lOl.  Qhmd  selii.  100.  Tliali  nambar. 
1*4.  An  en*dapoiIt»l  Intbe  qnoaa-oalli  bf  tha  qnamil  lOT.  Qnaaoi 
(rom  woTkaTnsgi.  lOS.  DiOknnt  food.  It>  molt.  lOK.  How  orphaa 
bsetraaiqneena.  110.  DnratloaotiJavalopmeDt.  111.  Tlie  TliglaqBacB. 
IIS.  Hnboron  tha  .iMtnotloD  of  thElrnvali.  US.  Baaa  twlp  1b  tha 
work.  114.  SlTala  DOt  deatrojad  whsa  baoa  lataad  to  nranii.  IIS. 
Toloa  of  tha  queen.  llA.  Combat  of  qneana.  117.  Tiro  qneaoa  la  ooa 
hl>e.  lis.  NmratioaoflharBct.  IIB.  OlherlniUneM.  ISO.  Imnag- 
nitlon  of  theqaean.  ISl.  TlmaallmprscDBllon,  139.  I^btIdb  tha  hiTa 
and  TBtamln);.  ISS.  Ttaa  mating.  124,  Sloila  IrapragnaUoD  fbr  lift. 
ISO.  QeCtlngridof  tha  drona  organ.  19*.  FcrtlUutloain  ooufluanwiit. 
IVT.  FacnndallonaflhaBgKa.  128.  Lddj  aarl  Slabold  on  theeontaDta  of 
the  iparmalbeca.  19S.  How  tCrtUlutlOQ  takaa  placa.  ISO.  Swanimar- 
dam'i  obeerratloa*.  ISI.  HnbenonflDlDg  ronngqnecna.  139.  Ddar- 
(on'i dlicoveiy.  1S3.  Farthenogaaeala.  131,  Drone-Ujlngqnecii.  138. 
EiamlnatlDa  of  herovailM.  ISO,  Beea  trying  to  riitt  qaecDa  with  drana 
agga.  137.  OtherexpcrlmaDti.  ISS,  Olbcr proolta of  parthaDO^^enaala. 
130.  ImprsgaatlODof  theegga.  140  No  Tiilbla  dlffercoca  belweaa  Onna 
and  worltareggt.  141.  EffBot  of  delayed  fecaadallon.  149.  I'n  qnnain 
koow  the  >ai  of  their  sggaT  143.  S.  Wagner'a  tbaory.  144.  KMti 
»nlnBt  that  tbeoi?.  149.  Eirect  of  Iba  nmoral  of  drona  oelU.  143.  , 
Qnpbni  iKjlng  woTkareggs  In  drooecella.  147.  Boot'a  aiperlmaDt.  143. 
Bonleani  eipertment.  143.  DUHcnlly  of  raising  droneaoarly  la  Spilag. 
100.  Drones  In  worker  Mils  ISl.  Hefil^-eratla;  qneena.  139.  Qneao 
begins  to  Uf.  133.  Row  aba  laya.  lol  Brooding  waaons.  I3S.  Dif- 
fCienoeIn  proUBoniM.     ISO.  Sapemamtirarj  ogL,-a.     107.  Old  qnaen*. 

Tna  WoKirn  Bail.  —  lOB.  NnmberB  Id  a  hl>s  IBB.  Thsir  ranctlona. 
■«0.  DonholTB  experiment.  ISl .  Their  Bnt  mf;ht.  139  Their  Ont 
boney  galherlng.  133.  Yoang  bees  bolld  comba.  lS4.Thay  ra»l  tba 
brood.  lOa.Tbeegn.  ISH.  The  larrx.  167.  Casttoxthe  akls.  ISS. 
Capplngtbe  brood.  ISO.  The  nymph,  1 70  The  oast-off  aklaa .  171. 
Paratlon  ofdeTelopmeat.  179.  The  Dewlj-batfhed  bee.  173.  Tha  flnt 
flight.  174.  Shonld  not  b«  mlataken  for  robben.  170.  SsinAl oiniaiia 
not  [lareloped  173.  Fertile  workers.  177  Tbeirproiiablanaa.  178, 
Eaalljdlsi-oTBred.  170.  AttwnpUto  raiae  qneens.  INO  Remedy.  131. 
Instinct  or  Iha  worker  bees.  189.  Rborl  Ufa.  181.  Crippled  worfcara. 

Till    [iKOHr*  — 130    DeaeilpCIon    and  olHee.     18S.  Time  of  ttaeli  ■] 
aace.     187.  In  aasrota  of  the  qneeaa.     188.  Perish  In 
ban  lu  a  hive.      100  No  newaally  forso  many.      I 
pnTenllni  the  breedlnx  of  dronai.     isa.  Tbelr axpnlsloo 
103.  Bythebee-keeper.    I»*   Rsiaed  In  worker  oolla.    lOO.Whjlii,     _ 
nallan  doea  not  take  place  in  the  hire.      IBS    la-aod-ln  braedlagatlldad. 
107.  CompaiattTs  table  of  development  of  qaeea,  worker,  anddlMO. 


Chaftkr  II.— Baildings  of  Bees, 

CoxB.  —  19ft.  The  famitnre  of  the  hive.  199.  Made  of  wax.  90O.  la 
wax  a  fit?  901.  Formation  of  wax  soalea.  202.  Produced  mainly  by 
yonn^  heea.  208.  Old  bees  can  produce  It  also  204.  Produced  by  digest- 
ing honey.  200.  Bees  hanging  In  chains.  206.  Root  on  comb-building. 
207.  The  first  discorerer  ?  208.  Scales  of  wax  on  the  bottom  of  hiyes. 
209.  Bees  picking  up  old  wax.  210.  Solving  a  problem.  211 .  Shape  of 
the  cells.  212.  Marvelous  industry.  21S.  Natural  explanation.  214. 
Cells  not  horizontal ;  thickness  of  comb .  210.  Color  of  combs .  216.  Size 
of  cells.  217.  True  measurement  of  cells.  218.  Intermediate  cells. 
919.  Economy  of  material.  220.  Wax  not  made  of  pollen.  2*21.  Pollen 
needed.  222.  Chemical  composition  of  honey  and  wax.  223.  Cost  of 
eomb.  224.  Worker  and  store  cells.  225.  Not  the  same  relative  quan- 
tity. 226.  Not  by  foreknowled;re.  227.  Bees  follow  their  desires.  228. 
Five  facts.  229.  Preference  of  builders  opposed  to  the  preference  of  the 
queen.  230.  Bees  building  few  store  cells.  231.  Bailding  about  one- 
third.  282.  Building  them  here  and  there.  233.  Rebuilding  without 
change.  284.  Swarms  provided  with  one  or  two  combs.  235.  Conclu- 

Pbopous.  ~286.  How  obtained.  287.  Soils  the  combs.  238.  Used  to 
cement  the  cracks.  989.  Gathered  mainly  when  honey  is  not  found. 
240.  Hard  in  winter.  241.  Snails  inclosed  in  propolis  242.  Remarks. 
248.  Superstitions.    244.  Uses  in  Italy.    245.  Uses  in  Russia. 

Chaftkr  III«~Food  of  Bees. 

HoincT.  —246.  What  is  honey  T  247.  Is  honey  the  same  as  r.ectarT 
948.  How  nectar  is  produced.  249.  It  is  more  or  less  watery.  2:i0.  Its 
yield  Tarles  grestly.  901 .  Reabsorbed  by  the  plants,  if  not  trathered. 
20*2.  In  other  parts  of  the  plants.  253.  Best  conditions.  254.  Bonnier  on 
the  nectaries.  255.  Honey  dew  finom  plants  and  trees.  256.  t^om 
aphides.  907.  How  ejected.  258.  Season  and  trees  that  prolnce  it. 
959.  Bonnier  on  the  origin  of  honey  dew.  260.  Nectar  in  deep  corollas. 
291 .  Storing  and  evaporating.    26 -i.  Are  the  cappings  of  cells  air-tight  T 

PoLUtK.  —  268.  Ita  nsea.  264.  Indispensable  for  breeding.  265.  Flonr 
instead  of  pollen.  266.  Qathering.  267.  Substitutes.  268.  Bees  use- 
ful in  plant  impregnation.  269.  Help  in  interbreeding  plants.  270.  In- 
finenoe  of  bees  upon  the  fecundation  of  plants. 

Watbb.  —  271.  Water  is  necessary  to  bees.      272.    Uow  to  provide  it. 

278.  Experiments  of  De  Lay  ens. 
Salt.— 974.  Bees  are  food  of  salt. 

Chafteb  IV.— The  Bee-Hives. 

Hivss  wim  Immotabls  Coims.  —275.  Earthen  hives.    276.  Brimston- 
ing  liees.    977.  Catting  the  oomba.    278.  Caps  for  surplus  Section  hives 

279.  Vertical  divisions. 

Rbqui!»itb4  aw  A  CoMPLkTS  HivK.  —  280.  Twenty -six  conditions.  281. 
The  moat  Indispensable  is  good  mana^^ement. 

Z  TABLE    OF    CONTE19T8. 

MoTABLB  CoMB-Hivxs.  —  2S2.  Usod  In  Greece  more  than  100  yean  aito. 
2SS.  The  BuccesB  of  Dzlerzon.  284  The  Hnber  hive.  285.  Improred  in 
America.  286.  Suspended  firame  hives  287.  The  tnperiority  of  the 
Langstrotb  hire.  288  Modesty  of  the  Inventor.  289.  The  BerlefiBch 
hive.  290.  Both  having  their  partisans  291 .  Disadvantages  of  the  Ber- 
lepsch  hive.  292  Will  yield  to  the  Langstroth.  293.  Advantages  of  th^ 
movable  celling.  291  A  standard  firame  hinders  progress.  295.  Snceees 
of  American  bce-cultnre.  v96.  Progress  in  :{0  years.  s£97.  GraTeiihoist 
hive.  298.  Diversity  of  sizes  299.  The  ftramcs  used  in  America.  399. 
Is  one  better  than  another?  301.  Which  is  the  best  shape  for  frames t 
S02.  OI)Jection  to  two  stories  in  brood  chamber.  SOS  Square  frames 
objectionable.  301.  Deeper  frames  more  so  yet.  SOS.  Saperiority  of 
Langstroth  and  Qninby  frames.  306  Beware  of  excess.  SOT.  Experi- 
ments. 308.  Namber  of  frames.  309  Why  limit  the  laying?  SIO. 
now  many  cells  are  necessary  in  a  good  hive?  Sll.  Comparison  of 
frames.  312.  Fiuoires  cannot  lie.  313.  Large  hives  can  be  redooed. 
314  Excessive  swarming.  319.  Improving  be^.  316.  Distance  be- 
tween frames.  317.  Increased  distance  preferable.  818.  Straight  combs. 
319.  How  secarod.  320.  Standard  Langstroth  frame  321.  Stronirer 
top  and  liottom  barn.  322.  Uc^^nlarity  of  oatside  niessore.  S2S.  Wide 
top  liarsidctilmental.  321.  .Simplicity  frame.  329.  Tin  corners.  326 
Tlie  Qui M by  frame.  327  Slanting  bottom  328.  Frames  perpendicular 
to  the  entrance  320  The  first  Langhtroth  hive.  330.  The  glass  dis- 
carded :i:U.  The  honey  board.  332.  The  bottom  board.  :133.  Ventl- 
tilatloii.  :i31.  How  giveit.  333.  Prevents  clastering  outside  S36. 
Ventilation  controlled  337.  Bee8  propolizin;.:  small  holes.  338.  The 
portico.  .i:t0.  Kntranco  blocks.  340.  The  hive  we  prefer.  841.  Its 
succ«Hsin  Flurope.  342.  Encased  bottom.  .143.  Apron.  344.  Hovaiile 
bottom  board.  345.  I)oubl<- thickness  of  the  back  346.  Space  around 
the  frames.  347.  Spacin,'  wire.  348.  Height  of  entrances.  349. 
Divlnion  board.  350  Space  nndcr  it,  and  how  made.  301.  Strip  to 
widen  the  projection  of  the  rabbet.  332.  Enamel  cloth.  SOS  Straw 
mat  »51.  Upper  Htory  :i35.  Caps  336.  Painting  hives.  307. 
Numb*  rill?  hi\cM.  338  ISeware  of  patents.  399.  Material  for 
hives.  :i»o.  Circular  saws  361  Filing  the  saws.  362.  Boards  warp- 
ing. 363  Ch.'iff  hives.  364.  Ventilation  considered  a^n.  S60  Baes 
ventilatiii.' inside.  366.  Pore  air  indi.-tpensable.  367.  Effect  of  want  of 
air  36H.  .-nnToi-atlon  369.  Combs  melting  370.  The  result.  S71. 
Corn'ts  of  hoiii-y  nteltitiK  tlrht.  372.  Bees  our  models.  37S.  Puraairiu 
r)ur  'l\v«lliii-. »». 

()\'.'>  ^-.wsa  llivi  <.— 374.  Ver>' intt'resting.     379.  Useful.    S79.  How  im- 
j.rt.v.  1.     377.   I'urlor  o'.H^'rvlriK  hive. 

Ch.m"!!  K  v.— Hundlln^  Bees. 

37H  Tlie  hoiioy-i>ee  .  npable  of  being  tamed  S79.  Peaceable  when  ladea 
with  honey.  .1HO  P»ft'N'ay)lo  when  swarmln?:,  381.  When  frightened. 
382.  The  srnokrr.H -how  to  manajje  them.  383.  Aplfuge.  S84.  Car- 
lK>lize<l  ph«^«t  .is."^.  Ma,'net:7in_'  l)ee.'<.  386.  Bee- \ ell  387.  Qiovea. 
88S.  Wo(»i«-i)  <*i()th«'rt  objectionaMe.  380.  Smoke  not  always  neoMsary. 
890.  Cyprians  diillcult  to  subdue.   301 .  Bees  quietest  at  mld-daj.    S99. 


Slow  motions.  S93.  Old  precepts.  S94.  Fear  of  stlDgs  a  great  obstacle. 
S95.  light  bewilders  bees.  896.  Care  in  using  smoke,  s.97.  How  to 
proceed.  898.  Betnrnlng  combs.  899.  Mismanagement.  400.  Bad 
odora  anger  bees.  401.  EiTect  ol  their  poison.  402.  Remedies.  40». 
Cold  water  and  ammonia.  404.  Old  bee-keepers  poison-proof.  405. 
Beoa  as  means  of  defense. 

Chapter  VL— Natural  Swarming. 

4O0.  Preparations.  407.  Not  in  season.  408.  When  effected.  409. 
First  swarm.  4  lO.  Conditions  and  hour.  411.  Last  preparations .  412. 
Qneen  missing.  413.  Ringing  bells  useless.  414.  Deportment  of  bees. 
415.  Bees  send  scouts.  416.  Various  incidents-  417.  Allnriug  swarms. 
418.  Bees  generally  peactfnl  when  swarming.  419.  No  delay  in  hiving. 
420.  Departing  swarms.  421.  Have  hives  ready  and  cool.  422.  Hives 
ftimished  with  combs.  423.  Beware  of  honey.  424.  Comb  guides  4*25. 
Advantages  of  oomb<^  or  comb  foundation.  426.  Securing  straight 
oombs  In  the  brood  chamber.  427.  Enlarging  the  entrance.  428.  Bi'cs 
on  a  small  limb.  4*29.  Swarm  sack.  430.  Be  cautious.  431.  Sack 
preferable  to  basket.  432.  Swarm  on  a  trunk.  4.'i3 .  Catching  the  queen . 
434.  Clipping  wing  of  the  queen.  439.  Swarms  mixing.  436.  Two 
queens  in  the  same  swarm.  437.  Ten  swarms  mixed.  438  Securing 
the  <iueen  in  hiving  a  swarm.  439  Swarms  temporarily  hived.  440.  Pi^ 
in  place  as  soon  as  hived.  441.  Feeding  swarms.  442.  Building  straight 
oombs.  448  Primary  swarms  with  young  queens  444  Secondary 
swarms-  445.  Their  cau'^es-  446.  Pipin'.;  of  the  queens  447.  Several 
queens  in  the  swarm.  447  (bis) .  Superiority  of  arter-swarms.  448. 
Absconding  swarms.  449.  Third  swarms.  450  Prevention  of  natural 
swarming,  its  desirability.  451.  Excessive  natural  swarming.  452. 
Natural  swarming  and  selection.  453.  Too  many  swarms  lost  454. 
Causes  of  swarming  f55,  Swarmin?  fever  456.  Heat  a  stimulus 
457.  Dronesalso.  458.  Lack  of  ventilation.  450.  Givin:;  empty  combs. 
400.  Of  easy  access.  461  I^efore  complete  fullness.  4()2  Shading' the 
hive.  468.  Drone  comb  removed.  464.  Good  vintilatlon.  465. 
Swarming  cannot  be  absolutely  prevented.  466 .  Pre\  entiou  more  difficult 
when  raising  comb  honey.  467.  Queen  and  drone  traps  468  Preven- 
tion of  after-swarms. 

Chapter  VII — Artificial  Swarming. 

469.  Uncertainty  of  natural  swarming.  470  Dividing.  471.  Unre- 
liable. 472.  Removing  the  hive.  473.  Driving  l.eos.  474.  Its  a  Ivaii- 
tages.  475.  With  movable  combs.  476.  Improvement.  477.  Giving  a 
fertile  qnr»en.  478.  Nuclen.9  method  479.  With  sealed  queens.  4so. 
Building  nuclei.  481.  Too  much  dividing  4H2  Queon  cell-  made  jire- 
Tiously.  483.  Several  a  1\ ices.  4H4.  Operations  more  8Ucoe.s.%ful  during 
honey  harvest.  485.  Bees  don't  quaiTel.  4H6.  When  the  weather  is  too 
eold.     487.  Increasing  too  fast.    488.  Caution. 

Chapter  VIII. — Qaeen  Rearing. 

489.  How  beet  raise  queens.  490.  Are  larvso  inferior  to  eggsT  491^ 
D«  PUnta's  azperimonts.  492.  Are  young  worker  VaxT»  \>QXX«t  twi>  W^. 


Can  workoTB  use  older  Inim  T  404.  Their  growth  retarded.  4M. 
Qneene  raised  during  Bwarming  ferer.  496.  Old  workers  are  poor  nnraea 
407.  Conditions  to  raise  f;ood  queens.  408.  When  is  the  raiaing  of 
qneens  necessary  ?  499.  Loss  of  the  qneen.  509.  Unable  to  fly.  591. 
Lost  in  her  wedding  flight.  502.  Entering  the  wrong  hire.  SOS.  Sotind 
advice.  50i.  Backed  by  exttmples.  5U5.  Bees  anticipating  danger. 
506.  How  they  ascertain  their  loss.  507  Detecting  qneenlessneaa.  508. 
Friendly  advice.  509.  Drones  not  killed.  510.  Plaintive  hum  of  beet. 
511.  Rearing  improved  races.  512.  Selecting  dronea.  518.  Using 
m  derately  populous  colonies.  511.  Raising  trom  egga.  515.  Lar^ 
number  of  qneon  cells.  516.  Preparing  their  reception.  517.  How 
to  transfer  queen  coils.  518.  Precautions.  519.  Inspection.  599. 
Nucleus.  591.  Divisible  frame.  522.  How  to  prepare  nuclei.  59S. 
Beware  of  bees  returning.  521.  Makin^^  stron;^  nuclei.  525.  Prepare 
on  the  preceding  day.  526.  Watching  and  removing  the  laying 
queen.  527.  Precautions.  52S.  Alley's  method.  529.  Queen  nur- 
aeriea.  53<».  Lamp  nurnciy.  531.  Progress  of  the  buainesa  of  rearing 
queens.  Q32.  Some  advice.  533.  Introducing  impregnatei  queens. 
531.  Conditions  of  succes.s.  535.  Sprinkling  scented  water.  589. 
Queen  cage.  537.  How  to  use.  538.  Balled  queens.  589.  Queens 
Btarvinis' and  Simmlns' method.  540.  Stupefying  bees.  541.  Introdne- 
tion  of  virgin  queens.  542.  Bees  swarming  with  introduced  queena.  543. 
How  to  And  a  queen.    544.  The  olor  of  queens. 

Chapter  LX. — Races  of  Bees. 

545.  Bees  not  indigenous  to  America.  546.  First  noticed  in  Florida. 
547  Bees  going  westward.  548.  Several  varieties.  549.  The  first  in- 
troduced. 550.  The  main  varieties.  551.  Italian  bees.  552.  Their 
qualities.  553.  Description.  534.  The  best  test.  555.  Italian  dronei 
and  queens  irregularly  marked.  556.  Vary  even  in  Italy.  557.  Ilrst 
importation  in  Austria.  558.  In  Am(>rica.  559.  Apis  fkadatm.  569. 
Holy  Lan<I  and  Syiian  bees.    561.  Apis  dorsata.    562.  Aostralian  beet. 

563.  Mclipoues. 

CiiAiTER  X.— The  Apiary. 

564.  Who  should  keep  bees  ?  565.  Honey  resources.  666.  Beglii  on  a 
small  scale.  567.  Protect  the  hives.  568.  Avoid  weeds.  669.  8e|t«r- 
ate stands.  570.  Coxered  apiaiie.x.  571.  Sheds.  572.  Out-door apiailea. 
57.1.  Procurin::  bees.  574.  Traiisferrin^t.  575.  Decoy  hlTea.  676. 
Drumming.  577.  Be  sure  of  having' the  queen.  678.  Tools  and  Imple* 
ments.  579  How  to  procee<l.  580.  Sparc  worker  brood.  581.  Hed- 
don  metho<i.  5H2  Out-apiaries  5H:&.  Conditions  required.  684. 
Our  terms  for  a  location.  585.  How  many  apiaries  ?  586.  Honey  honac 
and  window  netting. 

CiiAriKR  XI.— Shipping  and  Transporting  Bees. 

587.  Ventilation.  588  Fasteniuk'  frames.  589.  Rough  tiandlinf. 
590  SiMtdin?  South.  501.  Bees  on  boats.  592.  Floating  aplailea. 
69S.  Sending  to  better  pastures.  501  Shippin;<  (|ueens.  695. 
food.    596.  Beea  ttom  lUly .    597.  Queen  the  last  to  die. 


qmetM.  599.  Bees  bj  the  poand.  690.  How  many  In  a  ponnd?  601. 
Baiatng  queena  in  the  Sonth.  002.  Bees  in  the  North.  60S.  TranBport- 
Ing    eolooiea.     OOS  (bia).  Shade  board  in  front.     004.   Transporting 

Cbatter  XII^^Feeding  BeoB. 

600.  Feeding  often  neoessaxy.  606.  Spring  feeding.  607.  Bees  starr- 
ing in  Spring.  OOS.  Fali  flseding.  600.  Feeders.  610.  Feeding  syrup . 
611.  Sngareandy.  612.  Boot's ezpeiienoe.  6 1 S.  Scholx method.  614. 
Loaf  sugar.  616.  Feeding  not  to  be  encouraged.  616.  Bees  do  not  make 
honej.  617.  Beware  of  candy  shops.  618.  As  bad  for  bees  as  gmcr. 
shops  fbr  man. 

Gbaptxs  Xm.— Wintering  Bees. 

610.  WlntvinglB  eold  oUmates.  620.  How  bees  elnster.  621.  Their 
tnnmloos  motiona.  622.  Eating  to  keep  warm.  623.  Amonnt  of  food 
needed.  624.  Beware  of  mistakes.  626.  An  unlooked-for  experiment . 
626.  Quality  of  the  fbod.  627.  Bad  food.  628.  How  to  dispose  of  it. 
620.  Syrup  instead  of  honey.  680.  Narrowing  the  hive.  631.  Winter 
paseagea.  682.  On  summer  stands.  (J82  (bis).  Scant  population  in 
winter.  688.  Uniting  oolonlee.  634.  How  to  prevent  fighting.  633. 
Winter  protection.  686.  Warm  absorbents  above.  637.  Entrance  left 
open .  638.  No  distnrbaooe  in  cold  weather.  639 .  Advantages  of  a  Win- 
ter flight.  610.  Chaff  hives.  641.  Their  defects.  642  Less  trouble 
643.  Onter  boxes.  644.  Best  conditions.  645.  Indoor  wintering  in 
Europe.  646.  Cellar  wintering.  647.  Directions.  648.  Temperature. 
649.  Cellar  blinds.  650.  Quietness  and  darkness.  65 1 .  Results  of  bad 
wintering.  662.  Select  a  warm  day.  653.  Lowest  degree  needed.  654. 
Putting  colonlee  In  same  place.  655.  Danger  of  robbery.  656  Flight 
during  winter.  657.  Bees  In  clamps.  658.  Beware  of  col(i  reposito ties. 
658  Spring  dwindling.  660.  Constipation.  661.  Be^it  condition.  662. 
Water  needed.    668.  Care  to  be  given. 

Chapter  XJV— Robbing. 

664.  Robljer  bees.    665.  Difljcnlt  to  detect.    666   Promoted  by  the  bee- 
keeper.     667.  How  detected.    668.  Difficult   to  stop       669   Exchnng- 
iiig    places.      670.  Carbolized    sheet.      671    Latent     robbing       672 
Prevention.    673.  Weak  colonies    and  precautions. 

Cbaftek  XV.— Comb-Foundation. 

671     Its  aiWantages.    675     Repla<lng  drone  comb.     676      Valnn   of 
workercomb.    677    The  inventor  of  comb  foundation      67H    Hi- iniTat- 
ors.     679.  Root's  roller  mil  la      «:80    Good  n-sults.     6H1    Hi?  follow..  > 
688    Given  press.    683    Plaster  mould      6H4     Imi»ro.ed   mill  ♦*.-» 

Selected  wax  680  AV.solutcly  pure  687  and  hrovy  m.Kiii  . -^ 
•88  Foundation  for  comb  honey  r.89  PrtpariiiK  the  Bhrcts  »  • 
Printing  601  A  special  industry  69'J  Weight  of  the  difr.Tpni  ktu  »-§ 
608  How  flutened  694  Wiring  foundation  G93  How  to  cut  It 
•06.  The  light  poalttoa     697    It  is  a  snccess 


Chaptbr  XVI— Pastnrage  and  Overstocking. 

PiitTUKAOK.— «•»    Qnantlty  vtiles.    699.  Ereo  Id  tlie  Mme  kind  ofblot- 
•oms    700   Stndy  of  the  rMonrces.    701.  CIotct.    7#9.  Linden.   79S 
AlKike    704.  Se^eral  othen.  705.  Fall  flowen.  700.  List  of  20O  honey  of 
pollen  yieldin;^  plants 

OvKMTorKixG.— 707.  Ib  it  possIbleT  70S.  IIow  fitf  bees  fly  t  7f>9.  How 
manj  coloiiientotheacre?  710.  In  Germany.  711.  In  California.  719. 
The  crop  of  our  county.  713.  OpinlODB  on  orerstoeking.  714.  Ilelpinf 
bees.    719.  Avera;,'e  of  crops. 

CiiAiTKU  XVII— Production. 

716.  Its  history.    717.  Oar  pro:rrc88.    718.  ConditiODS  of  snoceas. 

CoMii  HoxEY  —719.  Very  attractive.  720.  Its  improvementa.  721. 
Hotify  iu  RrictioMH.  722  Small  sections.  723  Howmade.  724.  Upper 
story  725  Dimcultles  726  Reversin.^.  727  ReTeralble  hives. 
7'IH.  Bailt  sections  729.  Brood  chaml>er  fall.  730.  Exchanging 
romhs.  731.  Strai;;ht  comiis.  732  Qaeen  In  the  lower  story.  733. 
8<cttons  given  to  the  swarm.  734.  No  propolizing.  735.  Securing 
M'ah^d  combs  73«  Fastened  solid.  737.  Preventlnr  l>ridges.  736. 
How  diM'p  the  upper  HtoYy.  739.  Section  crate.  740.  Mauura  clamps. 
741  Ko.'^t<'r  ojicn-sldo  s^'ctlons.  742  Foster  case.  743.  Remoring 
h'TtloiiH      711    Sornf  other  Tact-*.     743    Concln.sion. 

KxiuAC'Ku  llnNi  y  —7H\  Straincfl  lioney  747.  In  Europe.  746.  From 
hollow  t\vt'>i  7  1!).  IiiVf'iition  of  Ilnischka  750.  Our  first  extractor. 
7r>l  Otir  rni-lftlxo  7.'>2  Alvantaijf'S  of  cxtractljig.  753.  Advice  to 
»«•  liifurM  751  Ix^'^B  work  7.15  Swarminu'  jirevented.  756.  Use  of 
cvira(t««r  a  !\i  •  <l  757  Hilf  stories  7.18  Defects  of  full  depth  opptf 
«tori<H  «5»  How  to  URo  ujiiK'r  stories  760  Greater  facilities  for 
\  vi-i  761  IiiH,  tM'tlorj  762  How  many  pounds  of  honey.  763.  Fur- 
ni  liln^f  I'njpty  conil.-*  764.  Artificial  rip<'nin;?.  765.  Equallzin;^  the 
Mirplns  766  Harvcstln-.;  767  Implement.^  neede<l.  768.  Robber- 
I  IdthM  76»  I  h«' Ili'r  KhcajH'  770.  Innploments  in  the  honey  houi^e. 
*  ;  I  Kxtiii'iiiij  rn»in  the  liroo"!  chani!  or  772  Cajiplngcan.  773.  Ex- 
Ir.-ufor.H  771  I'mMiipliik'  knives  775  Kxtracting.  776.  InvltiDg 
niirhorn  777  A  nlo:ii;it  ic.  e-v  tractors  77H.  Einp  ying  the  extractor. 
77U  Canllon  7so  lt«\vuie  of  rol)l>ing.  781  Returning  the  comba. 
7H2.  »^««pnrul«'  the  ciojis      7H:i     Concluhlon. 

CiiATiiH  X  VIII.— Disoaso.s  of  Bees. 

7s  I  IHarrhrrt  7H5  Hairless  bee-*  7H6  Contagious  diseases.  787. 
Fonl-lrood.  7HH  Kxperinents  of  Diipont  780 .  Description  Of  the  dis- 
rixHV  7J>0  Drtcctcil  In  spring  71)1  Jones'  treatment.  793.  Moth's 
iii.'tlio<l  79:1  H'-rtrund  method  71)1  Fumigating  process.  795. 
{  \iv*\\\rv  iitthi>d  71)6  I'ari*  and  perseverance  797.  Preventive  care. 
7t)H  Infertrd  «|iie«Mis  701)  Antir«i'plics  800.  Divers  contagioos  dis- 
en-^i's      HOI     Aeoidental  dead  l>rood 

C'liAiii.ii  XIX.— Kncmles  of  I^ces. 

HO'l  Bee  moth  80.t  Description  801  Their  actions.  805.  Their  gal- 
leries   606   Their   worms     80  7    Their  food      808    How   they  behftTO. 


MMI.  TMnperatme  required.  810.  Killed  by  heavy  Arosts.  811.  DU- 
gnstlDg  results.  812.  How  to  protect  combs.  813.  Italians  jiearly  moth- 
proof. 814.  Qneenless  colonies  their  easy  prey.  815.  Moth  not  to  be 
feared.  816  Mice.  817.  Birds.  818.  Sparrows.  819.  Do  not  kill 
birds.  820.  Bamyanl  fowls.  821.  Toads.  822.  Bears.  823.  Branla 
eoca .    82 1 .  Other  insects . 

Chafter  XX. — Honey  Handling,  and  Marketing.  Uses  of  Honey. 

825.  Diilierent  grades.  826.  Comb-honey  sweating.  827.  Leaka7e  of 
sections.  828.  Care  in  shipping.  829.  Barrels  for  extracted.  830. 
Granulation.  831.  Experiences  on  granulation.  832 .  Coarse  granula- 
tion. 833.  Fermentation.  834.  Melting  honey.  835.  Resalt  of  in- 
ert ased  production.  836.  Adulteration.  837.  That  rile  Wiley  lie.  838. 
Objections  to  grannlation .  839 .  European  people  not  prcj  adiced .  810. 
Inducing  consumption.  811.  Showy  labels.  84'2.  Tin  packages  to  be 
preferretl.  843.  Howto  stop  lcaka.:o.  841.  Perao a  ling  grocers.  845. 
Explaining  what  honey  is.  846.  Gaining  confidence.  847.  Houey  as 
food.  818.  Very  healthy.  849  Houey  daintier.  830.  French  pain- 
d'^pice.  851.  Crisp  ginprerbreal .  853.  Alsatian  gingerbread.  853. 
Honey  cakes.  854.  Italian  croccante.  855.  Math  houey  cake.  856. 
Vinegar.    857.  Honey  as  medicine. 

Chapter  XXI.— Beeswax  and  Its  Uses. 

858.  Laying  up  wax.  859.  The  capplngs.  860.  Washing  dark  comb. 
861.  Melting.  862.  Pressing.  863.  Steam  and  ^nu  extractors.  864. 
Treating  wax  residues.  865.  Cleaning.  866.  Care  and  bleaching.  867. 
Wax  on  writing-tablets  and  for  embalming.  868.  Wax  caudles.  869. 
Other  uses.    870.  Recipes  for  medicinal  an>l  other  purposes, 

Chaptkr  XXII. — Bees  and  Fruits  and  Flowers. 

871.  Bees  cannot  injure  fruits.  872.  Our  experiments.  873.  Damaged 
by  birds.  875.  Bees  improving  wine.  876.  Annoyance.  877.  Juice 
of  firults  injuring  bees.    878.  Bees  always  beneficial  to  flowers . 

Chapter  XXIII.— Bee  Keeper's  Calendar.  Mistakes  and  Axioms. 

879.  January.  880.  February.  881.  March  882.  April.  883  May. 
884.  June.  885.  July.  886.  August.  887  September.  888.  Octoher. 
889.  NoTember.  890.  December.  891.  Spring.  892.  Summer.  893. 
Fail.    894.  Winter.         895.  Mistakes     806.  Axioms. 




1.  All  the  leading  facts  in  the  natural  history,  and  the 
breeding  of  bees,  ought  to  be  as  familiar  to  the  Apiarist,  as 
the  same  class  of  facts  in  the  rearing  of  his  domestic  ani- 
mals. A  few  crude  and  half -digested  notions,  however 
satisfactory  to  the  old-fashioned  bee-keeper,  will  no  longer 
meet  the  wants  of  those  who  desire  to  conduct  bee-culture 
on  an  extended  and  profitable  system.  Hence  we  have  found 
it  advisable  to  give  a  short  description  of  the  principal  or- 
gans of  this  interesting  insect,  and  abridged  passages  taken 
from  various  Scientific  writers,  whose  works  have  thrown  an 
entirely  new  light  on  many  points  in  the  physiology  of  the 
bee.  If  the  reader  will  bear  with  us  in  this  arduous 
task,  he  will  find  that  we  have  tried  to  make  the  descriptions 
plain  and  simple,  avoiding,  as  much  as  possible,  scientific 
words  unintelligible  to  many  of  us. 

2.  Honey-bees  are  insects  belonging  to  the  order  Hy- 
menoptera;  thus  named  from  their  four  membranous,  gauzy 
wings.  They  can  flourish  only  when  associated  in  large 
numbers,  as  in  a  colony.  Alone,  a  single  bee  is  almost  as 
helpless  as  a  new-born  child,  being  paralyzed  by  the  chiU 
of  a  cool  summer  night. 


2  pirrsiOLooT  of  thb  hoket-bkb. 

3.  The  habitation  provided  for  bees  is  called  a  hive. 
The  inside  of  a  bee-hive  shows  a  number  of  combs  about 
half-an-inch  apart  and  suspended  from  its  upper  side. 
These  combs  are  formed  of  hexagonal  cells  of  various  sizes, 
in  which  the  bees  rai^e  their  young  and  deposit  their  stores. 

4.  In  a  family,  or  colony  of  bees,  are  found  (Plat€  II)  — 

let,  One  bee  of  peculiar  sha|>e,  commonly  called  the  Queen^ 
or  mother-bee.  She  is  the  only  perfect  female  in  the  hive, 
and  all  the  eggs  are  laid  by  her ; 

2d,  Many  thousands  of  worker-bees,  or  incomplete  females, 
whose  office  is,  while  young,  to  take  care  of  the  brood  and 
do  the  inside  work  of  the  hive ;  and  when  older,  to  go  to 
the  fields  and  gatlier  honey,  pollen,  water,  and  propolis  or 
bee-glue,  for  the  needs  of  the  colony ;  and 

3d,  At  certain  seasons  of  the  year,  some  hundreds  and 
even  thousands  of  large  bees,  called  Drones,  or  male-bees, 
whose  sole  function  is  to  fertilizethe  young  queens,  or  virgin 

Before  describing  the  differences  that  characterize  each 
of  these  three  kinds,  we  will  study  the  organs  which,  to  a 
greater  or  less  extent,  they  possess  in  common,  and  which 
are  most  prominently  found  in  the  main  type,  the  worker- 

General  Characteristics. 

5.  In  bees,  as  in  all  insects,  the  frame-work  or  skeletoi 
that  supports  the  body  is  not  internal,  as  in  mammals,  bu* 
mostly  external.    It  is  formed  of  a  horny  substance,  scientil 
ically  calk'd    rhitine,  and    well  described    in  the  following 
quotation  : 

6.  *'ChItine  is  capable  of  being  moulded  Into  almost  every 
conceivable  shape  and  appearance.  It  forms  the  hard  back  of 
the  repulsive  cockroach,  the  beautiful  scale-like  feathers  of  the 
gaudy  butterfly,  the  delicate  membrane  which  supports  the  lace- 

QUEEN,  DRONE.  *nd  WORKER— Magnified  and  Salnral  Si». 


Wing  In  mid  air,  the  transparent  cornea  covering  the  eyes  of  ail 
insects,  the  almost  impalpable  films  cast  by  the  moulting  larvae, 
and  the  black  and  yellow  rings  of  our  native  and  imported  bees, 
beside.i  internal  braces,  tendons,  membranes,  and  ducts  Innu- 
merable. The  external  siceleton,  hard  for  the  most  part,  and 
varied  in  thickness  in  beautiful  adaptation  to  the  strain  to  which 
it  may  be  exposed,  gives  persistency  of  form  to  tlie  little  wearer; 
but  it  needs,  wherever  movement  is  necessary,  to  have  delicate 
extensions  joining  the  edges  of  its  unyielding  plates.  Tliis  we 
may  understand  by  examining  the  legs  of  a  lobster  or  crab,  fur- 
nished like  those  of  the  bee,  with  a  shelly  case,  but  so  large  that 
no  magnifying  glass  is  required.  Here  we  see  that  the  thick  coat 
is  reduced  to  a  thin  and  easily  creased  membrane,  where,  by  Ilex- 
ion,  one  part  is  made  to  pass  o\ex  the  other." 

"Again,  almost  every  part  of  the  body  is  covered  by  hairs,  the 
form,  structure,  direction,  and  position  of  wliich,  to  the  very 
smallest,  have  a  meaning,"  (Cheshire,  "  Bees  and  Bee-keeping," 
p.  30.    London,  1SS7.) 

7.  Mr.  Cheshire  explains  that,  as  the  skeleton  or  frame- 
work of  the  bee  is  not  sensitive,  these  hairs  act  as  organs 
of  touch,  each  one  containing  a  uerve.  They  also  act  as 
clothing  and  aid  in  retaining  heat — 

**and  give  protection,  as  the  stiff,  straight  hairs  of  the  eyes, 
whilst  some  act  as  brushes  for  cleaning,  others  are  tliin  mul 
webbed  for  holding  pollen  grains ;  whilst  by  varied  inodirKutions, 
others  again  act  as  graspers,  sieves,  piercers,  or  merhanical  stops 
to  limit  excessive  movement." 

8.  The  three  sections  of  the  body  of  the  honcy-bcc;  are 
perfectly  distinct :  the  head  ;  the  thorax,  or  cent  re  of  locomo- 
tion, bearing  the  wings  and*the  legs;  and  the  alxU^nien, 
containing  the  honey-sack,  stomach,  bowels,  and  the  main 
breathing  organs. 

The  principal  exterior  organs  of  the  head  are  the  antenn:c, 
the  eyes,  and  the  parts  composing  the  mouth. 

9.  The  eyes  are  five  in  number,  two  composite  eyes,  one 
on  each  side  of  the  head,  which  are  but  clusters  of  small 
eyes  or  facets,  and  three  convex  eyes,  or  ocelli^  arranged  in 
a  triangle  at  the  top  of  the  head. 


10.  The  facets  of  the  composite  eyes,  thousands  in  num- 
ber, are  six-sided,  like  the  cells  of  the  honey-comb,  and 
being  directed  towards  nearly  every  point,  they  permit  the 
insect  to  see  in  a  great  number  of  directions  at  the  same 






Fig.  1. 
▲,  Head  of  worker.    B,  Headofqueen.    C,  Head  of  drone.    (Magnified.) 
(From  "Les  AbelUes"  of  Maurice  Girard.) 

11.  In  comparing  the  eyes  of  worker,  queen  and  drone, 
Mr.  Cheshire  says : 

**  The  worker  spends  much  of  her  time  in  the  open  air.  Accu- 
rate and  powerful  vision  are  essentials  to  the  proper  prosecution 
of  her  labours,  and  here  I  found  the  compound  eye  possessing 
about  0,3(X)  facets.  In  the  niothor  of  this  worker  I  expected  to 
find  a  less  numi>cr,  for  queens  know  little  of  daylight.  After 
wedding  they  are  out  of  doors  but  once,  or  at  most  twic«,  in  a 
year.*  This  example  verified  my  forecast,  by  showing 4,920  facets 
on  each  side  of  the  head.  A  souiof  tliis  motlier,  much  a  stay-at- 
home  also,  WHS  next  taken.  His  fa<'cts  were  irregular  In  size, 
those  at  the  lower  part  of  the  eye  being  much  less  than  those 
near  the  top  ;  but  they  reached  tlie  immense  number  of  13,000  on 
each  side  of  the  head.  Why  should  tlie  visual  apparatus  of  the 
drone  be  so  extraordinarily  developed  beyond  that  of  the  worker, 
A'hose  need  of  the  eye  seems  at  first  to  be  much  more  pressing 
than  his?" 

•  Wban  going  out  with  a  iwarm. 


This  question  Mr.  Cheshire  answers,  as  will  be  seen  fur- 
ther, in  considering  the  antennse.     (26)* 

12.  The  three  small  eyes,  ocelli,  are  thought  by  Maurice 
Girard  ("Les  Abeilles,"  Paris,  1878),  and  others,  to  have 
a  microscopic  function,  for  sight  at  short  distances.  In  the 
hive,  the  work  is  performed  in  the  dark,  and  possibly  ( ?) 
these  eyes  are  fitted  for  this  purpose. 

13.  Their  return  from  long  distances,  either  to  their 
hive  or  to  the  place  where  they  have  found  food,  proves  that 
bees  can  see  very  far.  Yet,  when  the  entrance  to  their  hive 
has  been  changed,  even  only  a  few  inches,  they  cannot 
readily  find  it. 

Their  many  eyes  looking  in  different  directions,  enable 
them  to  guide  themselves  by  the  relative  position  of  objects, 
hence  they  always  return  to  the  identical  spot  they  left. 

14.  If  we  place  a  colony  in  a  forest  where  the  rays  of 
the  sun  can  scarcely  penetrate,  the  becb,  at  their  exit  from 
the  hive,  will  fly  several  times  around  their  new  abode,  then, 
selecting  a  small  aperture  through  the  dense  foliage,  they 
will  rise  above  the  forest,  in  quest  of  the  flowers  scattered 
in  the  fields.  And  like  children  in  a  nutting  party,  they 
will  gather  their  crop  here  and  there,  a  mile  or  more  away, 
without  fear  of  being  lost  or  unable  to  return. 

As  soon  as  their  honey-sack  is  full,  or,  if  a  threatening 
cloud  passes  before  the  sun,  they  start  for  home,  without 
any  hesitation,  and,  among  so  many  trees,  even  while  the 
wind  mingles  the  leafy  twigs,  they  find  their  way  ;  so  perfect 
is  the  organization  of  their  composite  eyes. 

15.  Bees  can  notice  and  remember  colors.      While  ex 
perimenting  on  this  faculty,  we  placed  some  honov  on  small 
pieces  of  differently  colored  paper.     A  bee  aliirhttMl  on  a 
yellow  paper,  sucked   her  load  and    returned  to  her  hive. 

*  The  Tvtder  wUl  readily  andemtand  that  the  jinmbprtx  between  parenthesea 
refer  to  tlia  pangrapha  bearlnic  thoHP  nambM-rn     Tbtn  u  for  the  conyMnt«iio«i  of 


While  she  was  absent,  we  moved  the  paper.  Returning, 
she  came  directly  to  the  spot,  but,  noticing  that  the  yellow 
paper  was  not  there,  she  made  several  inquiring  circles  in 
the  air,  and  then  alighted  upon  it.  According  to  Mr.  A. 
J.  Cook  a  similar  experiment  with  the  same  results,  was 
made  by  Lubbock.  ("Bee-keepers'  Guide,"  Lansing,  1884.) 

16.  We  usually  give  our  bees  flour,  in  shallow  boxes,  at 
the  opening  of  Spring,  before  the  pollen  appears  in  the 
flowers.  These  boxes  are  brought  in  at  night.  Every  morn- 
ing they  are  put  out  again,  after  the  bees  have  com- 
menced flying  and  hover  around  the  spot.  If  by  chance, 
some,  bits  of  white  paper  are  scattered  about  the  place,  the 
bees  visit  those  papers,  mistaking  them  for  flour,  on  account 
of  the  color. 

IT.  But  "  the  celebrated  Darwin  was  mistaken  In  saying  that 
the  colorless  blossoms,  which  he  names  obscure  blossoms,  are 
scarcely  visited  by  insects,  while  the  most  highly  colored  blos- 
soms are  very  fondly  visited  by  bees."  (Gaston  Bonnier,  "  Les 
Nectaires,"  Paris,  1879.) 

18.  For,  although  color  attracts  bees,  it  is  only  one  of  the 
means  used  by  nature  to  bring  them  in  contact  with  the 
flowers.  The  smell  of  honey  is,  certainly,  the  main  attrac- 
tion, and  this  attraction  is  so  powerful,  that  frequently,  at 
daybreak  in  the  summer,  the  bees  will  be  found  in  full 
flight,  gathering  the  honey  which  has  been  secreted  in  the 
night,  when  nothing,  on  the  preceding  evening,  could  have 
predicted  such  a  crop.  This  happens  especially  when  there 
is  a  production  of  honey-dew,  after  a  storm.  We  have  even 
known  bees  to  gather  honey  from  the  tulip  trees,  (^Lirioden- 
dron  tulipiferd)  on  very  clear  moonlight  nights. 

19.  The  antennae  (fig.  2,  A,  B),  two  flexible  horns  which 
adorn  the  head  of  the  bee,  are  black,  and  composed  of 
twelve  joints,  in  the  queen  and  the  worker,  and  thirteen  in 
the  drone.     The  first  of  these  joints,  the  scape,  next  t^  tlu 


head,  is  longer  than  the  others,  and  can  move  in  every  d 
rectioD.     The  uitenna  is  covered  nith  haira. 

IMagnLfled  a 

A.  ir.KBpeijt,  lligellimi;  1 
M,  or  hollow ;  Ir .  tnchfs ;»..  ■ 
miueie;  iln,  depreiMir  muscle 

B.  snull  portion  of  flageUnn 

(masnlllnl  W  tlmea) ;  > 

"These  hairs, Btandlng  above  the  general  eiirrace,  coni^tUute 
the  antenns  marvelous  touch  organs;  and  :is  they  nredlstriliutpd 
all  round  each  Joint,  the  worker-bee  in  a  blossom  cup,  or  wMi  iia 
head  thrust  Into  a  cell  in  the  darkness  of  the  hive.  Is,  bj  tlicir 
means,  as  able  accurately  to  determine  as  tlioiigh  she  saw  ;  while 
the  queen,  whose  antenna  la  made  after  the  same  model,  can  ]>i>r- 
fectlj  distinguish  the  condition  of  every  part  of  the  cell  into 
which  her  bead  maybe  thrust.  The  last  joint,  which  la  flrilti'iieii 
on  one  side,  near  the  end.  Is  more  thickly  studded,  and  hcri.'  tlie 
hairs  are  uniforinly  beat  towards  tlic  axis  of  tlie  wliole  ursan. 
Xoone  could  have  watched  hces  without  difit'overini;  that.  Iiy  tlie 
antenniE,  Intercommunication  is  accomiilisliod;  but  for  this  pur- 
pose front  and  side  hairs  alone  arc  required;  .tiid  the  drone, 
unlike  the  queen  and  worker,  very  3Uj,'gi-:stively.  h;is  no  otIiiTS, 
since  the  condition  of  the  cells  is  no  part  of  his  cjire,  if  only  the 
larder  be  weU  furnished."    (Cheshire.) 

20.  The  celebrated  Pranijois  Huber,  of  Geneva,  made  a 


number  of  experiments  on  the  antennae,  and  ascertained  that 
they  are  the  organs  of  smell  and  feeling. 

Before  citing  his  discoveries,  we  must  pay  our  tribute  of 
admiration  to  this  wonderful  man.     (Plate  III.)  . 

Huber,  in  early  manhood,  lost  the  use  of  his  eyes.  His 
opponents  imagined  that  to  state  this  fact  would  materially 
discredit  his  observations.  And  to  make  their  case  still 
stronger,  they  asserted  that  his  servant,  Francis  Bumens,  by 
whose  aid  he  conducted  his  experiments,  was  only  an  igno- 
rant peasant.  Now  this  so-called  *'  ignorant  peasant "  was  a 
man  of  strong  native  intellect,  possessing  the  indefatigable 
energy  and  enthusiasm  indispensable  to  a  good  observer. 
He  was  a  noble  specimen  of  a  self-made  man,  and  rose  to  be 
the  chief  magistrate  in  the  village  where  he  resided.  Huber 
has  paid  a  worthy  tribute  to  his  intelligence,  fidelity,  pa- 
tience, energy  and  skill.* 

Ruber's  work  on  bees  is  such  tfb  admirable  specimen 
of  the  inductive  system  of  reasoning,  that  it  might  well  be 
studied  as  a  model  of  the  only  way  of  investigating  nature, 
so  as  to  arrive  at  reliable  results. 

21.  Huber  was  assisted  in  his  researches,  not  only  by 
Burnens,  but  by  his  own  wife,  to  whom  he  was  betrothed  be- 
fore the  loss  of  his  sight,  and  who  nobly  persisted  in  marry- 
ing him,  notwithstanding  bis  misfortune  and  the  strennons 
dissuasions  of  her  friends.  They  lived  longer  than  the  ordi- 
nary term  of  human  life  in  the  enjoyment  of  great  domestic 
happiness,  and  the  amiable  naturalist,  through  heraaddnous 
attentions,  scarcely  felt  the  loss  of  his  sight. 

22.  Milton  is  believed  by  many  to  have  been  a  better 
poet  in  consequence  of  his  blindness ;  and  it  is  highly  prob- 
able that  Ilubcr  was  a  better  Apiarist  from  the  same  cause. 

*  A  tingle  fact  fj^ll  show  the  cbaract(7  of  tho  man.  It  tirrnmnnnnrnnTj.  In  % 
enrtainexiiorimont.  torxamlnetoparately  all  the  bees  in  twohlTM.  "BoriMns 
•pent  ^''te  days  In  p^Tformingthia  work,  and  during  the  whole UnM be aoutsalj 
allowed  hlmaelf  any  relaxaUon,  bat  what  the  relief  of  hia  ejea  wqalrad. " 


TUlwrileil.  m»ntloDedp«gBBT.  8.  9.  IS,  11,  «,  W.  49,  »,  51.  Si  St,  SO.  M, 
EI.  71,  7S,  Nl,  9t.  99,  lOO,  106,  lie.  ISO.  139.  17Ji  Wl,  HA, 

sn,  nt,  no,  m.  STB.  MO. 


His  actiTe,  yet  reflectiTe  mind,  demanded  constant  employ- 
ment ;  and  he  found,  in  the  study  of  the  habits  of  the  honey- 
bee, full  scope  for  his  powers.  All  the  observations  and 
experiments  of  his  faithful  assistants  being  daily  reported, 
many  inquiries  and  suggestions  were  made  by  him,  which 
might  not  have  occurred  to  him,  had  he  possessed  the 
use  of  his  eyes. 

Few,  like  him,  have  such  command  of  both  time  and  money, 
as  to  be  able  to  prosecute  on  so  grand  a  scale,  for  a  series 
of  years,  the  most  costly  experiments.  Having  repeatedly 
verified  his  most  important  observations,  we  take  great  de- 
light in  holding  him  up  to  our  countrymen  as  the  Prince  of 

23.  Huber,  having  imprisoned  a  queen  in  a  wire  cage,  saw 
the  bees  pass  their  antennie  through  the  meshes  of  the  cage, 
and  turn  them  in  every  direction.  The  queen  answered 
these  tokens  of  love  by  clinging  to  the  cage  and  crossing  her 
antennas  with  theirs.  Some  bees  were  trying  to  draw  the 
queen  out,  and  several  extended  their  tongues  to  feed  her 
through  the  meshes.*     Huber  adds: 

*'  How  can  we  doubt  now  that  the  communication  between  the 
workers  and  the  queen  was  maintained  by  the  toucli  of  the 

24.  That  bees  can  hear,  either  by  their  antenniB  or 
some  other  organ,  few  will  now  deny,  even  although  the 
sound  of  a  gun  near  the  hive  is  entirely  unnoticed  by  them. 

**  Should  some  alien  being  watch  humanity  during  a  thunder- 
storm, he  might  quite  almllaily  decide  that  thunder  was  to  us  in- 
audible. Clap  might  follow  clap  without  securing  any  external 
sign  of  recognition ;  yet  let  a  little  child  with  tiny  voice  but 
shriek  for  help,  and  all  would  at  once  be  awakened  to  activity. 
So  with  the  bee :  sounds  appealing  to  its  instincts  meet  with  im- 
mediate response,  while  others  evoke  no  wasted  emotion." 

•  WondcrfU  tt  tlia  aocparlmaot  Memad  at  Uiat  time,  tha  ftot  li  volfled  now 
ly  dtUy  otmamufom  In  qnMn-xMilnf . 



"  The  sound  that  bees  produce  b^  the  vibrating  of  their  wings 
la  often  the  means  of  culling  one  another.  If  you  place  a  be'^-hive 
In  B  Terr  dark  room,  their  humming  will  draw  the  scattereil  bees 
together.  In  vain  do  you  cover  the  hive,  or  change  Its  place,  the 
bees  will  luvarlabl;  go  towards  the  spot  whence  the  sound  comea." 
(CoUlD,  "  Guide  da  Propriitalre  d'AbelUea,"  Parla,  1876.) 

36.  To  prove  that  bees  cfln  hear  is  easy,  but  to  detenniDe 
the  location  of  the  orgtui  is  more  difficult.  The  Btnall  holes 
which  were  discovered  on  the  surface  of  the  antennte,  have 
been  considered  as  organs  o(  hearing  by  Lefebure  ( 1838), 
and  by  others  later.  Cheshire  has  noticed  these  small  holes 
in  the  six  or  seven  last  articulations  o(  the  antenns :  holes 

Fig.  J. 

(Mksnined  MO  ttmea.        Jrom  Cheshln.) 

A,  portion  of  froot  ■nrfsce  of  one  of  tho  lower  membsn  of  UmIIi 
(worker  or  nneen).    .■.  wncUlnK  orgKo; /',  feeUiig  hllx. 

B,  portion  of  the  aide  aud  buck  of  >sroe  (worker).  It,  oidlnmiy  t 

which  become  mure  numerous  towards  the  end  ot  the  antenna, 
BO  that  the  last  joint  carries  perhaps  twenty.  He,  also,  con- 
eiders  these  as  the  organs  of  hearing,  especially  becanse  they 
are  larger  in  the  drones,  who  may  need  to  distinguish  the 
Bounds  of  the  queen's  winjis.*  On  this  question,  Prof.  Cook, 
in  his  "  Kee-keepers'  Guide,"  savs: 

"  Ji'o  Apiarist  has  failed  to  notice  the  cfTect  of  varlons  aonnda 
made  by  the  bees  upon  their  comrades  of  the  hive,  and  how  con* 

ttii^nlfthAble  loiiDd. 

■a  dnnca.  Id  fUgbt.  e 



tagiouB  are  the  Bbarp  note  of  anger,  the  tow  hum  of  fear,  andtbo 
pleasant  tone  of  a  swarm  as  they  commence  to  enter  their  new 
home.  Now,  whether  Insects  take  noteof  these  TihrationB  as  we 
recognize  pitch,  or  whether  they  Just  dtatingaish  the  tremor,  I 
think  CO  one  knows." 

26.  It  ia  well  proven  that  bees  can  smell  with  tbeir 
aatenns,  aod  Cheshire  carefully  describes  tbe  "smell  hoi- 
lotos,"  not  to  be  mistaken  (or  the  "ear  holes,"  which  are 
smaller,  bat  also  located  od  the  antenna. 

"  In  the  case  of  the  worker,  the  eight  active  Joints  of  the  an- 
tenna have  an  average  of  fifteen  rows,  of  twenty  smell-hollows 
each,  or  3,400  on  each  antenna.  The  qneen  has  a  less  number,  giv- 
ing abont  1,600  on  each  antenna.  If  these  organs  are  olfactory,  we 
tee  the  reason.  The  worker's  necessity  to  smell  nectar  explains 
alL    We,  perhaps,  exclaim — Can  it  be  that  these  little  threads 

(UigoUledSOatlnin.    From  Cbeehlre . ) 
/,  (Ccllns  bilij  f ,  imelliDg  organ;  Ao,  hollow;  c,  coDOid  or  cODfl.shaped 
bilr;  M.  hTPoderoui  or  ander-ikiD  layer;  >i,<',  Derrea  In  bnadlea;  nr.  u- 
tlcalatloD;  t',  coniridtiali.  magntfled  800  times. 

we  call  antennn  can  thna  carry  thonsands  of  organs  each  requir- 
ing its  own  nerve  end?  But  greater  Rtrpriaea  await  us,  and  I 
mast  admit  that  the  examinations  astonlslicd  me  greatly.  In  the 
drone  antenna  we  have  thirteen  joints  in  all,  of  which  nine  are 
barrel-shaped  and  special,  and  these  are  covered  completely  by 
smell-hollows.  An  average  of  thirty  rows  of  these,  seventy  in  a 
row,  on  the  nine  Joints  of  the  two  antennee,  give  the  «&Uiuti&\i\% 


namber  of  37,800  distinct  organs.  When  I  coaple  this  d6Telop-> 
ment  with  the  greater  size  of  the  eye  of  the  drone,  and  ask  what 
is  his  function,  why  needs  he  such  a  magnificent  eqaipment?  and 
remember  that  he  has  not  to  scent  the  nectar  ftom  afar,  nor  spy 
oat  the  coy  blossoms  as  they  peep  between  the  leayes,  I  feel  forced 
to  the  conclusion  that  the  pursuit  of  the  queen  renders  them  nec- 
essary."   (Cheshire.) 

27.  While  giving  these  short  quotations  and  beautiful 
engravings  from  Cheshire's  anatomy  of  the  bee,  we  earnestly 
advise  the  scientific  bee-student  to  procure  and  read  his 
work.  Mr.  Cheshire  shows  us  those  minute  organs  so  beauti- 
fully and  extensively  magnified,  that  in  reading  his  book  we 
feel  as  though  we  were  transported  by  some  Genius  inside 
of  the  body  of  a  giant  insect,  every  detail  of  whose  organ 
-ism  was  laid  open  before  us.  However  wonderful  the 
statement  made  above,  of  the  existence  of  nearly  20,000 
organs  in  such  a  small  thing  as  the  antenna  of  a  bee,  this 
fact  will  not  be  disputed.  Those  of  our  bee-friends,  who  have 
had  the  good  luck  to  meet  the  sympathetic  editor  of  the 
British  Bee-Journal^  Mr.  Cowan,  during  his  trip  to  America, 
in  1887,  will  long  remember  the  wonderful  microscopical 
studies,  and  the  microscope  which  he  brought  with  him. 
This  instrument,  tlie  most  powerful  by  far  that  we  ever  had 
seen,  gave  us  a  practical  peep  into  the  domain  of  the  infini- 

28.  Better  tlian  any  other  description  of  the  smallness  of 
atoms  is  that  given  by  Flanimarion,  in  his  ** Astronomic 
Populaire  "  : 

**  It  is  proven,"  he  says,  "  that  an  atom  cannot  be  larger  than 
one  ton-niillionth  of  a  inilliinotcr.  It  results  from  this,  that  the 
number  of  atoms  contained  in  the  head  of  a  pin,  of  an  ordinary 
diameter,  would  not  he  less  than 


And  if  it  was  possible  to  count  these  atoms,  and  to  separate  themv 
at  the  rate  of  one  billion  per  second,  it  would  take  260,000  years 
to  number  them." 


29.  Girard  reports,  as  follows,  an  experiment  on  the  ol- 
factory organs  of  our  little  insects : 

**  While  a  bee  was  intently  occupied  sucking  honey,  we  brought 
near  her  head  a  pin  dipped  in  ether.  She  at  once  showed  symp- 
toms of  a  great  anxiety ;  but  an  inodorous  pin  remained  entirely 
unnoticed."  ^ 

30.  Whatever  be  the  location  of  their  olfactory  organs, 
they  are  unquestionably  endowed  with  a  marrelous  power  of 
detecting  the  odor  of  honey  in  flowers  or  elsewhere. 

One  day  we  discovered  that  some  bees  had  entered  our 
honey-room,  through  the  key-hole.  We  turned  them  out, 
and  stopped  it  up.  Some  time  after,  more  bees  had  entered, 
and  we  vainly  searched  for  the  crevice  that  admitted  them. 
Finally  a  feeble  hum  caused  us  to  notice  that  they  were 
coming  down  the  chimney  to  the  fire-place,  which  was  closed 
by  a  screen.  The  wedge  which  held  this  screen  having  be- 
come somewhat  loose,  the  motion  of  the  screen  in  windy 
weather  opened  a  hole  just  large  enough  for  a  bee  to  crawl 
through.  A  few  bees  were  waiting  behind  the  screen,  and 
as  soon  as  its  motion  allowed  one  to  pass,  she  manifested 
her  joy  by  the  humming  which  led  to  the  discovery.  These 
bees,  escaping  with  a  load,  when  the  door  was  opened,  had 
become  customary  and  interested  visitors. 

31.  Every  bee-keeper  has  noticed  that  their  flight  is- 
guided  by  the  scent  of  flowers,  though  they  be  a  mile  or  more 
away.  In  the  city  of  Keokuk,  situated  on  a  hill  in  a  curve 
of  the  Mississippi,  the  bees  cross  the  river,  a  mile  wide,. 
to  find  the  flowers  on  the  opposite  bank. 

33.  "Not  only  do  bees  have  a  very  acute  sense  of  smell,  but 
they  add  to  this  faculty  the  remembrance  of  sensations.  Here  is 
an  example:  We  had  placed  some  honey  on  a  window.  Bees 
soon  crowded  upon  it.  Then  the  honey  was  taken  away,  and  the 
outside  shatters  were  closed  and  remained  so  the  whole  winter. 
When,  in  Spring,  the  shutters  were  opened  again,  the  bees  came 
back,  although  there  was  no  honey  on  the  window.  No  doubt, 
they  remembered  that  they  got  honey  there  before.   So,  an  inter- 


▼al  of  several  months  was  not  sufficient  to  efface  the  impreislOB 
they  had  received.— (Huber,  ^^Nouvelles  Observations  sur  les 
Abeilles,"  Gendve,  1814.) 

33.  It  is  well  known,  also,  that  bees  wintered  in  cellars 
(646)  remember  their  previous  location  when  taken  out  in 
the  Spring. 

If  food  is  given  to  a  colony,  at  the  same  hour,  and  in  the 
same  spot,  for  two  days  in  succession,  they  will  expect  it 
the  third  day,  at  the  same  time  and  place. 

34.  When  one  of  her  antennae  is  cut  off,  no  change  takes 
place  in  the  behavior  of  the  queen.  If  you  cut  both  antenns 
near  the  head,  this  mother,  formerly  held  in  such  high  considera- 
tion by  her  people,  loses  all  her  influence,  and  even  the  m  atemal 
instinct  disappears.  Instead  of  laying  her  eggs  in  the  cells,  she 
drops  them  here  and  there. — (Huber.) 

The  experiments  made  by  Huber  on  workers  and  drones, 
in  regard  to  the  loss  of  the  antennae,  are  equally  conclusive. 
The  workers,  deprived  of  their  antennae,  returned  to  the 
hive,  where  they  remained  inactive  and  soon  deserted  it  for- 
ever, light  being  the  only  thing  which  seemed  to  have  any 
attraction  for  them. 

In  the  same  way,  drones,  deprived  of  their  antennne,  de- 
serted the  observatory  hive,  as  soon  as  the  light  was  excluded 
from  it,  although  it  was  late  in  the  afternoon,  and  no  drones 
were  flying  out.  Their  exit  was  attributed  to  the  loss  of 
this  organ,  which  helps  to  direct  them  in  darkness. 

35.  The  inference  is  obvious,  that  a  bee  deprived  of  her 
anteniiii3  loses  the  use  of  her  intelU'ct. 

♦*  If  you  deprive  a  bird,  a  pigeon,  for  instance,  of  its  cerebral 
lobe,  it  win  be  deprived  of  its  instinct,  yet  it  will  live  If  you  stufl 
it  with  food.  Furthermore,  its  bruin  will  eventually  be  renewed, 
thus  bringing  ba<?k  :ill  the  uses  of  its  senses." — (Claude  Bernard, 
**  Science  Experiincntale.") 

Bees,  however,  cannot  live  without  their  antennae,  and 
these  organs  would  not  grow  again,  like  the  brains  of  birds, 
the  legs  of  crawfishes,  or  the  tails  of  lizards. 



36.  Let  us  notice,  in  reference  to  the  sensorial  organs, 
that  the  brain  of  workers  is  very  much  larger  than  that  of 
either  the  queen  or  the  drone,  who  need  but  a  very  common 
instinct  to  perform  their  functions ;  while  the  various  occu- 
pations of  the  workers,  who  act  as  nurses,  purveyors,  sweep- 
ers, watchful  wardens,  and  directors  of  the  economy  of  the 
bee-hive,  necessitate  an  enlargement  of  faculties  very  extra- 
ordinary in  so  small  an  insect. 

37.  We  cannot  leave  this  subject  without  quoting 
the  celebrated  Hollander,  Swammerdam,  as  Cheshire  does : 

^  I  cannot  refhiin  from  confessing,  to  the  glory  of  the  Immense, 
incomprehensible  Architect,  that  I  have  but  imperfectly  de- 
scribed and  represented  this 
small  organ;  for  to  repre- 
sent it  to  the  life  in  its  fall 
perfection,  far  exceeds  the 
utmost  efforts  of  human 

38.  We  have  now  come 
to  the  most  difficult  organ 
to  describe — the  mouth 
of  the  bee.  But  we  will 
first  visit  the  interior  of 
the  head  and  of  the  tho- 
rax, to  find  the  nursing 
and  salivary*  glands,  and 
explain  their  uses.' 

39.  The  workers  have 
three  pairs  of  glands :  two 
pairs,  different  in  form, 
placed  in  the  head  (a,  a, 
fig.  5),  and  one  larger 
pair,  located  in  the  thorax 
or  corselet.  The  upper 
pair,  which  resembles  a  string  of  onions,  is  absent  in  the 

Fig.  5. 



(Maf^niflcd.    From  Maurice  Girard.) 

a,  a,  glands  of  tho  hoad;  6,  glands  of  the 
thorax . 

•  In  pUiuer  woidB,  fpittle-prodadDg  tabes. 

16  riinioLOGT  of  tbi  bombt-bsb. 

drones  and  queens.  Aooording  to  Girard,  tbese  npper  glandt 
were  discovered  by  Meckel  in  1846.  They  are  very  large  and 
dilated  in  the  young  worker  bees,  while  they  act  as  nurses, 
but  arc  slim  in  the  bees  of  a  broodless  colooy.  In  the 
old  bees,  that  no  longer  nurse  the  brood,  they  wither 
more  and  more,  till  they  become  shrunken  and  seeminglj 
dried.  Hence  Maurice  Girard,  and  others  befon  him,  have 
concliidcd  very  rationally  that  these  upper  glaoda  prodnoe 
the  milky  fo&d  given  to  the  larvie,  during  the  flnt  dayi  of 
their  development.  Mr.  Cheshire  has  confirmed  the  niy 
reasonable  theory  that  the  queen,  during  the  time  of  egg- 
layiug.isfed  by  the  workers  from  the  secretions  of  this  g^aad. 


iMn;i,l»M  II  tlm"'.  I''t<>:ii  On'-'hlni.) 
K'.ti'iiiill.  w:th  llir-p  ihn^r:W  mliflKHl  tn  i 
M-.i:i:  .  !!ii  ur  iit-i«T  lii'i  Nil  I.  iii'Iht  Mllvsiyorchjtaglaol 
;\-i-  <l  T":i':.v  ri'.<  l:i  fM- ;  nr  tin'  in"in-ci-|>h>llc  plllui,  tat  boa  Om 
T  iiT"  k-  [>'  i"  •':.  w' ;  ,  -iT-"  I'  J  i<r  i.aiiii>  In  tbf  monthi  or,  oecllniw 
.  i-ni.Mil!.-  L-s-L"i;ii. ,  IT  t-ral-i  hTitcni!  ■•,  nceki  (*,  Ihtnssi 
.  -l-.n.  -ii  PT  ■•"H.  •:  :;,  mlltiir}-  ■!n.-r*  i>f  ■.■landi  two  aoA  thmi 

1-  li.i*  ihi'  power  of  produ- 
y  (iltj.  A  OLircftil  calcula- 
M  i>i-i:iipv  a  cubic  Inch  and 

Born  at  Amsterdam,  February  12,  1637. 
This  writer  Is'mentional  pakci  15.  iS,  51.  M.  1£^,  45S  ant) 


weigh  270  grains.  So  that  a  good  queen,  for  days  or  even  weeks* 
In  snccession,  would  deposit,  every  twenty-four  hours,  between 
six  and  nine  grains  of  highly-developed  and  extremely  rich  tissue- 
forming  matter.  Taking  the  lowest  estimate,  she  then  yields  the 
Incredible  quantity  of  twice  her  own  weight  dally,  or  more  accu- 
rately four  times,  since  at  this  period,  more  than  half  her  weight 
consists  of  eggs.  Is  not  the  reader  ready  to  exclaim :  What 
enormous  powers  of  digestion  she  must  possess !  and  since  pol- 
len is  the  only  tissue-forming  food  of  bees,  what  pellets  of  this 
must  she  constantly  keep  swallowing,  and  how  large  must  be  the 
amount  of  her  dejections  I  But  what  are  the  facts  ?  Dissection 
reveals  that  her  chyle  stomach  is  smaller  than  that  of  the  worker, 
and  that  at  the  time  of  her  highest  efibrts,  often  scarcely  a  pollen 
grain  is  discoverable  within  it,  its  contents  consisting  of  a  trans- 
parent mass,  microscopically  indistinguishable  from  ttie  so-called 
**  royal  jelly " ;  while  the  most  practiced  bee-men  say  they 
never  saw  the  queen  pass  any  dejections  at  all.  These  contradic- 
tions are  utterly  inexplicable,  except  upon  the  theory  I  propound 
and  advocate.  She  does  pass  dejections,  for  I  have  witnessed 
the  fact;  but  these  are  very  watery." — (Cheshire.) 

Thus  according  to  Cheshire,  the  food  eaten  by  tlie  queen, 
daring  egg-laying,  is  already  digested  and  assimilated  by 
the  bees,  for  her  use.  Her  dejections  which  are  scanty 
and  liquid,  are  licked  up  by  the  workers,  as  are  also  the  de- 
jections of  the  drones,  if  not  too  abundant. 

41.  The  other  two  pairs  of  glands,  which  are  common  to 
workers,  queens,  and  drones,  evidently  produce  the  saliva. 
The  functions  of  both  must  be  the  same,  for  they  unite  in 
the  same  canal  (sd,  2,  3^  fig.  6),  terminated  by  a  valvule, 
which,  passing  though  the  mentum  or  chin  (mt),  opens  at 
the  base  of  the  tongue.  The  saliva  produced  by  them  is 
used  for  different  purposes.  It  helps  the  digestion ;  it 
changes  the  chemical  condition  of  the  nectar  (240)  har- 
vested from  the  flowers ;  it  helps  to  knead  the  scales  of  wax 
(201)  of  which  the  combs  are  built,  and  perhaps  the  pro- 
polis (236)  with  which  the  hives  are  varnished.     It  is  used 

•  ThmeUnCU  have  been  demooBtrated  so  repeatedly,  that  they  are  as  well 
estabUalied  m  the  moit  common  laws  in  the  breeding  of  our  domestic  animals. 



also  to  dilute  the  honey  when  too  thick,  to  moisten  the 
(263)  pollen  grains,  to  wash  the  hairs  when  daubed  with 
honey,  etc. 

These  glands  yield  their  saliva  while  the  tongue  of  the 
bees  is  stretched  out;  but  the  upper  glands  (No.  1,  fig.  6), 
which  open  on  both  sides  of  the  pharynx  or  mouth  (pA),  can 
yield  their  product  only  when  the  tongue  is  bent  backwards, 
to  help  feed  the  larva  (64)  lying  at  the  bottom  of  the  cell. 

42.  The  mouth  of  the  bee  has  mandibles  or  outer  jaws, 
which  move  sidewise,  like  those  of  ants  and  other  insects, 
instead  of  up  and  down  as  in  higher  animals.  These  jaws 
are  short,  thick,  without  teeth,  and  beveled  inside  so  as  to 
form  a  hollow  when  joined  together,  as  two  spoons  would  do. 
With  them,  they  manipulate  the  wax  to  build  their  comb, 
open  the  anthers  of  flowers  to  get  the  honey,  and  seize  and 
hold,  to  drag  them  out,  robbers  or  intruders,  or  debris  of 
any  kind. 

'^^  ALi^ 

Ftg.  7.                       Figs.                         Fig.  9.  Fig.  10. 
Hea<l  of  honey-  Head  of  honey-  Maiidibh'  of  honey-  Mandible  of  honey- 
hornet.                       Ir'o.                         hornet.  bee. 
(MttgnitkKl.)             (Mftj^Mjined.)              (Magnified.)  (lU|rnifled.) 

43.  Fiu:.  9  sliows  the  jaws  of  the  Mexican  hornet  highly 
nia^iiifiod.  Fis;.  10  shows  the  jaws  of  the  honey-bee,  highly 
nia<;nilio«l.  Notice  the  difference  in  the  shape  of  the  two, 
the  saw-hke  aj^pearaiue  of  the  one,  and  the  spatula  shape 
of  the  other.  A  ixhmee  at  these  tigures  is  enough  to  con- 
vince any  intelligent  ht^rtie'ulturist  of  the  truth  of  Aristotle's 
remark  —  made  more  than  two  thousand  years  ago  —  that 
**  bees  hurt  no  kinds  of  sound  fruit,  but  wasps  and  hornets 
arc  very  destructive  to  them." 


We  shall  give  further  evidence  concerning  the  correct- 
ness of  this  statement.    (871) 

44.  Below  the  antennae,  the  clypeus  or  shield  (c/,  fig.  6) 
projects,  which  is  prolongated  by  an  elastic  rim  called  labium 
or  upper  lip  (Z6r).  The  pharynx  is  the  mouth  (p/i),  and 
the  oesophagus  (as)  the  gullet,  through  which  the  food  goes 
into  the  stomach. 

As  we  have  already  seen,  the  canals  of  the  upper  glands 
open  on  each  side  of  the  mouth,  and  discharge  their  product 
into  it  at  will. 

45.  The  chin  or  mentum  (mt)  is  not  literally  a  part  of 
the  mouth.  It  can  move  forward  and  backward,  and  sup- 
ports several  pieces,  among  which  is  the  tongue,  or  proboscis, 
or  ligula  (Z).  The  tongue  is  not  an  extension  of  the  chin, 
but  has  its  root  in  it,  and  can  only  be  partly  drawn  back 
into  it,  its  extremity,  when  at  rest,  being  folded  back  under 
the  chin. 

46.  There  are,  on  each  side  of  the  tongue,  the  labial 
palpi  or  feelers*  (6,  fig.  11,  and  Ip,  fig.  6),  which  are  fastened 
to  the  chin  by  hinged  joints.  They  are  composed  of  four 
pieces  each,  the  first  two  of  which  are  broad,  and  the  other 
two  small  and  thin,  and  provided  with  sensitive  hairs  of  a 
very  fine  fabric.  Outside  of  the  palpi  are  the  maxiihe  (r, 
fig.  11,  and  mx,  fig.  6)  which  in  some  insects  have  the  func- 
tion of  jaws,  but  which,  in  the  bee,  only  serve,  with  the  palpi, 
to  enfold  the  tongue  in  a  sort  of  tube,  formed  and  opened 
at  the  will  of  the  insect,  and  which,  by  a  certain  muscular 
motion,  as  also  by  the  ability  of  the  tongue  to  move  up  and 
down  in  this  tube,  force  the  food  up  into  the  mouth. 

47.  The  tongue  is  covered  with  hairs,  which  are  of  graded 
sizes,  80  that  those  nearest  the  tip  or  bouton  are  thin  and 
flexible.  It — the  tongue — is  grooved  like  a  trough,  the 
edges  of  which  can  also  unite  to  form  a  tube,  with  perfect 

•  OigaiM  of  taste  Mooording  to  Leydlg  and  Jobezt. 


joints.  ItieeasilyuDderBtood  that  if  the  tongue  were  a  tube, 
the  pollen  grains  when  conveyed  through  it  would  obstruct 
it,  especially  when  daubed  with  very  thick  honey. 

48.  "A  most  beautiful  adaptation  bete  becomes  erldent 
Nectar  gathered  trom  blossoms  needs  convenlon  into  honej.  lU 
cane  sugar  must  be  changed  Into  grape  sugar,  and  this  la  accom- 
plished by  the  admixture  of  the  salivarf  secretions  of  Systems 
Nos.  3  and  3  [td,  t,  3,  fig.  6), 
either  one  or  both.  The 
tongue  Is  drawn  Into  the 
mentnm  by  the  shortening 
of  the  retractor  llnguas  mus- 
cle, which,  as  it  contracts, 
dtminlshes  the  space  above 
the  salivary  valve,  and  so 
pumps  out  the  saliva,  which 
mixes  with  the  nectar  as  It 
rises,  by  methods  we  now 
understand.  Bees,  it  has 
often  been  observed,  feed  on 
thick  syrup  slowly ;  the 
reason  is  Bimple.  The  thlclf 
syrup  will  not  pass  readily 
through  [iiinute  passages 
without  thinning  by  a  fluid. 
This  fluid  is  saliva,  which  is 
demanded  in  larger  iju  an  ti- 
tles than  the  poor  bees  can 
supply.  They  arc  able,  how- yield ilin  surprising 

how  it   is   tli:it   thi'SG   little 

Mg.  II. 

(Msgnlfled.    riom  Maarlos  Olnrt.) 
n,  tongne:    b,  UbUl  flft;  e,  msxUlS. 

clean  tiicmsclves  Trom  the  sticky  body  honey. 
The  p:ilivn  is  ti>  thpm  both  soap  and  water,  and  the  tongue  and 
iurrouniliiiir  parts,  aftur  any  amount  of  daubing,  will  aoon  shine 
wltb  the  iur-trc  of  a  mirror."— (Cheshire.) 

4W.  Till'  li'iiiiih  (if  the  tonj^iie  ot  the  honey-bee  is  of  great 
im}">i  tadi'c  in  lire-kcpiiers.  S"me  Dowers,  such  m  red  clo- 
vor.  have  a  Lorolla  so  deep,  that  tew  bees  are  able  to  gather 
the  honey  produced  iu  them.     Therefore,  one  of  the  chiel 


aims  of  progressive  bee-keepers,  should  be  to  raise  bees  with 
longer  tongues.     This  can  undoubtedly  be  done  sooner  or 
later,  by  careful  selection,  in  the  same  way  that  all  our  do- 
mestic plants  and  animals  have  been  improved  in  the  past 
For  this,  pcUience  and  time  are  required. 

50.  The  thorax  is  the  intermediate  part  of  the  body.  It 
is  also  called  "corselet."  It  is  formed  of  three  rings  sol- 
dered into  one.  Each  of  the  three  rings  bears  one  pair  of 
legs,  on  its  under  side ;  and  each  of  the  last  two  rings  bears 
a  pair  of  wings,  on  its  upper  side ;  making  four  wings  and 
six  legs,  all  fastened  on  the  thorax. 

51.  Each  leg  is  composed  of  nine  joints  (B,  Plate  IV),  the 
two  nearest  the  body  (c,  tr)  being  short.  The  next  three 
are  the  femur  (/),  tibia  (ti),  and  planta  (jp)  also  called 
metatarsus^  The  last  four  joints  form  the  tarsus  (t)oT  foot. 

52.  The  last  joint  of  the  tarsus,  or  tip  of  the  foot,  is  pro- 
vided with  two  claws  {an^  fig.  12),  that  cling  to  objects  or 
to  the  surfaces  on  which  the  bee  climbs.  These  claw3  can 
be  folded,  somewhat  like  those  of  a  cat  (A,  tig.  12),  or  can 
be  turned  upwards  (B,  fig.  12)  when  the  bees  are  hanging 
in  clusters.  When  they  wallc  on  a  polished  surface,  like 
the  pane  of  a  window,  which  the  claws  cannot  grasp,  the 
latter  are  folded  down ;  but  there  is  between  them  a  small 
rubber-like  pocket,  pulvillus  (py,  A,  B,)  which  secretes  a 
sticky,  **  clammy  "  substance,  that  enables  the  bee  to  cling 
to  the  smoothest  surfaces.  House-files  and  other  insects 
cling  to  walls  and  windows  by  the  same  process.  It  was 
formerly  asserted  that  insects  cling  to  the  smooth  surfaces 
by  air  suction,  but  the  above  explanation  is  correct,  and  you 
can  actually  see  '*  the  footprints  of  a  fly  "  on  a  pane  of  glass, 
with  the  help  of  a  microscope,  remnants  of  the  *'  clammy  " 
substance  being  quite  discernible.  By  this  ingenious  ar- 
rangement, bees  can  walk  indifferently  upon  almost  any- 
thing, since  wherever  the  claws  fail,  the  pulvilli  take  their 


as.  "But  another  contrlvuice,  eqoally  beAutlfnl,  remkltii 
to  be  noticed.  The  pulvillas  1b  carried  folded  In  the  middle  (u 
at  C,  fig.  12),  but  opens  out  when  applied  to  a  surface,  for  it  hai 
at  its  upper  part  an  elastic  and  carved  rod  (a-)  which  stralghteai 
as  the  pulvIUua  Is  pressed  down,  C  and  D,  fig.  12,  making  this 
clear.  The  flattened-out  pul?illus  thus  holds  stronglj  while 
pulled,  hj  the  weight  of  the  bee,  along  the  surface,  to  which  it 
adheres,  but  comes  up  at  once  if  lifted  and  rolled  off  from  its  op- 
posite sides,  Just  as  wc  should  peel  a  wet  postage  stamp  troia  Its 
envelope.  The  bee,  then,  is  held  securely  till  It  attempts  to  lift 
the  leg,  when  It  Is  freed  at  once;  and,  by  this  exquisite  7et 
simple  plan,  it  can  fix  and  release  each  foot  at  least  twentj 
times  per  second."— (Cheshire.) 

lUignlDed  30  times.    From  Chcsblra.) 

A,  poallloD  of  tbe  Foot  la  climbing  slipper;  eortAoe  ot  gUui  pc,   pal* 
TlUae^  ')>,  rccUnRbalrs!  an.  sm^ieulus.  orclav;  i.  (anal  Jolot. 

B,  position  of  Ihp  foot  In  climbing  roogh  sniftice. 

C,  HH-Ilonof  pulilllaajast  toucliing  flat  Bbrtace;  cr,  cnrtsdnd. 

D,  t^nlvillUB  AppliiHltosnrfftcA. 

B-i.  The  Iplcs  of  bees,  lilie  all  other  parte  of  their  bod;, 
arc  covero.I  ivitli  hairs  of  varicil  shapes  and  sizes,  the  de- 
8cn(ition  of  ivliich  is  btyoiHl  tlie  limits  of  this  work.  We 
will  (■■mlino  oiirsolvos  to  a  short  explanation  of  the  uses, 
wliiih  have  a  direct  lieariiii:;  upon  the  work  ot  t">e  bee. 

■1-he  h;.ir:.  ..f  tlie  fr,.nt,  or  lirst.  pair  of  legs  (C,  Plate  IV) 
are  i-i]ii'ri:illy  ii-^efiil  in  eteanin^  the  eyes  and  the  tongue, 

o,"!.  l>ti  the  tuelnlar-ii.;.  the  lower  of  the  (wo  largest  joints 
of  ihese  front  lejjs.  is  a  r.iun.ieil  nolt-h  (E,  a,  Plate  IV), 
oliiseil  when  tlio  leg  Ja  foMeil.  l)y  a  sort  of  spur  or  velom, 



[v,  C,  E,  H)  fastened  to  the  tibia,  or  upper  large  joint. 
Ihe  learned  Dr.  Dubini,  of  Milan  (L'Ape,  Milan,  1881), 
speaks  of  it  as  being  used  to  cleanse  the  antennae  and  the 
tongue  of  the  pollen  that  sticks  to  them.  Mr.  Cheshire 
thinks  it  is  used  only  to  cleanse  the  antennae,  from  the  fact 
that  this  notch,  which  has  teeth  like  a  comb  (F,  Plate  IV),  is 
found  as  well  in  the  queen  and  the  drone  as  in  the  worker, 
Euid  that  its  aperture  corresponds  exactly  to  the  different 
sizes  of  the  antenna  of  each  sex.     (H,  Plate  IV.) 

56.  The  second  pair  of  legs  have  no  notch,  but  the  lower 

Fiff.  \t\. 


(Magiiifled.    From  Maurice  Girard.) 

A,  of  the  queen;  B,  of  the  worker  (under  side) ;  C.  of  the  worker  (npper 

aide) ;  D,  of  the  drone. 

extremity  of  the  tibia  bears  a  spur  (D  s,  Plate  IV)  or  spine, 
which  is  used  in  loosening  the  pellets  of  pollen,  brought  to 
the  hive  on  the  tibias  of  the  posterior  legs  (Plate  IV).  This 
spur  also  helps  in  cleaning  the  wings. 

57.  The  posterior  or  hind  legs  are  very  remarkable,  in 
several  respects.  Between  the  tibia  and  the  metatarsus 
(B,  top,  Plate  IV)  they  have  an  articulation,  whose  parts  close 
like  pincers,  and  which  serves  to  loosen  from  the  abdomen 
the  scales  of  wax  to  be  mentioned  further  on  (201).  As 
neither  the  queen  nor  the  drone  produces  wax,  they  are  des- 
titute of  this  implement. 


56.  *'.  But  the  chi^f  Interest  Centura  on  the  two  joints  last  men- 
tioned  (^t\;B,.A.  B.,  Plate  iy),a8a  device  for  carrying  the  pollen  of 
the  blo8s6m  hofne  to  the  hive.  The  metatarsos  Is  enlarged  into 
a  sub-quadrangular  form,  constituting  a  llsitlshplate,  slightly  con- 
vex on  both  surfaces.  The  outer  face  (^,  A,  Plmtil  IV)  is  not  remark- 
able, but  the  one  next  the  body  (jd,  B)  '  is- 'fbrnlshed  with  stiff 
combs,  the  teeth  of  which  are  homy,  straig&t  spines,  set  closely, 
and  arranged  in  transverse  rows  across  the  JbCbt,  a  little  projecting 
above  its  plane,  and  the  tips  of  one  comb  slightly  overlapping 
the  basis  of  the  next.  Their  colour  is  reddish-brown ;  and  en- 
tangled in  the  combs,  wo  almost  invariably^discover  pollen  gran- 
ules, which  have  been  at  first  picked  up  by  the  thoracic  hairs, 
but  combed  out  by  the  constant  play  of  the  legs  over  the  breast  ~ 
in  which  work,  the  second  pair,  bearing  a  strong  resemblance  to 
the  third,  performs  an  important  part." 

59*  *'  So  soon  as  tlie  bees  have  loaded  these  combs,  they  do 
not  return  to  the  hive,  but  transfer  thej  pollen  to  the  hollow  sides 
of  tlie  tibia,  seen  nt  ii,  A.  This  concavity,  corbicula,  or  pollen 
basket  is  siiiootli  and  hairless,  except  at  the  edges,  whence  spring 
ion;;.  fel«nd«r.  curved  spines,  two  sets  following  the  line  of  the 
bottom  and  sides  of  the  basket,  while  a  third  bends  over  its  front. 
Tilt*  concavity  lUs  it  to  contain  i)ollen,  while  the  marginal  hain 
greatly  increase  its  i)ossit>le  load,  like  the  sloping  stakes  which 
the  tarnicr  )*laces  round  the  sides  of  his  waggon  when  he  desires 
to  carry  loose  hay.  the  Fet  hent  over  (see  G,  Plate  IV)  accomplish- 
ing tlic  |)nri»osc  of  the  cords  by  which  he  saves  |iis  property  from 
being  lost  on  the  road.  But  a  diHiculty  arises:  How  can  the  pol- 
len he  transferred  from  th^  metatarsal  comb  to  the  basket  above? 
Kasily  ;  for  it  is  the  left  metatarsus  that  charges  the  right  basket, 
and  vii:^  rfr.i<i  'I'he  leg^  are  crossed,  and  the  metatarsus  naturally 
scrapes  its  c(>mh-face  on  the  upper  edge  of  the  opposite  tibia,  in 
tlie  direct  lor  fr<Hn  the  base  af  the  combs  towards  their  tips. 
The>e  upper  hairs  siandinixover  (/•/>,  15,  or  close  to  <i,  A  (which  are 
oppo.^ite  .-^idcs  of  the  Fame  joint),  arc  nearly  straight,  and  pass 
l)et\veen  the  <'omh  teeth.  'I'he  pollen,  as  removed,  is  caught  by 
tht'  hent-over  hairs,  and  secured.  Each  scrap  adds  to  the  mass. 
until  the  face  of  the  joint  is  more  than  covered,  and  the  hairs  Just 
emhrace  the  pellet  as  we  see  it  in  the  cross-section  at  0.  The 
work«'r  now  hies  homewardiit,  and  the  si)ine,  as  a  crow-bar,  does 
its  work."— (Che.Miire.) 

OO.  The  four  win;rs,  in  two  j)airs,  arc  supported  by  hoi- 

(UifnlJIed  10 amM.     Prom  Chethlra.) 
A,  thbdilcbt  lee,  ddabomUwbadr,     U,  tlbU,  showing  paUen  bukM;  p.  plMUat 
■HitMiMj  I,  tmmi.     B,  tUid  debt  l^.Hd*  next  thabodr.    r.con;ir,traoliutari 
■^i  fiDflm.    C,  bODt  itfht  leff.    v,  Telnm;  6,  bnuh;  fd,  Bjn-bnuh.  D,  i 
>W.    fr,  bmb)  BiJoliil  ef  Out  lig,  more  (dIu^.    i,  t6ucii\  s.ixMomh  « 
>,>««&.    ',  tMtbof  aotaanm  eomb,  mtgnlllad  WD  anm.    Q.  cmt  ««iaiiitro.«< 


low  nervura  or  ribs,  and  have  a  great^  power  of  resiatance. 
In  flight,  the  small  wings  are  fastened  to  the  large  ones  by 
small  hooka  (fig.  14),  located  on  the  edge  of  their  outer 
oervure,  that  catch  in  a  fold  of  the  inner  edge  of  the  large 
wings.  Thus  united,  they  present  to  the  air  a  stronger 
mrface  and  give  the  bees  a  greater  power  of  flight.  No 
doubt,  a  single  pair  of  wings  of  the  same  surface  would  have 
better  attained  the  desired  aim,  but  their  width  would  have 
annoyed  the  bees  in  going  inside  of  the  cells,  either  to  feed 

(Udgnlfled     Fiom  CheBhire  ) 

A,  aotailOT  wing   under  ilda    pp    plait 

B,  pMtdlciT  wing,  nnilCT  Bide,  A, A,  haokleti. 

C,  cruM-MCtlon  of  wloga  throngh  line  n.'i,  sliotTing  booUets  In  plidt. 

the  larvie  or  to  deposit  aupphes.     Imagine  a  blue  fly  trying, 
with  its  wide  wings,  to  go  inside  of  a  cell ! 

Ol.  "  Mr.  Gaurichon  has  noticed  that  when  the  bees  tan, 
or  ventilate  the  entrance  of  the  hive,  their  wings  are  not 
booked  together  as  they  are  in  flight,  but  act  independent- 
ly of  one  another."  (Dubini,  1881.)  A  German  entomolo- 
gist, Landois,  states  that,  according  to  the  pitch  of  their 
hnm,  the  beea'  fli^t  must  at  times  be  equal  to  440  vibra- 
tions in  a  second,  but  be  noticed  that  tbi&  apeei  cqu\&  ^qV 



be  kept  up  without  fatigue.     It  is  well  known  that  the  nuat 
rapid  the  vibrations,  the  higher  the  pitch. 

62.  DiGEaTiKG  Apparatus. — The  honey  obtained  from 
the  blossoms,  after  mixing  with  theaaliva  (41 ),  and  passing 
through  the  mouth  and  the  leaophagus,  is  conveyed  into  the 

63.  This  organ,  located  in  the  abdomen,  is  not  larger  than 
a  very  small  pea,  and  so  perfectly  transparent  as  to  appear, 
when  filled,  of  the  same  color  as  its  contents;  it  ia  prop- 
erly the  first  stomach,  and  is  surrounded  by  mnacles  which 

enable  the  bee  to  compress 
it,  and  empty  its  content* 
through  her  proboscis  into 
the  cells.  She  can  also, 
at  will,  keep  a  supply,  to 
be  digested,  at  leisure, 
when  leaving  with  a 
swarm,  (418),  or  while 
in  the  cluster  during  the 
cold  of  winter  (620),  and 
use  it  only  as  fast  as  nec- 
essary. For  this  purpose, 
the  honey-sack  is  supplied 
at  its  lower  extremity,  in- 
side, with  a  round  ball, 
which  Burmeister  has 
called  the  atomach-mot^h, 
and  which  has  been  beau- 
tifiillv  described  by  Schie- 
menz  (1883).  It  opena 
by  n  complex  valve  and 
coiiticcts  the  honey-sack 
with  the  digesting-stomach,  through  a  tube  or  canal,  pro- 
jecting inside  (he  latter.  This  canal  is  lined  with  hairs  point- 
ing downward,  which  prevent  the  solid  food,  such  as  pollen 


Trains,  from  returning  to  the  honey-sack.  Cheshire  affirms 
that  this  stomach-mouth,  which  protrudes  into  the  honey- 
sack,  acts  as  a  sort  of  sieve,  and  strains  the  honey  from  the 
^ains  of  pollen  floating  in  it,  appropriating  them  for  di- 
gestion, and  allowing  the  honey  to  flow  back  into  the  sack. 
The  bee  could  thus,  at  will,  *'  eat  or  drink  from  the  mixed 
iiet  she  carries." 

64.  According  to  Schonfeld,  {Ulustrierte  Bienenzeitung) 
the  chyle,  or  milky  food  which  is  used  to  feed  the  young  lar- 
vae,— and  which  we  have  shown  to  be,  most  probably,  the 
product  of  the  upper  pair  of  glands  (39-40), — would  be 
produced  from  the  digesting-stomach,  which  he  and  others 
call  chyle-stomach.  Although  we  are  not  competent  in  the 
[natter,  we  would  remark  that  the  so-called  chyle-stomach 
produces  chymes  or  digested  food,  from  which  the  chyley  or 
Dourishing  constituent,  is  absorbed  by  the  cell-lining  of  the 
stomach  and  of  the  intestines,  and  finally  converted  into 
blood.  We  do  not  see  how  this  chyle  could  be  thickene  I  and 
regurgitated  by  the  stomach  to  be  returned  to  the  mouth. 

05.  In  mammals,  the  chyliferous  vessels  do  not  exist  in 
the  stomach,  but  in  the  intestine,  the  function  of  the  stom- 
ach being  only  to  digest  the  food  by  changing  it  iuto  chyme, 
from  which  the  chyle  is  afterwards  separated,  for  the  use  of 
the  body. 

66.  Again,  in  the  mammals,  the  ghinds  which  produce 
milk  are  composed  of  small  clusters  of  acinic  which  take 
their  secretions  from  the  blood  and  empty  them  into  vessels 
terminating  at  the  surface  of  the  breast.  The  action  of  the 
upper  gland  (39-40),  in  the  bee,  i><  exactly  similar  to 
the  action  of  those  lacteal  glands,  and  the  fact  that  this 
gland  is  absent  in  the  queen  and  in  the  drone  is,  to  us,  pos- 
itive evidence  that  the  chylous  or  lacteal  food  (given  the 
larvae)  is  produced  by  these  glands  alone,  and  not  by  the 
direct  action  of  the  digesting-stomach. 

67.  The  food  arriving  in  the  stomach  is  mixed  with  the 


gastric  juice,  which  helps  its  transformation,  and  the  nndn- 
lating  moUon  of  the  stomach  sends  it  to  its  lower  extremitjr, 
*«ward  the  intestines.  But,  before  entering  into  them,  the 
ihyme  receives  the  product  of  seTeral  glands  which  have 
been  named  Malpighian  tubes  (e,  fig.  15)  from  the  scientist 
Malpighi,  who  was  the  first  to  notice  them.  A  grinding 
motion  of  the  muscles  placed  at  the  junction  of  the  stoBUu^ 

with  ihf  intcsliues,  acting  on  the  grains  of  pollen  not 
yd  KiUtidciitly  ilissolvoil,  prepares  them  to  yield  their 
assimilalilc  partJcliis  to  llic  absorbing  cells  in  the  walls  of 
the  small  intestitic.  Tlicucc  they  go  into  the  large  intes- 
tine, from  which  the  refuse  matter  Is  discharge^  by  the 
workcr-hccs,  ukile  on   the  wing.     We  italicize    the  worda. 


because  this  fact  has  considerable  bearing  on  the  health  of 
the  bees,  when  confined  by  cold  or  other  causes,  as  will  be 
seen  further  on.   (030.) 

68.  "  Tbe  nervona  sfstetn  (flg.  16)  of  the  honey-bee,  the  Beat 
orsenButlon  and  of  the  underetandlng,  la  very  Interesting,  on  ao 
countof  the  profouod  difference  which  It  presents  when  compared 
with  the  nervouB  B^stem  of  the  larva.  The  honey-bee,  more  per- 
fect In  organization  than  the  butterfly,  begins  as  a  larva  deflctent 
Id  legs,  very  much  inferior  to  the  caterpillar  from  which  the  but- 
terfly prooeedB.  It  la  very  interesting  to  notice,  that  the  drones, 
■IthoB^  larger  than  the  workers,  especially  In  the  head,  have  a 
■mkllgr  bntln.  This  state  of  things  coincides  with  the  fact  that 
thn  draow  an  not  Intelligent,  while  no  one  can  refuse  gleams 
of  iBtoUlgonoe  to  the  worker-bees,  as  nurses  and  builders," 

Pia.  IT. 

(Macnllled.    From  Uirnnl.) 

69.  The  heart,  or  organ  of  the  circiilution  of  tlie  blood, 
formed  of  Are  elongated  rooms,  in  the  abdomen,  is  tcrmin- 
■ted  in  the  thorax,  and  in  the  head,  by  the  aorta,  which  ia 


not  contractible.  Each  room  of  the  heart  presents,  on 
either  side,  an  opening  for  the  returning  blood.  The  blood, 
'*  soaking  through  the  body"  (Cheshire),  comes  in  contact 
with  the  air  contained  in  the  tracheal  ramifications,  where  it 
is  arterialized,  or  in  plainer  words,  renovated,  before  com- 
ing back  to  the  heart. 

The  bee  is  not  provided  with  any  discernible  blood  or 
lymphatic  vessels  save  the  aorta,  and  its  blood  is  colorless. 

70.  The  breathing  organ  of  the  bee  is  spread  through  its 
whole  body.  It  is  formed  of  membranous  vessels,  or  tra- 
chese,  whose  ramifications  spread  and  penetrate  into  the 
organs,  as  the  rootlets  of  a  plant  sink  down  into  the  soil. 
Connected  with  these,  there  is,  on  each  side  of  the  abdomi- 
nal cavity,  a  large  tracheal  bag,  variable  in  form  and  dimen- 
sions, according  to  the  quantity  of  air  that  it  contains. 
Bees  breathe  through  holes,  or  spiracles,  which  are  placed 
on  each  side  of  the  body,  and  open  into  the  tracheal  bags 
and  tracheae. 

l^l.  "The  act  of  respiration  consigts  in  the  alternate  dilatation 
and  contraction  of  the  abdominal  segments.  By  filling,  or  emp- 
tying the  air-bags,  the  bee  can  change  her  specific  gravity. 
When  a  bee  is  preparing  herself  for  flight,  the  act  of  respiration 
resembles  that  of  birds,  under  similar  circumstances.  At  the  mo- 
ment of  expanding  her  wings,  which  is  indeed  an  act  of  respira- 
tion, the  spiracles  or  breathing  holes  are  expanded,  and  the  air, 
rushing  into  them,  is  extended  into  the  whole  body,  which  by 
the  expansion  of  the  air-bags,  is  enlarged  in  bulk,  and  rendered 
of  less  speciflc  gravity ;  so  that  when  the  spiracles  are  closed,  at 
the  instant  the  insect  endeavors  to  make  the  first  stroke  with, 
and  raise  itself  upon,  its  wings,  it  is  enabled  to  rise  in  the  air, 
and  sustain  a  long  and  powerful  flight,  with  but  little  moscalar 
exertion."  ♦  *  *  "Newport  has  shown  that  the  develop- 
ment of  heat  in  insects.  Just  as  in  vertebrates,  depends  on  the 
quantity  and  activity  of  respiration  and  the  yolome  of  clrcii- 
lation.''— (Packard,  Salem,  1868.) 

72.  Mr.  Cheshire  notices  that  bees,  even  in  full,  vigor- 
ous jouth  and  strength,  are  not  at  at  aU  times  able  to  take 


flight.  The  reader  may  have  noticed  that  if  they  are  fright- 
ened, or  even  touched  with  the  finger,  they  will  occasionally  " 
move  only  by  slight  jumps.  This  temporary  inability  to 
fly,  is  due  to  the  small  quantity  of  air  that  their  tracheal 
sacs  contain.  They  were  at  rest,  their  blood  circulated 
slowly,  their  body  was  comparatively  heavy ;  but  when  their 
wings  were  expanded,  the  tracheal  bags,  that  were  as  flat  as 
ribbons,  were  soon  filled  with  air,  and  they  were  ready  to 
take  wing. 

Practical  Apiarists  well  know  that  bees  may  be  shaken  off 
the  comb,  and  gathered  up,  with  a  shovel,  with  a  spoon,  or 
even  with  the  hands,  to  be  weighed  or  measured  in  open  ves- 
sels, like  seeds.  The  foregoing  remarks  give  the  explana- 
tion of  this  fact. 

73.  When  the  tracheal  bags  are  filled  with  air,  bees, 
owing  to  their  peculiar  structure,  can  best  discharge  the 
residue    contained  in  their  intestines. 

The  queen  is  differently  formed,  her  ovaries  occupying 
part  of  the  space  belonging  to  the  air-sacks  in  the  worker, 
hence  her  discharges,  like  those  of  the  drones  (100),  take 
place  in  the  hive.  (40.) 

^4»  "The  tracheous  bags  of  the  abdomen,  which  we  would 
be  tempted  to  name  abdominal  lungs,  hold  in  reserve  the  air  need- 
ed to  arterialize  the  blood  and  to  produce  muscular  strength 
and  heat,  in  connection  with  the  powerful  flight  of  the  insect. 
Heat  is  indispensable,  to  keep  up  the  high  temperature  of  the 
hive,  for  the  boilding  of  comb  and  rearing  of  brood.  The  aerial 
vesicles  increase,  by  their  resonance,  the  intensity  of  the  hum- 
ming, and  are  used  also  like  the  valve  of  a  balloon,  to  slacken  or 
Increase  the  speed  of  the  flight,  by  the  variation  of  density,  ac- 
cording to  the  quantity  or  weight,  of  the  air  that  they  contain. 
This  accamolated  air  is  also  the  means  of  preventing  asphyxy, 
which  the  insects  resist  a  long  time.  Lastly,  these  air-bags  help 
in  the  mating  of  the  sexes,  which  takes  place  in  the  air ;  the 
swelling  of  tlie  vesicles  being  indispensable  to  the  bursting  forth 
of  the  male  organs.*'— (Girard.) 

75.  The  hum  that  is  produced  by  the  vibration  of  the 


wings  is  different  in  each  of  the  three  kinds  of  inhabitants 
of  the  hive,  and  easily  recognizable  to  a  practiced  ear.  The 
hum  of  the  drone  is  the  most  sonorous.  But  worker-bees, 
when  angry  or  frightened,  or  when  they  call  each  other, 
emit  different  and  sharper  sounds.  On  the  production  of 
these  sounds,  bee-keepers  and  entomologists  are  far  from 
being  agreed. 

'*  Inside  of  every  opening  of  the  aerial  tubes  is  a  Talvular 
muscle,  which  helps  to  control  the  mechanism  of  respiration. 
This  can  be  opened  or  closed  at  will,  by  the  bee,  to  prevent  the 
ing^ss,  or  egress,  of  air.  It  is  by  this  means  that  the  air  is  kept 
in  the  large  tracheous  bags  and  decreases  the  specific  gravity  of 
the  Insect.  The  main  resonant  organ  of  the  bee  is  placed  in  front 
of  this  stopping  muscle,  at  the  entrance  of  the  trachea." 

**  The  humming  is  not  produced  solely  by  the  vibrating  of  the 
wings,  as  is  generally  admitted.  Chabrier,  ^nrmeister,  Lan- 
dois,  have  discovered  in  the  humming,  three  different  sounds: 
the  first,  caused  by  the  vibrating  of  the  wings;  the  second, 
sharper,  by  the  vibration  of  the  rings  of  the  abdomen ;  the  third, 
the  most  intense  and  acute,  produced  by  a  true  vocal  mechaniam, 
placed  at  the  orifices  of  the  aerial  tubes.*' — (Qirard.) 

70.  The  bee-keeper  who  understands  the  language  of 
bees,  can  turn  it  to  his  advantage.  Here  are  some  ex- 
amples : 

^*  When  something  seems  to  irritate  the  bees,  who  are  in  f^ont 
of  a  hive,  on  the  alighting-board,  they  emit  a  short  sound,  »-•-•-, 
Jumping  at  the  same  time  towards  the  hive.  This  is  a  warning. 
Then  they  fly  and  examine  the  object  of  their  fears,  remaining 
sustained  by  their  wings,  near  the  suspected  object,  and  emit- 
ting at  the  same  time,  a  distinct  and  prolonged  sound.  This  is  a 
sig^  of  great  suspicion.  If  the  object  moves  quickly,  or  other> 
wise  shows  hostile  intent,  the  song  is  changed  into  a  piercing 
cry  for  help,  in  a  voice  whistling  with  anger.  They  dash  for- 
ward violently  and  blindly,  and  try  to  sting. 

*'''  When  they  are  quiet  and  satisfied,  their  voice  is  the  ham- 
ming of  a  grave  tune ;  or,  if  they  do  not  move  their  wings,  an 
allegro  murmur.  If  they  are  suddenly  caught  or  compressed, 
the  sound  is  one  of  distress.  If  a  hive  is  Jarred  at  a  time  when 
all  the  bees  are  quiet,  the  mass  speedily  raise  a  ham,  whlok 


ceases  as  suddenly.  In  a  qneenless  hive,  the  sound  is  doleful, 
lasts  longer  and  at  times  increases  in  force.  When  bees  swarm, 
the  tune  is  clear  and  gay,  showing  manifest  happiness.*'~((£ttl- 
Klauss,  183G.) 

77.  The  German  pastor  Stahala  has  published  a  very 
complete  study  on  the  language  of  bees,  which  has  appeared 
in  some  of  the  bee-papers  of  Italy,  France  and  America. 
We  do  not  consider  it  as  altogether  accurate ;  but  there  are 
some  sounds  described  that  all  bee-keepers  ought  to  study, 
especially  the  doleful  wail  of  colonies  which  have  lest  their 
queen,  and  have  no  means  of  rearing  another. 

78.  The  Sting. — ^The  sting  of  the  bee,  a  terror  to  so 
many,  is  indispensable  to  her  preservation.  Without  it, 
the  attraction,  which  honey  presents  to  man  and  animals, 
must  have  caused  the  complete  destruction  of  this  precious 
insect,  years  ago. 

79.  This  organ  is  composed,  ist,  of  a  whitish  vesicle,  or 
poison  sack,  about  the  size  of  a  small  mustard  seed,  located 
in  the  abdomen,  in  which  the  venomous  liquid  is  stored 
This  liquid  is  elaborated  in  two  long  canals,  similar  in  ap* 
pearance  to  the  Malpighian  tubes,  each  of  which  is  termin- 
ated at  its  upper  extremity,  by  a  small  round  bag  or  en- 
largement. It  is  similar  to  formic  acid,  although  perhaps 
more  poisonous. 

80.  2d,  In  the  last  ring  of  the  abdomen,  and  connected 
with  the  poison  sack,  is  a  firm  and  sharp  sheath,  open  in  its 
whole  length,  which  supports  the  sting  proper,  and  acts  in- 
dependently of  it.  The  bee  can  force  this  sheath  out  of 
the  abdomen,  or  draw  it  in,  at  will. 

81.  3d,  The  sting  is  composed  of  two  spears  of  a  pol- 
ished, chestnut-colored,  homy  substance,  which,  supported 
by  the  sheath,  make  a  very  sharp  weapon.  In  the  act  of 
stinging,  the  spears  emerge  from  the  sheath,  about  two- 
thirds  of  their  length.  Between  them  and  on  each  of  them, 
is  a  small  groove,  through  which  the  hquid,  coming  from 

the  poisQn  sack,  is  ejected  into  the  wound. 


82.  Each  spear  of  the  eting  bss  about  nine  barbs,  which 
are  turned  buck  like  those  of  a  fish  book,  and  prevent  the 
stiDg  from  being  easily  withdrawn.  When  the  insect  i« 
prepared  to  sting,  one  of  these  spears,  having  a  little 
longer  point  tban  the  other,   first  darts  into  the  flesh,  and 


(HasiilllBd.    From  Glnid.) 
■,  ittDg;  li,  poUon-MCki  t,r,  poliOD  glandi;  d,il 

being  fixed  by  its  foremost  barb,  the  other  strikea  in  also, 
and  they  alternately  penetrate  deeper  and  deeper,  till  thej 
acquire  a  firm  hold  of  the  flesh  with  their  barbed  hooka. 

"Mean while,  the  poison  la  forced  to  the  end  of  the  apean, 
tj  nnch  the  same  process  which  oaiflu  ths  TaDom  Itom  tka 
tooa  of  a  rlpor  when  it  bVt«t."-(.Olrard.) 


88.  The  muscles,  though  invisible  to  the  eye,  are  yet 
strong  enough  to  force  the  sting,  to  the  depth  of  one-twelfth 
of  an  inch,  through  the  thick  skin  of  a  man's  hand. 

**  The  action  of  the  sting,"  says  Paley,  "  affords  an  example  of 
the  union  of  chemistry  and  mechanism ;  of  chemistry,  in  respect 
to  the  vtnom  which  can  produce  such  powerful  effects ;  of  mech- 
anism, as  the  sting  is  a  compound  Instrument.  The  machinery 
would  have  been  comparatively  useless,  had  it  not  been  for  the 
chemical  process  by  which,  in  the  Insect^s  body,  honey  is  con- 
verted into  poison ;  and  on  the  other  hand,  the  poison  would  have 
been  ineffectual,  without  an  instrument  to  wound,  and  a  syringe 
to  inject  it." 

"Upon  examining  the  edge  of  a  very  keen  razor  by  the  micro- 
scope, it  appears  as  broad  as  the  back  of  a  pretty  thick  knife, 
rough,  uneven,  and  full  of  notches  and  furrows,  and  so  far  from 
anything  like  sharpness,  that  an  instrument  as  blunt  as  this 
seemed  to  be,  would  not  serve  even  to  cleave  wood.  An  exceed- 
ingly small  needle  being  also  examined,  it  resembled  a  rough 
iron  bar  out  of  a  smith's  forge.  The  sting  of  a  bee  viewed 
through  the  same  Instrument,  showed  everywhere  a  polish 
amazingly  beautiful,  without  the  least  flaw,  blemish,  or  inequal- 
ity, and  ended  ip  a  point  too  fine  to  be  discerned." 

84.  As  the  extremity  of  the^ting  is  barbed  like  an  ar- 
row, the  bee  can  seldom  withdraw  it,  if  the  substance  into 
which  she  darts  it  is  at  all  tenacious.  A  strange  peculiarity 
of  the  sting  and  the  muscles  pertaining  to  it,  is  their  spas- 
modic action,  which  continues  quite  a  while,  even  after  the 
bee  has  torn  herself  away,  and  has  left  them  attached  to  the 
wound.  In  losing  her  sting,  she  often  parts  with  a  portion 
of  her  intestines,  and  of  necessity  soon  perishes.  Wasps 
and  hornets  are  different  from  bees  in  this  respect,  for 
they  can  sting  repejitedly  without  endangering  their  lives. 

Although  bees  pay  so  dearly  for  the  exercise  of  their  pat- 
riotic instincts,  still,  in  defense  of  home  and  its  sacred 
treasures,  thej 

**  Deem  life  itself  to  vengeance  well  resigned, 

^  Die  on  the  wound  and  leave  their  sting  behind,'* 


85.  The  sting  is  not,  however,  always  lost.  When  a 
bee  prepares  to  sting,  she  usually  curves  her  abdomen  so 
that  she  can  drive  in  her  sting  perpendicularly.  To  with- 
draw it,  she  turns  around  the  wound.  This  probably  rolls 
up  its  barbs,  so  that  it  comes  out  more  readily.  If  it  had 
been  driven  obliquely  instead  of  perpendicularly,  as  some- 
times happens,  she  could  never  have  extracted  it  by  turning 
around  the  wound. 

86.  Sometimes,  only  the  poison-bag  and  sting  are  torn 
oft,  then  she  may  live  quite  a  while  without  them,  and 
strange  to  say,  seems  to  be  more  angry  than  ever,  and  per- 
sists in  making  useless  attempts  to  sting. 

87.  If  a  hive  is  opened  during  a  Winter  day,  when  the 
weather  does  not  permit  the  bees  to  fly,  a  great  number  of 
them  raise  their  abdomens,  and  thrust  out  their  stings,  in  a 
threatening  manner.  A  minute  drop  of  poison  can  be  seen 
on  their  points,  some  of  which  is  occasionally  flirted  into 
the  eyes  of  the  Apiarist,  and  causes  severe  irritation.  The 
odor  of  this  poison  is  so  strong  and  peculiar,  that  it  is  eas- 
ily recognized.  In  warm  weather  it  excites  the  bees,  and  so 
provokes  their  anger,  that  yirhen  one  has  used  its  sting  in 
one  spot  on  skin  or  clothes,  others  are  inclined  to  thrust 
theirs  in  the  same  place. 

88.  The  sting,  when  accompanied  by  the  poison-sack, 
may  inflict  wounds  hours,  and  even  days,  after  it  has  been 
removed,  or  torn,  from  the  body  of  the  bee.  But  when 
buried  in  honey,  its  poison  is  best  preserved,  for  it  is  very 
volatile,  and  when  exposed  to  the  air,  evaporates  in  a 
moment.  The  stings  of  bees,  which,  perchance,  may  be 
found  in  broken  combs  of  honey,  often  retain  their  power, 
and  we  have  known  of  a  person's  being  stung  in  the  mouth, 
by  carelessly  eating  lioney  in  which  bees  had  been  buried 
by  the    fall  of  the  combs. 

Mr.  J.  R.  Bledsoe,  in  the  American  Bee^  Jaumal,  for 
1870,  writes : 


S9.  "It  may  often  happen  that  one  or  both  of  the  chief  parts 
of  the  sting  are  left  in  the  wound,  when  the  sheath  is  with- 
drawn, bat  are  rarely  perceived,  on  account  of  their  minuteness; 
the  person  stung  congratulating  himself,  at  the  same  time,  that 
the  sting  has  been  extracted.  I  have  had  occasion  to  prove  this 
fact  repeatedly  in  my  own  person  and  in  others.  *  *  *  The 
substance  of  the  sting,  on  account  of  its  nature  is  readily  dis- 
solved by  the  fluids  of  the  body,  consequently  giving  irritation 
as  a  foreign  body  for  only  a  short  time  comparatively.  The  sting 
when  boiled  in  water  becomes  tender  and  easily  crushed." 

For  further  particulars  concerning  the  sting,  we  will  refer 
onr  readers  to  the  chapter  entitled  *' Handling  Bees." — 

90.  Before  terminating  this  comparatively  short,  but 
perhaps,  to  many  of  our  readers,  tedious  study  of  the  or- 
gans of  the  bee,  we  desire  to  commend  Messrs.  Girard, 
Packard,  Cook,  Schiemenz,  Dubini,  and  especially  Mr.  F. 
Cheshire,  who,  by  their  writings,  have  helped  us  in  this 
part  of  our  undertaking.  We  must  add  also  that  the  more 
we  study  bees,  the  more  persuaded  we  are  that  Mr.  Packard 
was  right  when  he  wrote : 

91.  ^*  Besides  these  structural  characters  as  animals,  endowed 
with  instinct,  and  a  kind  of  reason,  differing,  perhaps,  only  in 
degree,  from  that  of  man,  these  insects  outrank  all  the  articu- 
lates. In  the  unusual  differentiation  of  the  individual  into 
males,  females,  and  sterile  workers,  and  a  consequent  subdivision 
of  labor  between  them ;  in  dwelling  in  larpe  colonics;  in  their 
habits  and  In  their  relation  to  man  as  domestic  animals,  subserv- 
ient to  his  wants,  the  bees  possess  a  combination  of  characters 
which  are  not  found  in  any  other  sub-order  of  insects,  and  which 
rank  them  first  and  highest  In  the  insect  series.*' — (''Guide  to  th« 
Study  of  Insects.") 

92.  One  of  the  especial  peculiarities  of  the  hymenop- 
ters  is  the  care  most  of  them  give  to  their  progeny.  We 
will  show  how  bees  nurse  their  young.  Other  insects  of 
the  same  sub-order  construct  their  nests  of  clay  or  paper, 
or  burrow  in  the  wood,  or  in  the  earth.     Ail  prepare  tot 


their  young  a  sufficient  supply  of  food ;  some  of  pollen  and 
honey,  others  of  animnl  eubatance.  Several  kinds  of  ^asps 
provide  their  nests  with  living  insects,  spiders,  caterpillars, 
etc.,  that  they  have  previously  paralyzed,  but  without  kill* 
ing  them,  by  piercing  them  with  their  stinga. 

Ante  seem  to  poasese  even  a  greater  solicitude.  When 
their  nests  are  overthrown,  they  carry  their  larvie  to  some 
hidden  place  out  of  danger. 

We  have  exhibited  the  uae  of  the  organs  of  bees  as  a 
race.  We  will  now  examine  the  character  of  each  of  the 
three  kinds  of  inhabitants  of  the  bee-hive. 

The  Queek. 

93.  Although  honey-bees  have  attracted  the  attentloa 
of  naturalists  tor  ages,  the  sex 
of  the  inmates  of  the  t>ee-hiv« 
was,  tor  a  long  time,  a  mystery. 
The  Ancient  authors,  having  no- 
ticed in  the  hive,  a  bee,  larger 
than  the  others,  and  differently 
shaped,  had  called  it  the  "King 

94.  To  our  knowledge,  it  was  an  English  bee-keeper, 
Butler,  who,  first  among  bcc-writers,  affirmed  in  1609,  that 
the  King  Bee  was  really  a  queen,  and  that  he  had  seen  her 
deposit  eggs.     ("  Feminine  Monarchy.") 

05.  This  discovery  seems  to  have  passed  unnoticed,  tor,  who  ascertained  the  sex  of  bees  by  disseo- 
tion.  is  held  as  having  been  the  first  to  proclaim  the  sex  of 
the  Queen  bee,  (Lcyde,  1737.)  A  brief  extract  from  the 
celebrated  Dr.  IJotrhaave's  Blcmoir  of  Swammerdam,  show- 
ing the  ardor  of  this  naturalist,  in  his  study  of  beea,  sboold 
put  to  blush  the  arrogance  of  those  superficial  obMrran, 

THB   QUBEN.  89 

who  are  too  wise  tx>  avail  themselves  of  the  knowledge  of 
others : 

*'  This  treatise  on  Bees  proved  so  fatiguing  a  performance,  that 
Swammerdam  never  afterwards  recovered  even  the  appearance 
of  his  former  health  and  vigor.  He  was  most  continually  en- 
gaged by  day  in  making  observations,  and  as  constantly  by  night 
in  recording  them  by  drawings  and  suitable  explanations. 

'*'  His  daily  labor  began  at  six  in  the  morning,  when  the  sun 
afforded  him  light  enough  to  survey  such  minute  objects ;  and 
from  that  hour  till  twelve,  he  continued  without  interruption,  all 
the  while  exposed  in  the  open  air  to  the  scorching  heat  of  the 
sun,  bareheaded,  for  fear  of  Intercepting  his  sight,  and  his  head 
in  a  manner  dissolving  into  sweat  under  the  irresistible  ardors  of 
that  powerful  luminary.  And  if  he  desisted  at  noon,  it  was  only 
because  the  strength  of  his  eyes  was  too  hiuch  weakened  by  the 
extraordinary  afflux  of  light,  and  the  use  of  microscopes,  to  con- 
tinue any  longer  upon  such  small  objects. 

*'^  He  often  wished,  the  better  to  accomplish  his  vast,  unlimited 
views,  for  a  year  of  perpetual  heat  and  light  to  perfect  his  inqui- 
ries; with  a  polar  night,  to  reap  all  the  advantages  of  them  by 
proper  drawings  and  descriptions." 

96.  The  name  of  queen  was  then  given  to  the  mother 
bee,  although  she  in  no  way  governs,  but  seems  to  reign 
like  a  beloved  mother  in  her  family. 

97.  She  is  the  only  perfect  female  in  the  hive,  the  laying 
of  eggs  being  her  sole  function ;  and  so  well  does  she  accom- 
plish this  duty,  that  it  is  not  uncommon  to  find  queens, 
who  lay  more  than  8,500  eggs  per  day,  for  several  weeks  in 
succession  during  the  height  of  the  breeding  season.  In 
our  observing  hives  we  have  seen  them  lay  at  the  rate  of  six 
eggs  in  a  minute.  The  fecundity  of  the  female  of  the  white 
ant  is,  however,  much  greater  than  this,  being  at  the  rate  of 
sixty  eggs  a  minute ;  but  her  eggs  are  simply  extruded  from 
her  body,  and  carried  by  the  workers  into  suitable  nurser- 
ies, while  the  queen-bee  herself  deposits  her  eggs  in  their 
appropriate  ceUs. 

98.  This  number  of  8,500,  that  a  good  queen  can  lay 


per  day,  will  seem  exaggerated  to  many  bee-keepers,  own- 
ers of  small  hives.  They  will  perhaps  ask  how  such  lay- 
ing can  be  ascertained.  Nothing  is  easier.  Let  us  suppose 
that  we  have  found  a  hive,  with  1,200  square  inches  of 
comb  occupied  by  brood.  As  there  are  about  55  worker- 
cells  to  the  square  inch  of  comb  (217),  27  to  28  on  each 
side,  we  multiply  1,200  by  55,  and  we  have  66,000  as  the 
total  number  of  cells  occupied  at  one  time.  Now,  it  takes 
about  21  days  for  the  brood  to  develop  from  the  egg  to  the 
perfect  insect,  and  we  have  3,145  as  the  average  number  of 
eggs  laid  daily  by  that  queen,  in  21  days.  Of  course,  this 
amount  is  not  absolutely  accurate,  as  the  combs  are  not 
always  entirely  filled,  but  it  will  suffice  to  show,  within 
perhaps  a  few  hundred,  the  actual  fecundity  of  the  queen. 

Such  numbers  can  be  found  every  year,  rn  most  of  the 
good  colonies,  provided  that  the  limited  capacity  of  the 
hive  will  not  prevent  the  queen  from  laying  to  the  utmost 
of  her  ability. 

09.  The  laying  of  the  queen  is  not  equal  at  all  seasons. 
Sihe  lays  most  during  the  spring  and  summer  months,  pre- 
vious to  the  honey  crop  and  during  its  flow.  In  late  autumn 
and  winter  months,  she  lays  but  little. 

100.  Her  shape  is  widely  different  from  that  of  the 
other  bees.  While  she  is  not  near  so  bulky  as  a  drone,  her 
body  is  longer ;  and  as  it  is  considerably  more  tapering,  or 
sugar-loaf  in  form,  than  that  of  a  worker,  she  has  a  some- 
what wasp-like  appearance.  Her  wings  are  much  shorter 
in  proportion  than  those  of  the  drone,  or,  worker ;  •  the 
under  part  of  her  body  is  of  a  golden  color,  and  the  upper 
part  usually  darker  than  that  of  the  other  bees.f  Her  mo- 
tions are  generally  slow  and  matronly,  although  she  can, 
when  she  pleases,  move  with  astonishing  quickness.  No 
colony  can  long  exist  without  the  presence  of  this  ail-impor- 

*The  wlngB  of  the  qaooQ  are  in  reo/Uy  longer  thaa  tboee  of  tbm 
t  This  MppUeg  only  to  qneeoA  of  the  blick  or  oommon 

THE   QUEEir.  41 

tant  insect ;  but  most  as  surely  perish,  as  the  body  without 
the  spirit  must  hasten  to  inevitable  decay. 

101.  The  queen  is  treated  with  the  greatest  respect  and 
af  wCtion  by  the  bees.  A  circle  of  her  loving  offspring  often 
turround  her,  testifying  in  various  ways  their  dutiful  re- 
gard ;  some  gently  embracing  her  with  their  antennse,  others 
offering  her  food  from  time  to  time,  and  all  of  them  politely 
backing  out  of  her  way,  to  give  her  a  clear  path  when  she 
moves  over  the  combs.  If  she  is  taken  from  them,  the 
whole  colony  is  thrown  into  a  state  of  the  most  intense  agi- 
tation as  soon  as  they  ascertain  their  loss ;  all  the  labors  of 
the  hive  are  abandoned ;  the  bees  run  wildly  over  the  combs, 
and  frequently  rush  from  the  hive  in  anxious  search  for 
their  beloved  mother.  If  they  cannot  find  her,  they  return 
to  their  desolate  home,  and  by  their  sorrowful  tones  reveal 
their  deep  sense  of  so  deplorable  a  calamity.  Their  note  at 
such  times,  more  especially  when  they  first  realize  their  loss, 
is  of  a  peculiarly  mournful  character ;  it  sounds  somewhat 
like  a  succession  of  wailings  on  the  minor  key,  and  can  no 
more  be  mistaken  by  an  experienced  bee-keeper,  for  their 
ordinary  happy  hum  (76),  than  the  piteous  moanings  of  a 
sick  child  could  be  confounded  by  the  anxious  mother  with 
its  joyous  crowings  when  overfiowing  with  health  and  hap- 
piness. We  shall  give,  in  this  connection,  a  description  of 
an  interesting  experiment. 

102.  A  populous  stock  was  removed,  in  the  morning,  to 
a  new  place,  and  an  empty  hive  put  upon  its  stand.  Thous- 
ands of  workers  which  were  ranging  the  fields,  or  which  left 
the  old  hive  after  its  removal,  returned  to  the  familiar  spot. 
It  was  truly  affecting  to  witness  their  grief  and  despair ; 
they  flew  in  restless  circles  about  the  place  where  once  stood 
their  happy  home,  entering  the  empty  hive  continually,  and 
expressing  iii  various  ways,  their  lamentations  over  so  cruel 
a  bereavement.  Towards  evening,  ceasing  to  take  wing, 
they  roamed  in  restless  platoons,  in  and  out  of  the  hive,  and 


over  its  surface,  as  if  in  search  of  some  lost  treasure.  A 
small  piece  of  brood-comb  was  then  given  to  them,  contain- 
ing worker-eggs  and  worms.  The  effect  produced  by  its 
introduction  took  place  much  quicker  than  can  be  described. 
Those  which  first  touched  it  raised  a  peculiar  note,  and  in  a 
moment,  the  comb  was  covered  with  a  dense  mass  of  bees ; 
as  they  recognized,  in  this  small  piece  of  comb,  the  means 
of  deliverance,  despair  gave  place  to  hope,  their  restless 
motions  and  mournful  voices  ceased,  and  a  cheerful  hum 
proclaimed  their  delight.  If  some  one  should  enter  a  build- 
ing filled  with  thousands  of  persons  tearing  their  hair,  beat* 
ing  their  breasts,  and  by  piteous  cries,  as  well  as  frantio 
gestures,  giving  vent  to  their  despair,  and  could  by  a  singly 
word  cause  all  these  demonstrations  of  agony  to  give  place 
to  smiles  and  congratulations,  the  change  would  not  be  more 
instantaneous  than  that  produced  when  the  bees  received 
the  brood-comb ! 

The  Orientals  called  the  honey-bee  '*  Deborah;  She  thai 
speaketh."  Would  that  this  little  insect  might  speak,  in 
words  more  eloquent  than  those  of  man's  device,  to  those 
who  reject  any  of  the  doctrines  of  revealed  religion,  with  the 
assertion  that  they  are  so  improbable,  as  to  labor  under  a 
fatal  a  priori  objection.  Do  not  all  the  steps  in  the  devel- 
opment of  a  queen  from  the  worker-egg,  labor  under  the 
very  same  objection?  and  have  they  not,  for  this  reason  been 
formerly  regarded,  by  many  bee-keepers,  as  unworthy  of 
belief?  If  the  favorite  argument  of  infidels  will  not  stand 
the  test,  when  applied  to  the  wonders  of  the  bee-hive,  is  it 
entitled  to  serious  weight,  when,  by  objecting  to  religious 
truths,  they  arrogantly  take  to  task  the  Infinite  Jehovah  for 
what  He  has  been  pleased  to  do  or  to  teach?  With  no 
more  latitude  than  is  claimed  by  such  objectors,  it  were 
easy  to  prove  that  a  man  is  under  no  obligation  to  believe 
any  of  the  wonders  of  the  bee-hive,  even  although  he  is  him- 



•elf  mn  intelligent  eye-witness  to  thur  Bubstantial  truth.* 
103,  The  process  of  rearing  Queen-bees  will  now  be  par- 
ticularly described.  Early  in  the  season,  if  &  hive  becomes 
f  populous,  and  if  the  bees  make  preparations  for  swarm- 
ing,  a  number  of  royal  cells 
are  begun,  being  commonly 
constructed  upon  those  edges 
of  the  combs  which  are  not 
attached  to  the  sides  of  the 
hive.  These  cells  somewhat 
resemble  a  small  pea- nut, 
and  are  about  an  inch  deep, 
and  one-third  of  an  inch  in 
diameter:  being  very  thick, 
they  require  much  wax  for 
their  construction.  They  are 
seldom  seen  in  a  perfect  state 
after  the  hatching  of  the 
queen,  as  the  boos  cut  them 
down  to  the  shape  of  a  small 
acorn-cup  (fig.  20).  These 
queen-cells,  while  in  prog- 
ress, receive  a  very  unusual 
amount  of  attention  from  the  workers.  There  is  scarcely  a 
second  in  which  a  bee  is  not  peeping  into  them  ;  and  as  fast 
as  one  is  satisfied,  another  pops  in  her  heail  to  report  prog- 
ress, or  increase  the  supply  of  food.  Their  importance  to 
the  community  might  easily  be  inferred  from  their  being 
the  center  of  so  much  attraction. 

104.  While  the  other  cells  open  sidewaj-s,  the  queen-celts 
always  hang  with  their  mouth  doii-nieards.     Some  Apiarists 

■T)MpMM«MnARiiiglCi«UEloiu  (Objects  bitTebf CD  Qeulr  ■Un?C>ln«llii 
tUi  nrtalon,  alMr.  tangiiroU'i  rr^uear.  even  when  not  In  iccordtinee  with 
tMUTlnn,  As  IntaUisant  swa  m  tlwiri  tolerant,  weknoir  our  itaAett  ntU 
M0(  abjaot  to  th«tB. 



think  that  this  peculiar  position  affects,  in  some  way,  the 
development  of  the  royal  larvse ;  while  others,  having  ascer* 
tained  that  they  are  uninjured  if  placed  in  any  other  posi- 
tion, consider  this  deviation  as  among  the  inscrutable 
mysteries  of  the  bee-hive.  So  it  seemed  to  us  until  convinced, 
by  a  more  careful  observation,  that  they  open  downwards 
simply  to  save  room.  The  distance  between  the  parallel 
ranges  of  comb  in  the  hive  is  usually  too  small  for  the  royal 
cells  to  open  sideways,  without  interfering  with  the  opposite 
cells.  To  economize  space,  the  bees  put  them  on  the  unoc- 
cupied edges  of  the  comb,  where  there  is  plenty  of  room  for 
such  very  large  cells. 

105.  The  number  of  royal  cells  in  a  hive  varies  greatly ; 
sometimes  there  are  only  two  or  three,  ordinarily  not  less 
than  five ;  and  occasionally,  more  than  a  dozen. 

Some  races  of  bees  have  a  disposition  to  raise  a  greater 
number  of  queen-cells  than  others.  At  the  Toronto  meet- 
ing of  the  North  American  Bee-keepers'  Association,  in 
September,  1883,  Mr.  D.  A.  Jones,  the  noted  Canadian  im- 
porter of  Syrian  and  Cyprian  bees,  and  publisher  of  the 
Canadian  Bee  Journal,  exhibited  a  comb  containing  about 
eighty  queen-cells,  built  by  a  colony  of  Syrian  bees  (560). 
Such  cases  are  rare  in  the  hive  of  any  other  race. 

106.  As  it  is  not  intended  that  the  young  queens  should 
all  be  of  the  same  age,  the  royal-cells  are  not  all  begun  at 
the  same  time.  It  is  not  fully  settled  how  the  eggs  are  de- 
posited in  these  cells.  In  some  few  instances,  we  have 
known  the  bees  to  transfer  the  eggs  from  common  to  queen- 
cells  ;  and  this  may  be  their  general  method  of  procedure. 
Mr.  Wagner  put  some  queenless  bees,  brought  from  a  dis- 
tance, into  empty  combs  that  had  lain  for  two  years  in  his 
garret.  When  supplied  with  brood,  they  raised  their  queen 
in  this  old  comb !  Mr.  Richard  Colvin,  of  Baltimore,  and 
other  Apiarian  friends,  have  communicated  to  us  instances 
almost  as  striking.     Yet,  Huber  has  proved  that  bees  do 

THS   QU1EEN.  45 

not  ordinarily  transport  the  eggs  of  the  qneen  from  one  cell 
to  another.  We  shall  hazard  the  conjecture,  that,  in  a 
crowded  state  of  the  hive,  the  queen  deposits  her  eggs  in 
cells  on  the  edges  of  the  comb,  some  of  which  are  afterwards 
changed  by  the  workers  into  royal  cells.  Such  is  a  queen's 
instinctive  hatred  of  her  own  kind,  that  it  seems  improbable 
that  she  should  be  intrusted  with  even  the  initiatory  steps 
for  securing  a  race  of  successors. 

(For  further  particulars  concerning  the  raising  of  large 
numbers  of  queen-cells,  see  515.) 

107.  The  egg  which  is  destined  to  produce  a  queen-bee 
does  not  differ  from  the  egg  intended  to  become  a  worker ;. 
but  the  young  queen-larvse  are  much  more  largely  supplied 
with  food  than  the  other  larvae ;  so  that  they  seem  to  lie  m 
a  thick  bed  of  jelly,  a  portion  of  which  may  usually  be 
found  at  the  base  of  their  cells,  soon  after  they  have  hatched, 
while  the  food  given  to  the  worker-larvse  after  three  days, 
and  for  the  last  days  of  their  development,  is  coarser  and 
more  sparingly  given,  as  will  be  seen 'farther  on. 

108.  The  effects  produced  on  the  royal  larvae  by  their 
peculiar  treatment  are  so  wonderful,  that  they  were  at  first 
rejected  as  idle  whims,  by  those  who  had  neither  been  eye- 
witnesses to  them,  nor  acquainted  with  the  opportunities 
enjoyed  by  others  for  accurate  observation.  They  are  not 
only  contrary  to  all  common  analogies,  but  seem  marvelous- 
ly  strange  and  improbable.  The  most  important  of  these 
effects  we  shall  briefly  enumerate. 

1st,  The  peculiar  mode  in  which  the  worm  designed  for  a 
queen  is  treated  causes  it  to  arrive  at  maturity  almost  one- 
third  earlier  than  if  it  had  been  reared  a  worker.  And  yet, 
as  it  is  to  be  much  more  fully  developed,  according  to  ordi- 
nary analogy,  it  should  have  had  a  slower  growth. 

2d,  Its  organs  of  reproduction  are  completely  developed, 
so  that  it  can  fulfill  the  office  of  a  mother. 

3d.  Its  size,  shape,  and  color  are  greatly  changed;  ita 



lower  Jaws  are  shorter,  its  head  rooDder,  and  its  abdornvn 
without  the  receptaclea  tor  secretiiig  wkx  ;  its  bind  legs  lun 
neitlier  brushes  nor  baskets,  and  its  sting  is  ourred  (fig.  SI), 
and  one-tturd  longer  than  that  o(  a  worlter. 

Fig.  SI. 
THE    .STINC    OF    TH*    QUIBX. 
(Uignia«l.     Prom  Otnrd.) 
'.a,  bnncheiOf  ltie<i*ldacC4  r,  oil  dad 

t,  polWD-Mck;  /,  gland. 

4th.  Its  instincts  are  entirely  changed.  Reared  M  k 
worker,  it  would  have  thrust  out  its  sting  at  the  least  provo- 
cation :  whereas  now,  it  may  be  pulled  limb  from  limb  with- 
out attempting  to  sting.  As  a  worker,  it  would  have  treated 
a  queen  with  the  greatest  consideration  ;  but  now,  if  brought 
in  contact  with  another  queen,  it  seeks  to  destroy  her  as  a 
rival.  As  a  worker,  it  would  frequently  have  left  the  hive, 
either  for  labor  or  exercise ;  as  a  queen,  it  never  leaves  it 
after  impregnation,  except  to  accompany  a  new  swarm. 

6th.  The  term  of  its  life  is  remarkably  lengthened.  As  a 
worker,  it  would  not  have  lived  more  than  six  or  seven 
months ;  as  a  queen,  it  may  live  seven  or  eight  times  as 

THB   QURBN.  47 

longi  All  these  wonders  rest  on  the  impregnable  basis  of 
demonstration,  and  instead  of  being  witnessed  only  by  a 
select  few,  are  now,  by  the  use  of  the  movable-comb  hive, 
familiar  sights  to  any  bee-keeper  who  prefers  an  acquaint- 
ance with  facts,  to  caviling  and  sneering  at  the  labors  of 

109.  The  process  of  rearing  queens,  to  meet  some  spe- 
cial emergency,  is  even  more  wonderful  than  the  one  already 
described.  If  the  bees  have  worker-eggs,  or  worms  not 
more  than  three  days  old,  they  make  one  large  cell  out  of 
three,  by  nibbling  away  the  partitions  of  two  cells  adjoining 
a  third.  Destroying  the  eggs  or  worms  in  two  of  these  cells, 
they  place  before  the  occupant  of  the  other,  the  usual  food 
of  the  young  queens ;  and  by  enlarging  its  cell,  give  it  ample 
space  for  development.*  As  a  security  against  failure,  they 
usually  start  a  number  of  queen-cells,  for  several  days  in 

110.  Duration  of  Dsyblopmbnt. — ^The  eggs  hatch  in 
three  days  after  they  are  laid.  The  small  worm  which  is 
intended  to  produce  a  queen,  is  six  days  in  its  larval  state, 
and  seven  in  its  transformation  into  a  chrysalis  and  winged 
insect.  These  periods  are  not  absolutely  fixed ;  being 
of  shorter  or  longer  duration,  according  to  the  warmth 
of  the  hive  and  the  care  given  by  the  bees.  In  from  ten  to 
sixteen  daysf  they  are  in  possession  of  a  new  queen,  in  all 
respects  resembling  one  reared  in  the  natural  way ;  while 
the  eggs  in  the  adjoining  cells,  which  have  been  developed 
as  workers,  are  nearly  a  week  longer  in  coming  to  maturity. 

111.  The  ViRGDf  Queen. — Feeble  and  pale,  in  the  first 
moments  after  her  birth,  the  young  queen,  as  soon  as  she 

•  It  was  m  Qeiman  bee-keeper,  Sohiraoh,  who  discovered  that  a  queen  can  be 
niaed  ftom  m  woiker-egf .  (*  *  The  New  Natural  and  Artificial  Multiplication 
of  Bees,"  BaittMn.  1781.) 

t  In  ten  dayf.  If  the  larra  selected  is  about  three  days  old;  in  sixteen,  If 
newly  laid  eggs  are  selected. 


has  acquired  some  strength,  travels  over  the  combs,  looking 
for  a  rival,  either  hatched  or  anhatched. 

112.  "Hardly  had  ten  minutes  elapsed  after  the  young  queeo 
emerged  from  her  cell,  when  she  began  to  look  for  sealed 
queen-cells.  She  rushed  ftiriously  upon  the  first  that  she  met, 
and,  by  dint  of  hard  work,  made  a  small  opening  in  the  end.  We 
saw  her  drawing,  with  her  mandibles,  the  silk  of  the  cocoon, 
which  covered  the  Inside.  But,  probably,  she  did  not  succeed 
according  to  her  wishes,  for  she  left  the  lower  end  of  the  cell, 
and  went  to  work  on  the  upper  end,  where  she  finally  made  a 
wider  opening.  As  soon  as  this  was  sufficiently  large,  she  turned 
about,  to  push  her  abdomen  into  it.  She  made  several  motions, 
in  different  directions,  till  she  succeeded  In  striking  her  rival 
with  the  deadly  sting.  Then  she  left  the  cell ;  and  the  beet, 
which  had  remained,  so  far,  perfectly  passive,  began  to  enlarge 
the  gap  which  she  had  made,  and  drew  out  the  corpse  of  a  queen 
Just  out  of  her  nymphal  shell.  During  this  time,  the  victorious 
younf^  queen  rushed  to  another  queen-cell,  and  again  made  a 
large  opening,  but  she  did  not  introduce  her  abdomen  into  it; 
thii  second  cell  containing  only  a  royal-pupa  not  yet  formed. 
There  is  some  probability  that,  at  this  stage  of  development, 
the  nymphs  of  queens  inspire  less  anger  to  their  rivals ;  but  they 
do  not  escape  their  doom ;  for,  whenever  a  queen-cell  has  been 
prematurely  opened,  the  bees  throw  out  its  occupant,  whether 
worm,  nymph,  or  queen.  Therefore,  as  soon  as  the  victorious 
queen  had  left  this  second  cell,  the  workers  enlarged  the  opening 
and  drew  out  the  nymph  that  it  contained.  The  young  queen 
rushed  to  a  third  cell ;  but  she  was  unable  to  open  it.  She  worked 
languidly  and  seemed  tired  of  her  first  efforts."— (Huber.) 

113.  Huber  did  not  allow  this  experiment  to  go  on  any 
further,  as  he  wished  to  use  the  remainder  of  the  qaeen-cells. 
Had  he  left  these  cells  untouched,  the  bees  would  have  fin- 
ished the  work  of  destruction. 

114.  We  have  noticed  repeatedly,  that  the  queen-cells 
are  always  destroyed  a  few  hours  after  the  birth  of  the 
queen,  unless  the  colony  has  determined  to  swarm.  In  the 
latter  case,  the  workers  prevent  the  newly-hatched  queen 
from  approaching  the  queen-cells,  till  she  is  old  enough  and 
strong  enough  to  leave  with  the  swarm.  (443.) 

THB   QUEKN.  49 

115.  Like  some  human  beings  who  cannot  have  their  own 
way,  she  is  higlilj  offended  when  thus  repulsed,  and  utters, 
in  a  quick  succession  of  notes,  a  shrill,  angry  sound,  not 
unlike  the  rapid  utterance  of  the  words,  "  peep,  peep."  If 
held  in  the  closed  hand,  she  will  make  a  similar  noise.  To 
this  angry  note,  one  or  more  of  the  unhatched  queens,  im- 
prisoned and  nursed  in  their  cells  by  the  bees,  answer  by 
the  sound  ^^kooa,  kooa";  the  difference  in  their  voices, 
being  due  to  the  confinement  of  the  latter  in  the  cell. 

These  sounds,  so  entirely  unlike  the  usual  steady  hum  of 
the  bees,  are  almost  infallible  indications  that  a  swarm  will 
soon  issue.  They  are  occasionally  so  loud  as  to  be  heard  at 
some  distance  from  the  hive. 

The  reader  will  understand  that  all  these  facts  relate  to  a 
hive  of  bees,  from  which  the  old  queen  has  been  previously 
and  suddenly  removed,  either  by  the  Apiarist  for  some  pur- 
pose, or  by  swarming,  or  accident. 

116.  Sometimes  two  queens  hatch  at  the  same  time.  We 
give  below  a  translation  of  Ruber's  account  in  such  event : 

"  On  the  15th  of  May,  1790,  two  queens  emerged  from  their  cells, 
at  about  the  same  time.  In  one  of  our  observing  hives.  They 
rushed  quickly  upon  one  another,  apparently  in  great  anger,  and 
frrasped  one  another's  antennae,  so  that  the  head,  corselet  and 
abdomen  of  the  one,  were  touching  the  head,  corselet  and  ab- 
domen of  the  other.  Had  they  curved  the  posterior  extremity 
of  their  bodies,  they  could  have  stung  each  other,  and  both 
would  have  perished.  But  it  seems  that  Nature  has  not  wished 
that  their  duels  should  result  In  the  death  of  both  combatants, 
and  that  it  is  prescribed  to  queens,  while  in  this  position,  to 
flee  instantly  with  the  greatest  haste.  As  soon  as  both  rivals 
understood  that  they  were  in  danger  from  one  another,  they  dis- 
entangled themselves  and  fled  apart A  few  minutes  after, 

their  fears  ceased  and  they  attacked  one  another  again,  with  the 
same  result.  The  worker  bees  were  much  disturbed,  all  this 
time,  and  more  so  while  the  combatants  were  separated.  Each 
time,  the  bees  stopped  the  queens  in  their  flight,  keeping  them 
prisoners  for  a  minute.**  **At  last,  in  a  third  attack,  the 
stronger,  or  more  savagei  of  the  queens,  ran  to  her  unsuspecting 



rival,  seized  her  across  the  wings,  and,  climbing  upon  her, 
pierced  her  with  her  sting.  The  yanquished  qaeen,  crawled 
languidly  aboat,  and  soon  after  died."— (^^Nouvelles  Observa- 

117.  Although  it  is  generally  admitted  that  two  queens 
cannot  inhabit  the  same  hive,  it  happens,  sometimes,  that 
mother  and  daughter,  are  found  living  peaceably  together, 
and  even  laying  eggs  at  the  same  time.  This  is  when 
the  bees,  having  noticed  the  decrease  in  fecundity  of  the 
old  queen,  have  raised  a  young  queen  to  replace  her.  But 
this  abnormal  state  lasts  only  a  few  weeks,  or  a  few  months 
at  most. 

118.  Our  junior  partner  was,  one  day,  hunting  for  a 
queeil  with  his  sister.  ^'What  a  large  and  bright-colored 
queen!  "  exclaimed  he,  on  finding  her.  ^*  Why,  no!  she  is 
dark  and  small,"  said  his  sister.  Both  were  right,  for  there 
were  two  queens,  mother  and  daughter,  on  the  same  comb, 
and  not  six  inches  apart.  At  another  time  we  were  looking 
for  an  old  queen,  whose  prolificness  had  decreased,  intend- 
ing to  supersede  her.  To  our  wonder,  the  hive  was  full  of 
brood.  We  found  the  old  queen.  Evidently  a  queen  so 
small,  so  ragged  and  worn,  could  not  be  the  mother  of  such 
a  quantity  of  brood.  We  continued  our  search  and  found 
another  queen,  daughter  of  the  first,  large  and  plump.  Had 
we  introduced  a  strange  queen  into  this  hive,  after  having 
destroyed  the  old  one,  thinking  that  we  had  made  the  col- 
ony queenless,  she  would  have  been  killed. 

110.  We  could  relate  a  number  of  such  instances.  The 
most  interesting  case  was  the  simultaneous  laying  of  two 
queens  of  different  breeds  in  the  same  hive,  one  black,  the 
other  Italian.  The  colony  had  two  queens,  when  we  intro- 
duced our  Italian  queen.  We  found  the  younger  one  and 
killed  her,  and  the  old  one  was  so  little  considered  by  her 
bees,  that  they  accepted  our  imported  queen  and  allowed 
both  to  remain  together.     To  our  astonishment  there  wert 

THI(  QUKDI.  51 

some  black  bees  hatching  among  the  pure  Italians,  and  it 
was  not  till  we  accidentally  discoyered  the  old  black  queen 
that  we  understood  the  matter. 

There  are  more  sach  cases  than  most  bee-keepers  would 
imagine,  and  when  these  happen  to  buyers  of  improved 
races  of  bees,  if  they  are  not  very  close  observers,  they  are 
apt  to  accuse  the  venders  of  having  cheated  them.  Such 
instances  make  the  business  of  queen  selling  quite  disagree- 

120.  Impbbokatiok. — ^The  fecundation  of  the  queen  bee 
has  occupied  the  minds  of  Apiarists  and  savants  for  ages. 
A  number  of  theories  were  advanced.  If  a  number  of 
drones  are  confined  in  a  small  box,  they  give  forth  a  strong 
odor :  Swanmierdam  supposed  that  the  queen  was  impreg- 
nated by  this  scent  {aurasemincUis)  of  the  drones.  Reaumur, 
a  renowned  entomologist,  in  1744,  thought  that  the  mating 
of  the  queen  was  effected  inside  of  the  hive.  Others  ad- 
vanced that  the  eggs  were  impregnated  by  the  drones  in  the 

After  making  a  number  of  experiments  to  verify  these 
theories,  and  finding  all  false,  Huber  finally  ascertained 
that,  like  many  other  insects,  the  queen  was  fecundated  in 
the  open  air  and  on  the  wing ;  and  that  the  influence  of  this 
connection  lasts  for  several  years,  and  probably  for  life. 

121.  Five  days  or  more  after  her  birth,  the  virgin 
queen  goes  out  to  have  intercourse  with  a  drone.  Several 
bee-keepers  of  note,  such  as  Neighbour  of  England  (''Cook's 
Manual,"  1884,  page  72)  and  Dzierzon  of  Germany,  wrote 
that  a  queen  may  go  out  on  her  marriage-flight  when 
only  three  days  old.  The  shortest  time  we  have  ever 
noticed  between  the  birth  of  a  queen  and  her  first  bridal- 
flight  was  five  days,  and  on  this  we  are  in  accordance 
with  Mr.  Alley  of  Massachusetts,  one  of  the  most  exten- 
sive queen  breeders  in  the  world.  The  average  time  is 
six  or  seven  days.     Earlier  bridal-trips  are  probably  due  to 


the  disturbing  of  the  colony  by  the  Apiarist,  for  we  have  no- 
ticed that  this  disturbing  hastens  the  maturity  of  the  work- 
ers. The  bridal-flight  takes  place  about  noon,  at  which 
time,  the  drones  are  flying  most  numerously. 

122.  On  leaving  her  hive,  the  queen  flies  with  her  head 
turned  towards  it,  often  entering  and  departing  several 
times  before  she  finally  soars  into  the  air.  Such  precautions 
on  the  part  of  a  young  queen  are  highly  necessary,  that  she 
may  not,  on  her  return,  lose  her  life,  by  attempting,  through 
mistake,  to  enter  a  strange  hive.  Many  queens  are  lost  in 
this  way. 

123.  As  the  mating  of  the  queen  and  the  drone  takes 
place  in  the  air,  very  few  persons  have  witnessed  it.  The 
following  narration  will  please  our  readers : 

**  A  short  time  ago,  daring  one  of  those  pleasanl  days  of  May,  I 
was  roaming  in  the  fields,  not  far  from  Courbevoie.  Suddenly  I 
heard  a  loud  humming  and  the  wind  of  a  rapid  flight  brushed  my 
eheek.  Fearing  the  attack  of  a  hornet,  I  made  an  instinctive  mo- 
tion with  my  hand  to  drive  it  away.  There  were  two  insects* 
one  of  which  pursued  the  other  with  eagerness,  coming  from  high 
tn  the  air.  Frightened  no  doubt,  by  my  movements,  they  arose 
again,  flying  vertically  to  a  great  height,  still  in  pursuit  of  each 
other.  I  imagined  that  it  was  a  battle,  and  desiring  to  know  the 
result,  I  followed,  at  my  best,  their  motions  in  the  air,  and  got 
ready  to  lay  hold  of  them,  as  soon  as  they  would  be  within  reach. 

**  I  did  not  wait  long.  The  pursuing  insect  rose  above  the  other, 
and  suddenly  fell  on  it.  The  shock  was  certainly  violent,  for  both 
united,  dropped  with  the  swiftness  of  an  arrow  and  passed  by  me, 
so  near  that  I  struck  them  down,  with  my  handkerchief.  I  then 
discovered  that  this  bitter  battle  was  but  a  love-suit.  The  two 
insects,  stunned  and  motionless,  were  coupled.  The  copulation 
had  taken  place  in  the  air,  at  the  instant  when  I  had  seen  one  of 
them  falling  on  the  other,  twenty  or  twenty-flve  feet  above  the 

*"  It  was  a  queen-bee  and  a  drone.  Persuaded  that  I  had  killed 
them,  I  made  no  scruple  of  piercing  them  both  with  the  same  pin. 
But  the  pain  recalled  them  to  life  again,  and  they  promptly  sepa- 
rated. This  separation  was  violent,  and  resulted  in  the  tearing 
off  of  the  drone's  organ  (188)  which  remained  atta^lied  to  tb* 

THs  Qum.  53 

queen.  The  queen  was  yet  alive  on  the  following  morning.  For 
some  time  after  her  separation  firom  the  drone,  she  brushed  the 
last  ring  of  her  abdomen,  as  though  trying  to  extract  the  organ 
of  the  drone.  She  endeavored  to  bend  herself,  probably  in  order 
to  bring  this  part  witliin  reach  of  her  Jaws,  which  were  con- 
stantly moving,  but  the  pin  prevented  her  from  attaining  her  aim. 
Her  activity  soon  decreased  and  she  ceased  to  move."— (Alex. 
Levi,  Journal  Des  Fermu^  Paris,  1869.) 

Messrs.  Gary  and  Otis  had  witnessed  a  similar  occurrence 
in  July  1861.     (^American  Bee  Journal^  Vol.  I,  page  66.) 

124.  It  is  now  well  demonstrated  that  in  a  single  mating, 
a  queen  is  fertilized  for  life,  although  in  a  few  rare  instan- 
ces they  have  been  said  to  mate  two  days  in  succession,  per* 
haps  because  the  first  mating  was  insufficient. 

125.  After  the  queen  has  re-entered  the  hive,  she  gets 
rid  of  the  organ  of  the  drone  by  drawing  it  with  her  claws, 
and  she  is  sometimes  helped  in  this  work  by  the  worker- 
bees.     The  drone  dies  in  the  act*of  fertilization.    (188.) 

126.  Although  fertilization  of  the  queen  in  confinement 
has  been  tried  by  many,  it  has  never  been  successful.  Those 
who,  from  time  to  time,  claimed  to  have  succeeded  were  evi- 
dently deceiving  themselves  through  ill-made  experiments. 

127.  Having  ascertained  that  the  queen-bee  is  fecund- 
ated in  the  open  air  and  on  the  wing,  Huber  still  could  not 
form  any  satisfactory  conjecture  how  eggs  were  fertilized 
which  were  not  yet  developed  in  her  ovaries.  Years  ago, 
the  celebrated  Dr.  John  Hunter  (1792),  and  others,  sup- 
posed that  there  must  be  a  permanent  receptacle  for  the 
male  sperm,  opening  into  the  oviduct.  Dzicrzon,  who  must 
be  regarded  as  one  of  the  ablest  contributors  of  modern 
times  to  Apiarian  science,  maintained  this  opinion,  and 
stated  that  he  had  found  such  a  receptacle  filled  with  a  fluid 
resembling  the  semen  of  the  drones.  He  does  not  seem  to 
have  then  demonstrated  his  discoveries  by  any  microscopie 


128.  In  the  Winter  of  1851-2,  the  writer  submitted  for 
scientific  examination  several  queen-bees  to  Dr.  Joseph 
Leidy,  of  Philadelphia,  who  had  the  highest  reputation  both 
at  home  and  abroad,  as  a  naturalist  and  microscopic  anat- 
omist. He  found,  in  making  his  dissections,  a  small  globu- 
lar sac,  about  -^  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  communicating 
with  the  oviduct,  and  filled  with  a  whitish  fluid ;  this  fluid, 
when  examined  under  the  microscope,  abounded  in  the 
spermatozoids*  which  characterize  the  seminal  fluid.  A 
comparison  of  this  substance,  later  in  the  season,  with  the 
semen  of  a  drone,  proved  them  to  be  exactly  alike,  t 

129.  These  examinations  have  settled,  on  the  impreg^ 
nable  basis  of  demonstration,  the  mode  in  which  the  eggs  of 
the  queen  are  fecundated.  In  descending  the  oviduct  to 
be  deposited  in  the  cells,  they  pass  by  the  mouth  of  this 
seminal  sac,  or  ^^  spermatheca,"  and  receive  a  portion  of  its 
fertilizing  contents.  Small  as  it  is,  it  contains  suflScient  to 
impregnate  millions  of  eggs.  In  precisely  the  same  way, 
the  mother- wasps  and  hornets  are  fecundated.  The  females 
only  of  these  insects  survive  the  Winter,  and  often  a  single 
one  begins  the  construction  of  a  nest,  in  which  at  first  only 
a  few  eggs  are  deposited.  How  could  these  eggs  hatch,  if 
the  females  had  not  been  impregnated  the  previous  season? 
Dissection  proves  that  they  have  a  spermatheca  similar  to 
that  of  the  queen-bee.  It  never  seems  to  have  occurred  to 
the  opponents  of  Huber,  that  the  existence  of  a  |>ermanent- 
ly-imprcguated  mother-wasp  is  quite  as  difficult  to  be  ac- 
counted for,  as  the  existence  of  a  similarly  impregnated 

130.  The  celebrated  Swammerdam,  in  his  observations 

•  upenhatoznidA  are  the  liriog  gcrmB  of  the  semiDal  fluid. 

t  Prof  Slobold,  in  1S43,  examined  the  spormatheca  of  theqneeo-bee,  andftmod 
It  after  copulation,  niliHl  with  the  seminal  flaid  of  the  drose.  At  thftttima,  Apl- 
arists  paid  no  atteutiou  to  his  riews,  bnt  considered  them,  M  Im  aaya,  to  bt 
only  *'theorftiinl  ftuf."  It  seems,  then,  that  Prof.  Laldy'a  diaMOtioii 
not,  ac  wa  had  hitherto  iopposed.  the  flnt.  of  an  improfnatod  < 

THS  QUSKX.  55 

upon  insects,  made  in  the  latter  part  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  has  given  a  highly  magnified  drawing  of  the  ovaries 
of  the  queen-bee,  a  reduced  copy  of  which  we  present 
(Plate  V)  to  our  readers.  The  small  globular  sac  (D),  com- 
municating with  the  oviduct  (JE?),  which  he  thought  secreted 
a  fluid  for  sticking  the  eggs  to  the  base  of  the  cells,  is  the 
seminal  reservoir,  or  spermatheca.  Any  one  who  will  care- 
fully dissect  a  queen-bee,  may  see  this  sac,  even  with  the 
naked  eye. 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  ovaries  ( (7  and  H)  are  double,  each 
consisting  of  an  amadng  number  of  ducts  filled  with  eggs, 
which  gradually  increase  in  size.* 

131.  Huber,  while  experimenting  to  ascertain  how  the 
queen  was  fecundated,  confined  some  young  ones  to  their 
hives  by  contracting  the  entrances,  so  that  they  were  more 
than  three  weeks  old  before  they  could  go  in  search  of  the 
drones.  To  his  amazement,  the  queens  whose  impregnation 
was  thus  retarded  never  laid  any  eggs  but  such  as  produced 
drones ! 

He  tried  this  experiment  repeatedly,  but  always  with  the 
same  result.  Bee-keepers,  even  from  the  time  of  Aristotle, 
had  observed  that  all  the  brood  in  a  hive  were  occasionally 

132.  Dzierzon  appears  to  have  been  the  first  to  ascertain 
the  truth  on  this  subject;  and  his  discovery  must  certainly 
be  ranked  among  the  most  astonishing  facts  in  all  the  range 
of  animated  nature. 

Dzierzon  asserted  that  all  impregnated  eggs  produce  fe- 
males, either  toarkera  or  queens;  and  all  unimpregnated  ones, 

*  Since  the  flnt  edition  of  this  work  was  issued,  we  have  ascertained  that  Po- 
sel  (pmgeM)  describee  the  oridnct  of  the  queen,  the  Bpcrmathcca  and  its  con- 
tents, and  the  use  of  the  latter  in  impregnating  the  passing  egg.  His  work  was 
pnblished  at  Miinleh,  in  1784.  It  seems  also  from  his  work  ("A  Complete 
Treatise  of  Forest  and  HorttcnlturalBee-Caltiire,"  page  3G),  that  before  the 
inTestigationa  of  Hvbcor,  Jansha,  the  bee-keeper  royal  of  Maria  Theresa,  had 
dlseorered  the  ftet  that  thaToangqueena  leave  their  hive  in  search  of  the  dronea. 


males  J  or  drones  !  He  stated  that  in  several  of  his  hives  he 
found  drone-laying  queens,  whose  wings  were  so  imperfect 
that  they  could  not  fly,  and  which,  on  examination,  proved 
to  be  unfecundated.  Hence,  he  concluded  that  the  eggs 
laid  by  an  unimpregnated  queen-bee,  had  sufQcient  vitid- 
ity  to  produce  drones. 

183.  Parthenogenesis,  meaning  ''generation  of  a  virgin," 
is  the  name  given  to  this  faculty  of  a  female,  to  produce 
offspring  without  having  been  fecundated,  and  is  not  at  all 
rare  among  insects. 

134.  In  the  Autumn  of  1852,  our  assistant  found  a  young 
queen  whose  progeny  consisted  entfarely  of  drones.  The 
colony  had  been  formed  by  removing  a  few  combs  contain- 
ing bees,  brood,  and  eggs,  from  another  hive,  and  had 
raised  a  new  queen.  Some  eggs  were  found  in  one  of  the 
combs,  and  young  bees  were  already  emerging  from  the 
cells,  all  of  which  were  drones.  As  there  were  none  but 
worker-cells  in  the  hive,  they  were  reared  in  them,  and  not 
having  space  for  full  development,  they  were  dwarfed  in 
size,  although  the  bees  had  pieced  the  cells  to  give  more 
room  to  their  occupants. 

We  were  not  only  surprised  to  find  drones  reared  in 
worker-cells,  but  equally  so  that  a  young  queen,  who  at 
first  lays  only  the  eggs  of  workers,  should  be  laying 
drone-eggs,  and  at  once  conjectured  that  this  was  a  case  of 
an  unimpregnated  drone-laying  queen,  sufftcient  time  not 
having  elapsed  for  her  impregnation  to  be  unnaturally  re- 
tarded. All  necessary  precautions  were  taken  to  determine 
this  point.  The  queen  was  removed  from  the  hive,  an^ 
although  her  wings  appeared  to  be  perfect,  she  could  not 
fly.  It  seemed  probable,  therefore,  that  she  had  never  been 
able  to  leave  the  hive  for  impregnation. 

135.  To  settle  the  question  beyond  the  possibility  of 
doubt,  we  submitted  tbis  queen  to  Professor  Leidy  for  mi- 
croscopic examination.     The  following  is  an  extract  from 

iffinim  onltliiBii 

THs  Quxn.  57 

his  report :  *'  The  ovaries  were  filled  with  eggs,  the  poison- 
sac  full  of  fluid ;  and  the  spermatheca  distended  with  a  per- 
fectly colorless,  transparent,  viscid  liquid,  without  a  trace  of 
9per.  intozoids.** 

136.  On  examining  this  same  colony  a  few  days  later, 
we  found  satisfactory  evidence  that  these  drone-eggs  were 
laid  by  the  queen  which  had  heen  removed.  No  fresh  eggs 
had  been  deposited  in  the  cells,  and  the  bees  on  missing  her 
had  begun  to  build  royal  cells,  to  rear,  if  possible,  another 
queen.  Two  of  the  royal  cells  were  in  a  short  time  discon- 
tinued ;  while  a  third  was  sealed  over  in  the  usual  way,  to 
undergo  its  changes  to  a  perfect  queen.  As  the  bees  had 
only  a  drone>laying  queen,  whence  came  the  female  egg 
from  which  they  were  rearing  a  queen  ? 

At  first  we  imagined  that  they  might  have  stolen  it  from 
another  hive ;  but  on  opening  this  cell  it  contained  only  a 
dead  drone  !  Huber  had  described  a  similar  mistake  made 
by  some  of  his  bees.  At  the  base  of  this  cell  was  an  unus- 
ual quantity  of  the  peculiar  jelly  fed  to  develop  young 
queens.  One  might  almost  imagine  that  the  bees  had  dosed 
the  unfortunate  drone  to  death ;  as  though  they  had  hoped 
by  such  liberal  feeding  to  produce  a  change  in  his  sexual 

137.  In  the  Summer  of  1854,  we  found  another  drone- 
laying  queen  in  our  Apiary,  with  wings  so  shrivelled  that 
she  could  not  fly.  We  gave  her  successively  to  several  queen- 
less  colonies,  in  all  of  which  she  deposited  only  drone-eggs. 

138.  In  Italy  there  is  a  variety  of  the  honey-bee  differing 
in  size  and  color  from  the  common  kind.  If  a  queen  of  this 
variety  is  crossed  with  the  common  drones,  her  drone-prog- 
eny will  be  Italian  (551),  and  her  worker-brood  a  cross 
between  the  two ;  thus  showing  that  the  kind  of  drones  she 
will  produce  has  no  dependence  on  the  male  by  which  she 
is  fecundated. 


**  The  following  interesting  experiment  was  made  b  j  Berlepseh, 
In  order  to  confirm  the  drone-prod octiveness  of  a  virgin  queen. 
He  contrived  the  exclusion  of  queens  at  the  end  of  September, 
1854,  and,  therefore,  at  a  time  when  there  was  no  longer  any  males ; 
he  was  lucky  enough  to  keep  one  of  them  through  the  Winter,  and 
this  produced  drone-ofispring  on  the  2d  of  March,  in  the  following 
year,  furnishing  fifteen  hundred  ceUs  with  brood.  That  this 
drone-bearing  queen  remained  a  virgin,  was  proved  by  the  dissec- 
tion which  Leuckart  undertook,  at  the  request  of  Berlepsch.  He 
found  the  state  and  contents  of  the  seminal  pouch  of  this  queen  to 
be  exactly  of  the  same  nature  as  those  found  in  virgin  queens. 
The  seminal  receptacle  in  such  females  never  contains  semen- 
masses,  with  their  characteristic  spermatozoids,  but  only  a  limpid 
fluid,  destitute  of  ceUs  and  granules  which  is  produced  firom  the 
two  appendicular  glands  of  the  seminal  capsule ;  and,  as  I  sup- 
pose, serves  the  purpose  of  keeping  the  semen  transferred  into  the 
seminal  capsule  in  a  fresh  state,  and  the  spermatozoids  active, 
and,  consequently,  capable  of  impregnation."— (Siebold,  **  Parthe- 

139.  Again,  to  prove  that  Dzierzon  was  right,  Professor 
Von  Siebold,  in  1855,  dissected  several  eggs  at  the  Apiary 
of  BaroD  Von  Berlepsch,  and  he  found  spermatozoids  in 
every  female  egg^  or  egg  laid  in  worker-cell,  but  although 
he  examined  thirty-two  male  eggs,  or  eggs  laid  in  drone- 
cells,  he  could  not  discover  a  single  spermatozoid  either  in 
or  around  them.  In  the  act  of  copulation,  the  sperm  of  the 
drone  is  received  into  the  spermatheca  (Plate  V,  D),  which 
is  placed  near  and  can  empty  itself  into  the  oviduct.  When 
an  egg  passes  by  the  spermatheca,  if  the  circumstances  are 
such  that  a  few  spermatozoids  einpt}'  out  of  the  bag  on  the 
egg,  the  sex  of  it  is  changed  from  male  to  female. 

It  ap[)ears  that  there  is  in  each  Qgg  a  small  opening 
(mirropyle,  i  and^*,  fig.  25),  through  which  the  living  sperm- 
atozoids enter,  when  the  circuni.^tances  are  such  that  a  few 
of  them  can  slip  out  the  seminal  bag  and  slide  into  the 
oviduct.      Sucli  is  the  process  of  ini|)ri'gnation. 

140.  Ari^tulle  noticed,  more  than  2,000  years  ago,  that 

THS   QUEXH.  59 

the  eggs  which  produce  drones  are  like  the  worker-eggs.* 
With  the  aid  of  powerful  microscopes  we  are  still  unable  to 
detect  any  difference  in  the  size  or  outside  appearance  of 
the  eggs  of  the  queen. 

141.  These  facts,  taken  in  connection,  constitute  a  per- 
fect demonstration  that  unfecundated  queens  are  not  only 
able  to  lay  eggs,  but  that  their  eggs  have  sufficient  vitality 
to  produce  drones. 

It  seems  to  us  probable,  that  after  fecundation  has  been 
delayed  for  about  three  weeks,  the  organs  of  the  queen-bee 
are  in  such  a  condition  that  it  can  no  longer  be  effected ; 
just  as  the  parts  of  a  flower,  after  a  certain  time,  wither 
and  shut  up,  and  the  plant  becomes  incapable  of  fructifica- 
tion. Perhaps,  after  a  certain  time,  the  queen  loses  all  de- 
sire to  go  in  search  of  the  male. 

There  is  something  analogous  to  these  wonders  in  the 
"  aphides  **  or  green  lice,  which  infest  plants.  We  have  un- 
doubted evidence  that  a  fecundated  female  gives  birth  to 
other  females,  and  they  in  turn  to  others,  all  of  which  with- 
out impregnation  are  able  to  bring  forth  young ;  until,  after 
a  number  of  generations,  perfect  males  and  females  are  pro- 
duced, and  the  series  starts  anew ! 

However  improbable  it  may  appear  that  an  unimpregnated 
egg  c*^  &^^  birth  to  a  living  being,  or  that  sex  can  depend 
on  impregnation,  we  are  not  at  liberty  to  reject  facts  be- 
cause we  cannot  comprehend  the  reasons  of  them.  He  who 
allows  himself  to  be  guilty  of  such  folly,  if  he  aims  to  be  con- 
sistent, must  eventually  be  plunged  into  tlie  dreary  gulf  of 
atheism.  Common  sense,  philosophy,  and  religion  alike 
teach  us  to  receive,  with  becoming  reverence,  all  undoubted 
facts,  whether  in  the  natural  or  s{)iritual   world  ;    assured 

•  Chcfthixe  Bays  that  "worker-egg  "  Is  a  misnomer,  since  all  workcr-egga 
are  impreguated,  and  hence  female-eggs.  But  the  term  is  too  iatelligiblc  and 
popular,  for  na  to  change  it;  since  Cheshire  himself  bows  before  custom,  and 


that  however  mysterious  they  may  appear  to  us,  they  are 
beautifully  consistent  in  the  sight  of  Him  whose  "  under- 
standing is  infinite.'' 

142.  It  had  long  been  known  that  the  queen  deposits 
drone-eggs  in  the  large  or  drone-cells,  and  worker-eggs  in 
the  small  or  worker-cells,  and  that  she  usually  makes  no 
mistakes.  Dzierzon  inferred,  therefore,  that  there  was  some 
way  in  which  she  was  able  to  decide  the  sex  of  the  egg  be- 
fore it  was  laid,  and  that  she  must  have  such  a  control  over 
the  mouth  of  the  seminal  sac  as  to  be  able  to  extrude  her 
eggs,  allowing  them  at  will  to  receive  or  not  a  portion  of  its 
fertilizing  contents.  In  this  way  he  thought  she  determined 
their  sex,  according  to  the  size  of  the  cells  in  which  she 
laid  them. 

143.  Our  lamented  friend,  Mr.  Samuel  Wagner,  had  ad- 
vanced a  highly  ingenious  theory,  which  accounted  for  all 
the  facts,  without  admitting  that  the  queen  had  any  special 
knowledge  or  will  on  the  subject.  He  supposed  that,  when 
she  deposited  her  eggs  in  the  worker-cells,  her  body  was 
slightly  compressed  by  their  size,  thus  causing  the  eggs  as 
they  passed  the  spermatheca  to  receive  its  vivifying  in- 

144.  But  this  theory  was  overthrown  by  the  fact  that 
the  queen  sometimes  lays  eggs  in  cells  that  are  built  only  to 
a  third  of  their  length,  whether  worker-cells  or  drone-cells, 
and  in  which  no  compression  can  take  place.  Yet,  it  is 
very  difficult  to  admit  that  the  queen  is  endowed  with  a 
facult}^  that  no  other  animal  possesses,  that  of  knowing  and 
deciding  the  sex  of  her  progeny  beforehand.  It  seems  to 
us  that  she  must  be  guided  by  her  instinct  like  all  other 
beings,  for  she  always  begins,  in  the  Spring,  by  laying  in 
small  cells,  using  large  cells  only  when  no  others  are  in  reach 
in  the  warm  part  of  the  hive.  Sometimes,  however,  when 
she  is  very  heavy  with  eggs,  she  lays  in  drone-cells  as  she 
oomes  to  them.     Usually  it  is  only  when  the  hive  is  warm 


throaghout,  and  worker-cells  all  occapied,  that  she  fills  the 
unoccupied  drone*cells.  This  has  given  rise  to  the  popular 
theory  that  the  bees  raise  drones  whenever  they  intend  to 
swarm.  It  is  possible  that  the  width  of  the  cells  and  the 
position  of  her  legs  when  laying  in  drone-cells  (224)  pre- 
vents the  action  of  the  muscles  of  her  spermatheca. 

145.  The  preference  of  the  queen  for  worker-cells  can 
not  be  disputed.  If  all  the  drone-combs  are  removed  from 
a  hive  and  replaced  with  worker-combs,  she  will  not  show 
any  displeasure.  She  will  live  in  that  hive  for  years,  with- 
out laying  any  drone-eggs,  except,  perhaps,  here  and  there, 
in  odd-shaped  junction-cells.  Mr.  A.  I.  Root,  of  Medina, 
O.,  makes  the  same  remark: 

"  By  having  a  hive  famished  entirely  with  worker-comb,  we 
can  BO  nearly  prevent  the  production  of  drones,  that  it  is  safe 
enoagh  to  call  it  a  complete  remedy.'* — (**A.  B.  C.  of  Bee  Cult- 
ure," page  134,  Medina,  1883.) 

146.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  we  furnish  a  swarm  with 
nothing  but  drone-comb,  already  built,  they  would  soon 
leave  the  hive.  But,  if  a  few  worker-cells  are  among  the 
drone-cells,  the  queen  will  find  them  and  will  lay  in  them.. 
On  this  subject,  Mr.  Root  says : 

147 •  **  Bees  sometimes  rear  worker-brood  in  drone-comb 
when  compelled  to  from  want  of  room,  and  they  always  do  it  by 
contracting  the  mouth  of  the  cells,  and  leaving  the  young  bee  a 
rather  large  berth  in  which  to  grow  and  develop."  (*'A.  B.  C..'' 
page  133.)  **  If  you  give  a  young  laying  queen  a  hive  supplied 
only  with  drone-combs,  she  will  rear  worker-brood  in  these 
drone-cells.  The  mouth  of  the  cells  will  be  contracted  with 
wax  as  mentioned  before.**    (Page  18S.) 

148.  An  experiment,  made  in  Bordeaux,  under  the  su* 
pervision  of  Mr.  Drory,  editor  of  the  '•' Backer,**  has  proven 
that  the  queen  may  lay  worker-eggs  in  drone-cells.  A  piece 
of  drone-comb  containing  worker- brood,  was  sent  us  by 
him.     The  eggs  were  laid  irregularly  and  the  mouth  of  the 


cells  had  been  contracted,  aa  mentioDed  by  Hr.  Boot.  This 
contraction  of  the  cell  mouth  Keina  jndiBpensable  to  enable 
the  queen  to  put  in  motiou  the  muscles  of  her  spennathecft. 
149.  We  will  add,  with  Mr.  Root,  that  in  the  Spring,  or 
late  in  the  Fall,  when  the  crop  is  not  abundant,  the  queen 
will  travel  over  drone-combs  without  depositing  a  single  egg 
in  them.  Even  by  feeding  the  colony,  when  ia  these  con- 
ditions, the  queen  cannot  be  readily  induced  to  lay  in 
drone-cells.  Our  conclusions  on  this  point  differ  from  thow 
of  Mr.  Root.  We  think  that  the  queen  prefers  worker- 
cells  to  drone-cells,  because  the  fecundation  of  the  eggs  by 
the  action  of  the  muscles  of  the  spermatbeca  probably  gives 
her  a  pleasant  sensation,  which  she  does  not  ezperienoe  in 
laying  drone-eggs. 



ADDOMF.N    or  Til 

ilfled.     rrom  the  " 
tgs  of  IhB  »Momon; 


-V.  nerre-ohili 

,g>..gUon.;  A. 

i;  tf,  hoi 


,  oTipodi 


1.  Mas: 


100.  Some  very  prolific  queens  occasionally  lay  drone- 
eggs  in  worker-ceUs.  It  may  be  due  to  *"tyyi  This  will 
readily  be  admitted  when  we  consider  the  namber  of  eggt 
kid  in  one  day.  (98.) 

151.  Dzierzon  found  that  a  queen  which  had  been  r^/VV" 
trattd  for  a  long  time,  after  being  brought  to  life  by  mimth, 

THE   QUEEN.  63 

laid  only  male  eggs,  whilst  previously  she  had  also  laid  fe- 
male eggs.  Berlepsch  refrigerated  three  queens  by  placing 
them  thirty-six  hours  in  an  ice-house.  Two  of  them  never 
revived,  and  the  third  laid,  as  before,  thousands  of  eggs, 
but  fr<ym  dU  of  them  ordy  males  were  evolved.  In  two  in- 
stances, Mr.  Mahan  has,  at  our  suggestion,  tried  similar  ex- 
periments, and  with  like  results.  A  short  exposure  of  a 
queen,  to  pounded  ice  and  salt,  answers  every  purpose. 
The  spermatozoids  are  in  some  way  rendered  inoperative  by 
severe  cold. 

152.  The  queen  begins  laying  about  two  days  after  im- 
pregnation. She  is  seldom  treated  with  much  attention  by 
the  bees  until  after  she  has  begun  to  replenish  the  cells  with 
eggs;  although  if  previously  deprived  of  her,  they  show, 
by  their  despair,  that  they  fully  appreciated  her  importance 
to  their  welfare. 

The  extraordinary  fertility  of  the  queen-bee  has  already 
been  noticed.  The  process  of  laying  has  been  well  described 
by  the  Rev.  W.  Dunbar,  a  Scotch  Apiarist : 

153.  '*  When  the  queen  is  about  to  lay,  she  puts  her  head  into 
a  cell,  and  remains  in  that  position  for  a  second  or  two,  to  ascer- 
tain its  fitness  for  the  deposit  she  is  about  to  make.  She  then 
withdraws  her  head,  and  curving  her  body  downwards,  inserts 
the  lower  part  of  it  into  the  cell ;  in  a  few  seconds  she  turns  half 
round  upon  herself  and  withdraws,  leaving  an  ^gg  behind  her." 

In  the  Winter,  or  early  Spring,  she  lays  first  in  the  mid- 
dle of  the  cluster,  and  continues  in  a  circle,  around  the  first 
eggs  laid,  till  she  has  filled  most  of  the  warmed  space.  She 
then  crosses  over  to  the  next  comb  and  does  the  same  thing ; 
as  the  bees  always  cluster  on  different  combs  in  groups  ex- 
actly opposite,  to  produce  the  utmost  possible  concentration 
and  economy  of  heat  for  developing  the  various  changes  of 
the  brood. 

154.  Queens  lay  more  or  less  according  to,  Ist^  The  sea- 
ton  ;  2iid,  The  number  of  bees  that  keep  up  the  heat  of  the 


brood-nest,  and  Sd,  The  quantity  of  food  which  they  eat. 
When  bees  harvest  honey  or  pollen,  or  when  these  necessa- 
ries are  provided  artificially  by  the  Apiarist,  they  feed  the 
queen  as  they  pass  by  her,  oftener  than  they  would  other- 
wise ;  hence  her  laying  increases  in  Spring,  and  decreases  in 
Summer  or  Fall.  It  is  certain  that  when  the  weather  is  un- 
congenial, or  the  colony  too  feeble  to  maintain  sufficient  heat, 
fewer  eggs  are  matured,  just  as  unfavorable  circumstances 
diminish  the  number  of  eggs  laid  by  the  hen ;  and  when  the 
weather  is  very  cold,  the  queen  stops  laying,  in  weak  colo- 

In  the  latitude  of  Northern  Massachusetts,  we  have  found 
that  the  queen  ordinuily  ceases  to  lay  some  time  in  Octo- 
ber ;  and  begins  again,  in  strong  stocks,  in  the  latter  part  of 
December.  On  the  14th  of  January,  1857  (the  previous 
month  having  been  very  cold,  the  thermometer  sometimes 
sinking  to  17^  below  zero),  we  examined  three  hives,  and 
found  that  the  central  combs  in  two  contained  eggs  and  un- 
sealed brood ;  there  were  a  few  cells  with  sealed  brood  in 
the  third.  Strong  stocks,  even  in  the  coldest  climates,  usu- 
ally contain  some  brood  ten  months  in  the  year. 

155.  **  Queens  differ  much  as  to  the  degpree  of  their  fertility. 
Those  are  best  which  deposit  their  eggh.  with  uniform  regularity, 
leaving  no  cells  unsupplied— as  the  brood  hatches  at  the  same  time 
on  the  same  range  of  comb,  which  can  be  again  supplied ;  the 
queen  thus  losing  no  time  in  searching  for  empty  celU.*' — (Dzler- 

In  bcc-life,  as  well  as  in  human  affairs,  those  who  are 
systoiniitic,  ordinarily  accomplish  the  most. 

To  test  the  difference  of  fecundity  between  queens,  Mr. 
De  Layens,  while  transferring  bees  (574),  in  middle  April, 
counted  the  egizs  dropped  on  a  black  cloth  (577),  in  forty 
minutes,  by  the  queens  of  four  different  colonies.  The 
poorest  queen  dropped  but  one  e*;g,  the  second  twelve,  the 
third  eighteen,  and  the  fourth  twenty.     On  the  fifteenth  of 

Discoverer  of  Parthenogenesis  in  Quf 

THS  QUEBir.  65 

Jaly  the  colony  of  the  first  queen  was  very  poor,  the  second 
was  of  average  strength,  and  both  the  others  were  very 

156.  It  is  amusing  to  see  how  the  supernumerary  eggs 
of  the  queen  are  disposed  of.  If  the  workers  are  too  few  to 
take  charge  of  all  her  eggs,  if  there  is  a  deficiency  of  bee- 
bread  to  nourish  the  young;  or  if,  for  any  reason,  she  does 
Qot  think  best  to  deposit  them  in  the  cells,  she  stands  upon 
a  comb,  and  simply  extrudes  them  from  her  oviduct,  the 
workers  devouring  them  as  fast  as  they  are  laid. 

One  who  carefully  watches  the  habits  of  bees  will  often 
feel  inclined  to  speak  of  his  little  favorites  as  having  an 
intelligence  almost  if  not  quite  akin  to  reason ;  and  we  have 
sometimes  queried,  whether  the  workers  who  are  so  fond  of 
a  tit-bit  in  the  shape  of  a  newly-laid  egg,  ever  experienced 
a  struggle  between  appetite  and  duty ;  so  that  they  must 
practice  self-denial  to  refrain  from  breakfasting  on  the  eggs 
so  temptingly  deposited  in  the  cells. 

157.  It  is  well  known  to  breeders  of  poultry,  that  the 
fertility  of  a  hen  decreases  with  age,  until  at  length  she 
may  become  entirely  barren.  By  the  same  law,  the  fecun- 
dity of  the  queen-bee  ordinarily  diminishes  after  she  has 
entered  her  third  year.  An  old  queen  sometimes  ceases  to 
lay  worker-eggs  ;  the  contents. of  her  spermatheca  becoming 
exhausted,  the  eggs  are  no  longer  impregnated,  and  pro- 
duce only  drones. 

The  queen-bee  usually  dies  of  old  age  in  her  fourth  year, 
althougli  she  has  been  known  to  live  much  longer.  There  is 
great  advantage,  therefore,  in  hives  which  allow  her,  when 
she  has  passed  the  period  of  her  greatest  fertility,  to  be 
easily  removed. 



The  Worker-Bes. 

158.  The  workers  are  the  smallest  inhabitants  of  a  bee- 
hive, and  compose  the  bulk  of  the  pop- 
ulation. A  good  swarm  ought  to  contain 
at  least  20,000 ;  and  in  large  hives,  strong 
colonies  which  are  not  reduced  by  swarm- 
ing, frequently  number  four  or  five  times 
as  many  during  the  height  of  the  breeding 

Fig.  23. 

^  season. 

150.  Their  functions  are  varied.  The  young  bees  work 
inside  of  the  hive,  prepare  and  distribute  the  food  to  the 
larvae,  take  care  of  the  queen,  by  brushing  her  with  their 
tongue,  nurse  her,  maintain  the  heat  of  the  hive,  or  renew 
the  air  and  evaporate  the  newly-gathered  honey  (240),  by 
ventilating  (744).  They  clean  the  hive  of  dirt  or  debris, 
close  up  all  the  cracks,  and  secrete  the  greater  part  of  the 
wax  which  is  produced  in  the  hive. 

The  old  bees  may,  if  necessary,  do  a  part  of  the  same 
work ;  but,  as  we  have  seen,  (30),  old  age  renders  some 
unfit  to  prepare  the  food  of  the  larvae.  More  alert  than 
the  young  bees,  they  do  the  outside  work,  gather  honey 
(240),  pollen  (263),  and  water  (271),  for  the  use  of 
the  family,  and  propolis  (236)  to  cement  the  cracks.* 

160.  **  Dzicrzon  states  it  as  a  fact,  that  worker-bees  attend 
more  exclusively  to  the  domestic  concerns  of  the  colony  in  the 
early  period  of  life ;  assuming  the  discharge  of  the  more  active 

*  HnbcT  npoaks  of  two  kinds  of  workorn :  "  One  of  these  is,  in  gmeral ,  deatined 
for  the  elaboration  of  wax,  and  its  size  is  considerably  enlun^ed  when  ftill  of 
honoy ;  the  other  immediately  imparts  what  it  has  coUeoted,  to  Ita  oompaniona; 
its  abdomen  undergoes  no  sensible  change,  or  it  retains  only  the  hooey  neces- 
sary for  its  own  sabsistence.  The  particnlar  function  of  the  bees  of  this  kind 
Is  to  take  care  of  the  young,  for  they  are  not  charged  with  provlaiODliic  the  hire. 
In  opposition  to  the  wax-workers,  we  shaU  oaU  them  snudl  bees,  or  norses." 

"Although  the  external  difference  be  inconsiderable,  this  Is  not  an  ImisiB- 
try  distinction.    AuatomicAl  obserratlons  prove  that  the  f*^*-»fiT!i  Is  not  the 


cmi-door  dntles  only  during  the  later  periods  of  their  existence. 
The  Italian  hees  (551)  ftimished  me  with  snitahle  means  to  test 
the  correctness  of  this  opinion. 

^  On  the  18th  of  April,  1866,  I  introduced  (583)  an  lUllan 
queen  Into  a  colony  of  common  bees ;  and  on  the  10th  of  May 
following,  the  first  Italian  workers  emerged  from  the  cells.  On 
the  ensuing  day,  they  emerged  in  great  numbers,  as  the  colony 
had  been  kept  in  good  condition  by  regular  and  plentiful  feeding. 
I  will  arrange  my  observations  under  the  following  heads : 

161.  ''i.  On  the  10th  of  May,  the  first  Italian  workers 
emerged ;  and  on  the  17th  they  made  their  first  appearance  out- 
side of  the  hive.  On  the  next  day,  and  then  daily  till  the  29th, 
they  came  forth  about  noon,  disporting  in  front  of  the  hive,  in 
the  rays  of  the  sun.  They,  however,  manifestly,  did  not  issue 
for  the  purpose  of  gathering  honey  or  pollen,  for  during  that 
time  none  were  noticed  returning  with  pellets ;  none  were  seen 
alighting  on  any  of  the  fiowers  in  my  garden ;  and  I  found  no 
honey  in  the  stomachs  of  such  as  I  caught  and  killed  for  examin- 
ation. The  gathering  was  done  exclusively  by  the  old  bees  of 
the  original  stock,  until  the  29th  of  May,  when  the  Italian  bees 
began  to  labor  in  that  vocation  also— being  then  19  days  old. 

16!t.  **f.  On  the  feeding  troughs  placed  in  my  garden,  and 
which  were  constantly  crowded  with  common  bees,  I  saw  no 
Italian  bees  till  the  27th  of  May,  seventeen  days  after  the  first 
had  emerged  from  the  ceUs. 

^*  From  the  10th  of  May  on,  I  daily  presented  to  Italian  bees, 
in  the  hive,  a  stick  dipped  in  honey.  The  younger  ones  never 
attempted  to  lick  any  of  it ;  the  older  occasionally  seemed  to  sip 
a  little,  but  immediately  left  it  and  moved  away.  The  common 
bees  always  eagerly  licked  it  up,  never  leaving  it  till  they  had 
filled  their  honey-bags.  Not  till  the  25th  of  May  did  I  see  any 
Italian  bee  lick  up  honey  eagerly,  as  the  common  bees  did  from 
the  beginning. 

^«  These  repeated  observations  force  me  to  conclude  that,  during 

tame:  experiments  hare  jiroTen  that  one  of  the  Bpccics  cannot  falflU  all 
the  ftioctlOQS  shared  among  the  workers  of  a  hive.  Wo  painted  those  of  each 
class  with  dUTerent  eolon,  in  order  to  study  their  proceedings;  and  these  were 
not  Inteorehanged.  In  another  experiment, after  supplying  a  hivo,  deprived  of 
aqoeen,  with  brood  and  poUen,  we  saw  the  small  bees  quickly  occnpied  in  the 
feeding  of  the  lams,  While  those  of  the  wax-working  class  neglected  them. 
Small  baaa  also  prodoea  wax,  bat  in  a  very  inferior  quantity  to  what  is  elab- 
«nted  bj  tha  ml  wax-worken."  The  two  kinds  spoken  of  by  Hnber  weva 
al  diftNiit  itaifla  of  lifb. 


the  first  two  weeks  of  the  worker-bee's  life,  the  impulse  for  gaUi* 
erlng  honey  and  pollen  does  not  exist,  or  at  least  is  not  deTel- 
oped ;  and  that  the  development  of  this  impulse  proceeds  slowlj 
and  gradually.  At  first  the  young  bee  will  not  even  touch  the 
honey  presented  to  her ;  some  days  later  she  will  simply  taste  it, 
and  only  after  a  further  lapse  of  time  will  she  consume  it 
eagerly.  Two  weeks  elapse  before  she  readily  eats  honey,  and 
nearly  three  weeks  pass,  before  the  gathering  impulse  is  suflS- 
ciently  developed  to  impel  her  to  fly  abroad,  and  seek  for  honey 
and  pollen  among  the  flowers. 

168.  *^  I  made,  further,  the  following  observations  respecting 
the  domestic  employments  of  the  young  Italian  beet : 

''  1.  On  the  20th  of  May.  I  took  out  of  the  hive  all  the  oombi  it 
contained,  and  replaced  them  after  examination.  On  inspecting 
them  half  an  hour  later,  I  was  surprised  to  see  that  the  edges  of 
the  combs,  which  had  been  cut  on  removal,*  were  covered  by 
Italian  bees  exclusively.  On  closer  examination,  I  found  that 
they  were  busily  engaged  in  re-attaching  the  combs  to  the  sides 
of  the  hive.  When  I  brushed  them  away,  they  instantly  retumed, 
in  eager  haste,  to  resume  their  labors. 

^^f.  After  making  the  foregoing  observations,  I  inserted  in  the 
hive  a  bar  from  which  a  comb  had  been  cut,  to  ascertain  whether 
the  rebuilding  of  comb  would  be  undertaken  by  the  Italian  bees. 
I  took  it  out  a  few  hours  subsequently,  and  found  it  covered  al- 
most exclusively  by  Italian  workers,  though  the  colony,  at  that 
time,  still  contained  a  large  majority  of  common  bees.  I  saw 
that  they  were  sedulously  engaged  in  building  comb;  and  they 
prosecuted  the  work  unremittingly,  whilst  I  held  the  bar  in  my 
hand.  I  repeated  this  experiment  several  days  in  succession, 
and  satisfied  myself  that  the  bees  engaged  in  this  work  were  al- 
ways almost  exclusively  of  the  Italian  race.  Many  of  them  had 
scales  of  wax  visihiy  protruding  between  their  abdominal  rings 
(tlOl).  These  ol)sorv:iti<)ns  show  tliat,  in  the  early  stage  of  their 
existence,  the  impulse  for  comb-building  is  stronger  than  later 
in  life. 

16  1.  ''5.  Whenever  I  examined  the  colony  during  the  first 
three  weeks  after  the  Italian  bees  emerged,  I  found  the  brood- 
combs  covered  principally  by  bees  of  that  race:  and  it  is,  hence, 
probable  that  the  brood  is  chiefly  attended  to  and  norsed  by  the 

*  Mr.  DoDhoir.the  writer  of  this  qnotation ,  used  the  Dderxon  hire,  the  eombt 
of  which  aro  Bnspendcd  in  the  hive  by  an  npper  bar  only,  and  cannot  bo 
oat  nulcas  their  edgea,  that  are  built  agaioat  the  aidea  of  tho  hlro,  ment. 


jotinger  tiees.  The  evidence,  however,  U  not  so  conclusive  ai 
Id  the  cose  of  comb-building,  inasmnch  as  they  may  have  con- 
gregated on  the  brood-combs  becaaae  these  are  wanner  than  the 

"  I  maj  add  another  interesting  observation.  Tbe  teces  In  the 
IntfEtinee  of  the  young  Italian  beefl  was  viscid  and  yellow;  that 
ofitie  comiDon  or  old  bees  was  thin  and  limpid,  like  that  of  the 
quten-bee.  This  is  confirmatory  of  the  opinion,  that,  for  the 
production  of  wax  and  jelly,  the  bees  require  pollen;  but  do 
not  need  any  for  their  own  sustenance."— (£.  Z.,  1SS6,  p.  163. 
Dr.  DonhofT,  translated  by  tbe  late  S.  Wagner.) 

165-  There  are  none  bat  gentlemen  of  leisure  in  the  com- 
monwealtb  of  bees,  but  assuredly  there  are  no  eucb  ladiai, 
whether  of  bigh  or  low  degree.  The  queen 
beraelt  has  her  full  share  of  duties,  the 
royal  ofDce  beiDg  no  sinecure,  when  the 
mother  who  fills  it  must  daily  superintend 
tbe  proper  deposition  of  thousands  of 

"  Tbe  eggs  of  bees  are  of  a  lengthened,  oval 
'  shape  with  a  slight  curvature,  and  of  a  bluiah 
white  color:  being  beBmeared,  at  the  time  of 
laying,  with  a  glutinous  Bubstance,  tlipy  ad- 
bere  to  the  bases  of  the  cells,  and  remain  unchanged  in  ligure  or 
situation  for  three  or  fou/  days ;  they  are  then  hatched,  the  bot- 
tom of  each  cell  presenUng  to  view  a  small  white  worm."— 

166.  For  tbe  first  three  days  aft«r  their  hatching,  tliese 
worms  ore  fed  with  a  jelly,  thought  to  be  prepared  or  secre- 
ted by  the  upper  pair  of  glands  of  the  worker-bees  (39), 
which  are  very  large  in  the  nurses.  This  milky  food  is  a 
whitish,  transparent  fluid,  and  is  distributed  to  the  larva;, 
as  it  is  needed.  After  four  or  perhaps  five  days,  the  larva 
is  too  large  for  tbe  bottom  of  the  cell,  where  it  was  coiled 
up,  to  use  ihfl  loDgDage  of  Swammerdam,  like  a  dog  when 
going  to  sleep ;  and  Btretchea  itself  till  it  occupies  the  whole 


length  of  the  cell,  lying  on  its  b&ck.     lUi  food  at  this  time, 
is  changed  tor  a  semi-digested  mixture  of  honey  and  pollen. 


,  i,  magDlBed  lurra;  t, 

{From  Gireid.) 

■rnnc,  nitiukl  alifli  d,  t,  nuKolfled  Dynpllt 
1  >lici  *,  magninedi  <,  egg,  ihoitlDi  mlo*- 
PjIb,  mtgnlflod;  j,  rmcropjla,  mBgniaed, 

"Tbe  mixture  of  boney  and  poUcn. given  at  the  end  of  tba 
narslng.  is  easily  detected  by  its  oolor.  wbleh  U  j'ellower.  on  ac- 
count of  Che  poilen,  and 
can  be  seen  through  llie 
skin  of  tlio  lan'a."— (Du- 

I4i7.     "The  larva,  or 
gruti.   LTows  apiice,   Iml 


I  the 

ng.  f 

,  1^.       (MsKiililt-'l.  t-iomSutOTlandKknKhcDrcU.) 

Ktiiw  Willi  the  wearer,  so  that  It  iood, 
>  !>•'  itiRiwn  oil';  but,  happily  In  the  cue 
atid  larger  one  has  already  been  fonned 





— ("  Beran  on  the  Honej-Bee.") 

beneath  It,  and    the  discarded  garment,  more   delicate   than 
goasftmer.  Is  piuhed  to  the  bottom  of  the  cell." — (Cbeatatre.) 

108.  "Tbe  naralng- 
be«s  now  aeal  over  the 
cell  nlth  a  light  bro'wn 
cover,  eztcrnallr  more 
or  less  convex  (the  cap 
of  a  drone-cell  being 
more  convex  than  that 
of  a  worker),  and  thus 
differing  bom  that  of  a 
honey-cell,  which  is 
paler  and  aomewhat  concave. 

The  cap  o!  the  brood-cell  is  made  not  of  pure  wax,  but 
of  a  mixture  of  bee-bread  and  wax ;  and  appears  under  the 
microscope  to  be  full  of  fine  holea,  to  give  air  to  tbe  in- 
closed insect.  From  its  texture  and  shape  it  is  easily  thrust 
off  by  the  bee  when  mature,  whereas  if  it  consisted  wholly 
of  wax,  the  insect  would  either  perish  for  lack  of  air,  or  be 
unable  to  force  its  way  into  the  world.  Both  the  material 
and  shape  of  the  lids  which  close  the  honey-cells  are  differ- 
ent; they  are  of  pure  wax,  and  are  slightly  concave,  the 
better  to  resist  the  pres- 
sure of  their  contents. 
The  bees  sometimes 
neglect  to  cap  the  cells 
of  some  of  liic  brood, 
and  some  persona  have 
thought  that  this  brood 
was  diseased,  hut  it 
hatches  all  the  a:ime. 
The  larva  is  no  sooner 
perfectly  inclosed,  than  it  begins  to  spin  ii  cocoon  after  the 
manner  of  the  silk-worm,  and  Clieshirc  leaches  us  that  it 
does  not  encase  the  insect,  but  is  only  at  llie  mnuth  ot  the 
cell,  "  and  in  no  case  extends  far  down  the  sides." 




To  return  to  Bevan : 

169.  **  When  it  has  undergone  this  change,  it  has  usually  borne 
the  name  otnymph^  or  pupa.  It  has  now  attained  its  full  growth, 
and  the  large  amount  of  nutriment  which  it  has  taken  serves  as 
a  store  for  developing  the  perfect  insect. 

"The  xDorkingbee  nymph  spins  its  cocoon  in  thirty-six  hours. 
After  passing  about  three  days  in  this  state  of  preparation  for  a 
new  existence,  it  gradually  undergoes  so  great  a  change  as  not 
to  wear  a  vestige  of  its  previous  form." 

Fig,  29. 
(Magriiifled.    Pxx)m  Sartori  and  Ranschenfels.) 

170.  The  last  cast-off  skin  of  the  larva,  **  which,  by  Ihe 
creature's  movements  within  the  cell,  becomes  plastered  to 
the  walls  and  joins  the  cocoon  near  the  mouth  end  "  (Chesh- 
ire), is  left  behind,  and  forms  a  closel3^-attached  and  exact 
lining  to  the  cell ;  by  tbis  means  the  breeding-cells  become 
smaller,  and  their  partitions  stronger,  the  oftener  they 
change  their  tenants. 

So  thin  is  this  lining,  that  brood  combs  more  than  twenty 
years  old  have  been  found  to  raise  bees  apparently  as  large 
as  any  other  in  the  Apiary. 

171.  About  twenty-one  days  are  usually  required  for  the 
transformations  from  the  worker-egg  to  the  perfect  insect. 
But  the  time  may  be  shortened  or  lengthened  by  the  tem- 
perature, or  the  conditions  of  the  colony.  Dzierzon  and 
others  wrote  that  a  worker-bee  can  hatch  in  nineteen  to 
twenty-one  days.  Collin  says  nineteen  to  twenty-three. 
That  the  brood  can  remain  even  longer  before  hatching,  is 


confirmed  by  the  report  of  A.  Saunier,  in  the  South  of 
France.  Having  deprived  a  hive  of  all  its  inhabitants,  he 
found  bees,  hatching  twenty- three  days  afterwards,  that  had 
not  even  been  sealed  in  their  cells,  since  there  had  been  no 
nurses  there  to  do  this  work.  ("  L'Apiculteur."  Paris, 
1870.)  As  these  were  already  full-grown  larvse,  when  the 
hive  was  deprived  of  its  bees,  they  must  have  been  twenty- 
seven  days  old  when  hatching.  In  this  experiment,  the 
heat  produced  by  the  larvae,  coupled  with  that  of  the  atmos- 
phere, had  been  sufficient  to  keep  them  alive  and  help  their 
slow  development. 

We  have  often  noticed  the  brood  of  swarms,  that  had  de- 
serted their  hives,  still  alive  after  a  cold  night,  but  in  each 
case  its  development  was  delayed. 

172.  A  newly  hatched  worker,  like  a  newly  hatched 
queen,  is  easily  recognized  by  her  small  size,  her  pale  gray 
color,  and  her  weak  appearance.  After  a  few  days,  she  has 
grown  considerably  larger.  She  is  then  in  the  bloom  of 
health ;  her  color  is  bright,  she  has  not  vet  lost  a  single  hair 
of  the  down  which  covers  her  body.  These  hairs  fall  grad- 
ually from  age  and  work,  and  sometimes  disappear  almost 

173.  The  first  excursion  of  the  young  bee  out  of  the  hive 
takes  place  when  she  is  about  eight  days  old.  (See  Don- 
hoff's  experiment  160.)  The  disturbing  of  the  colony,  or 
the  lack  of  old  bees  may  cause  them  to  go  out  earlier. 

The  first  flight  of  young  worker-bees  is  easily  remembered 
when  once  seen.  It  usually  takes  place  in  the  afternoon  of 
a  sunny  day.  Ihey  first  walk  about  on  the  platform  in  a 
hesitating  manner  and  then  take  flight.  Their  humming, 
and  joyous  and  peaceable  circles  to  reconnoitre  the  location 
of  their  home,  recalls  to  memory  the  gay  playing  of  children 
in  front  of  the  school-house  door.  Their  second  trip  is 
made  about  a  week  after  the  first ;  it  is  then  that  they  bring 
in  their  first  load.     A  young  bee  coming  home  is  readily 


recognized  by  the  small  size  of  the  pollen  pellets  she 
carries,  when  compared  with  those  of  older  bees,  and  by 
the  turns  she  makes  before  alighting, 

174.  The  Apiarist  should  become  acquainted  with  the 
behavior  of  young  bees,  so  as  not  to  mistake  their  pleasant 
flight  for  the  restless  motions  of  robber-bees.  (664. ) 

175.  Although  the  workers  are  females,  they  are  inca- 
pable of  fecundation  (108).  Yet  the  rudimental  ovaries 
of  some  of  them  contain  a  few   undeveloped  eggs  (fig.  30). 

1 76.  Occasionally  some  of  them  are  sufficiently  developed 
to  be  -capable  of  laying  eggs ;  but  these  eggs  always  produce 
drones.  Laying  workers  appear  only  when  a  colony  has  been 
queenless  for  some  time.  Huber  thought  that  fertile  workers 
were  reared  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  young  queens,  and 
that  they  received  some  of  the  peculiar  food,  or  jelly  on 
which  these  queens  are  fed.*  But  it  is  more  probable  that 
it  is  the  increase  of  the  milky  food,  given  lavishly  to  the 
larvae  in  the  first  stage  of  their  development,  during  a  good 
honey  flow,  which  enlarged  their  ovaries  (108),  and  that 
the  young  bees,  thus  raised,  having  no  more  larvae  to  nurse 
when  the  hive  has  suddenly  become  queen-less,  feed  each 
other  with  their  milky  food,  which  excites  their  laying,  as 
it  does  for  the  queens  (39).     The  number  of  drone-laying 

*An  extract  from  Haber's  preface  will  be  interesting  Id  this  connection .  After 
speakiDg  of  his  blindncM,  and  praising  the  extraordinary  taste  for  Natural  His- 
tory, of  his  Barnens,  "who  was  boru  with  the  talenta  of  an  obaer- 
Ter,  "he  says:  "  Every  one  of  the  facts  I  now  pablish,  we  hare  seen,  OTer 
and  orer  again,  daring  the  period  of  eight  years,  which  we  hare  employed  in 
making  oar  observations  on  bc«i.  It  is  impossible  to  form  a  Just  idea  of  the 
patience  and  skill  with  which  Buraens  has  carried  oat  the  experlmeota  whldi 
I  am  aboat  to  describe ;  he  has  often  watched  some  of  the  working-beet  of  oar 
hlTes,  which  we  had  reason  to  think  fertile,  for  the  space  of  twenty-four  hours, 
withoait  distraction  •  •  •  •  and  he  coautcd  fatigae  and  pain  aa  nothing,  com- 
pared with  the  great  desire  he  felt  to  know  the  results. " 


workers  is  sometimes  very  luge  in  %  hopelessly  queenless 
hive ;  we  hftve  seen  st  leut  «  dozen  laying  on  the  same 
comb.  Mr.  Viallon,  k  noted  bee-keeper  of  Louisiana,  once 
had  so  many  in  one  queenless  colony,  that  he  was  able  to 
send  several  dozen  for  dissection  to  bee-keepers  in  this 
country  and  Europe. 


(AU  nugnlflsd.    Vtota  Qliud . ) 
A,  qsmn  OTUlMi  B,  lirlnf-workaoTUlMi  C,  uterile'irorker  0<ulM. 

177.  Some  persons  may  question  the  wisdom  of  Nature 
in  endowing  the  workers  with  the  means  of  laying  drone- 
eggs,  when  there  is  no  queen  in  the  colony  to  be  fecundated 
by  them.  But  Nature  does  nothing  without  purpose.  The 
main  cause  of  the  loss  of  the  queen,  when  there  ia  no  brood 
fit  to  raise  others  (107),  and  therefore,  no  hopes  of  sur- 
Tival  tor  the  colony,  is  usually  the  death  of  the  young  queen 
in  her  bridal  Bight  (122).  At  some  seasons,  the  drones 
are  scarce,  and  a  young  queen  may  be  compelled  to  make 
•ereral  titfu  before  she  finds  one.    It  she  gets  lost,  the  hin 


Their  proper  office  is  to  impregnate  the  young  queens. 

"  Their  short  proboscis  sips 
No  luscious  nectar  from  the  wild  thyme^s  lips, 
From  the  lime's  leaf  no  amber  drops  they  steal, 
Nor  bear  their  grooveless  thighs  the  foodful  meal : 
On  other's  toils  in  pamper'd  leisure  thrive 
The  lazy  fathers  of  the  industrious  hive.''' 


18G.  The  drones  begin  to  make  their  appearance  in 
April  or  May ;  earlier  or  later,  according  to  the  forwardness 
of  the  season,  and  the  strength  of  the  colony.  Like  the  other 
inhabitants  of  the  hive  they  cannot  perform  the  work  for 
which  they  are  intended,  till  at  least  one  week  old.  They 
go  out  of  the  hives  only  when  the  weather  is  warm,  and  at 

187.  As  we  have  seen  (122),  the  mating  of  the  queen 
with  a  drone  always  takes  place  in  the  air.  Ph^'siologists 
say  that  it  cannot  be  otherwise,  because  the  sexual  organs 
of  the  drone  cannot  be  extruded  unless  his  abdomen  is 
swelled  by  the  Tilling  of  all  the  tracheae  with  air.  This  hap- 
pens only  in  swift  llight  (74). 

Dzicrzon  sui)poses  that  the  sound  of  the  queen's  wings, 
when  she  is  in  the  air,  excites  the  drones.  Evidently  their 
eyes  (11)  and  ears  (25)  which  are  highly  developed,  as 
proven  l>y  Che.-hire,  help  them  also  in  the  search  of  the 
queen,  which  is  tlicir  sole  occupation,  when  in  the  field.  In 
the  interior  of  the  hive,  they  are  never  seen  to  notice  her; 
so  that  she  is  not  molested,  even  if  thousands  are  members 
of  the  same  colony  with  herself.  But  outside  of  the  hive, 
the}*  reailily  follow  her,  led,  according  to  Dzierzon,  by  the 
peculiar  hum  of  her  llight,  and  certainly  also,  by  the  senses 
of  smell  and  of  sight,  which  are  more  perfect  than  those  of 
the  worker,  most  likely  for  this  single  purpose. 

"  When  the  queen  flies  abroad,  the  fleetest  drone  is  more  likely 
to  succeed  in  his  addresses  than  another,  and  thus  he  impresses 
upon  posterity  some  part  of  his  own  superior  activity  and 

F.  K.  CHESHraE,  F.  L.  S.,  F.  K.  M.  S. 
Author  of  "  Bttt  and  Bu-kaping." 
rrlimeaUoaeapagMS,  S,  i.  5.  T,  S,  ID,  11,  12,  IS,  16,  IT,  10,  n, 

SI,  r,.  X.  IT,  69,  Ti,  -i,  ea.  »i.  so,  w,  lis,  iis,  1:1.  142,  ise. 

as.  »l,  T.K,  <19,  Ut,  410.  417.,  4U,  4M. 

THE  DKONB.  81 

ergy.  The  Blow  and  weak  in  the  race  die  without  heirs,  go  that 
the  surviyal  of  the  fittest  is  not  an  accident,  bat  a  predetermina- 
tion. In  previous  chapters  we  have  considered  his  highly-devel- 
oped eyes,  meeting  at  the  vertex  of  his  head,  his  multitudinous 
smell-hollows,  and  his  strong  large  wings,  the  advantage  of 
which  now  appears  in  a  clearer  light;  his  quickness  in  discover- 
ing a  mate,  whose  neighborhood  is  to  him  filled  with  irresistible 
odours,  and  his  ability  in  keeping  her  in  view  during  pursuit,  are 

no  less  helpful  to  his  purpose  than  fieetness  on  the  wing " 


188.  The  drone  perishes  in  the  act  of  impregnating  the 
queen.  Although,  when  cut  into  two  pieces,  each  piece 
will  retain  its  vitality  for  a  long  time,  we  accidentally  ascer- 
tained, in  the  Summer  of  1852,  that  if  bis  abdomen  is  gently 
pressed,  and  sometimes  if  several  are  closely  held  in  the 
warm  hand,  the  male  organ  will  often  be  permanently  ex- 
truded, with  a  motion  very  like  the  popping  of  roasted  pop- 
corn ;  and  the  insect,  with  a  shiver,  will  curl  up  and  die,  as 
quickly  as  if  blasted  with  the  lightning's  stroke.  This  singu- 
lar provision  is  unquestionably  intended  to  give  additional 
security  to  the  queen  when  she  leaves  her  liive  to  liave  inter- 
course with  the  drone.  Huber  first  discovered  that  she 
returned  with  the  male  organ  torn  from  the  drone,  and  still 
adhering  to  her  body.  If  it  were  not  for  this  arraiiixeinent, 
her  spennatheca  could  not  be  filled,  unless  she  remained  so 
long  in  the  air  with  the  drone,  as  to  incur  a  very  great  risk 
of  being  devoured  by  birds.  In  one  instance,  some  days 
after  the  impregnation  of  a  queen,  we  found  the  male  organ,* 

•  We  giro,  as  interesting  in  thlB  connection ,  the  following;  extract  from  Mr. 
Lftngstroth's Journal:  ** August  25'/',  18.Vi.— Fonn«l  tht»  male  or;;aii  protruding 
from  a  young  qncen ;  oonld  not  remove  it  without  cxcrtinp  so  much  force  that 
I  feared  It  would  kill  her.  Dr.  Joseph  Lcidy  oxarnincd  this  qucoii-btc  with 
the  microscope,  so  as  to  demonstrate  that — to  uso  hi»  words— 'it  was  the  penis 
and  its  appendages  of  a  male,  corresponding  In  all  its  anatomical  peculiarities, 
with  the  same  organs  examined,  at  the  same  time,  in  other  drones.  The  tes- 
ticles and  wua  defertuUa  of  these  drones  were  found  to  be  full  of  the  spermatic 
ftnid.  The  «p<*rmatAfira  of  the  qneon  was  distended  with  the  same  semi-flnld, 
■pennatlo  matter. '  This  one  examination  dejuomtratrs  that  the  drones  are 
malee,  and  that  they  impregnate  the  queen  hj  actual  coition. " 


in  &  dried  state,  adherisg  bo  firmly  to  her  bod;,  that  it 
could  aot  be  removed  witliout  tearing  ber  to  pieces. 

Fig,  Si. 

(Hsgnlflcd.    FramOlranl.) 
•,«.  tstlelMi  h.>>,  maooiu  glanda;  <-,  Hinlnkl  duel:  d,  pi 
■perTDfttaphoTfl  U  formoJ;  r,  hollow  honu  ftad  panla;  fr 
orach  magnided. 

189.  The  number  of  drooea  in  a  hive  is  often  very  great, 
amounting  not  merely  to  hundreds,  but  sometimes  to  thous- 
ands. As  a  single  one  will  impregnate  a  queen  for  life,  it 
would  seem  that  only  a  few  should  be  reared.  But  as  sex- 
ual inlorcourse  always  taltes  place  high  up  in  the  air,  the 
yonnj;  (jnecns  must  necessarily  leave  the  hive;  and  it  is 
very  important  to  their  safety  that  they  should  be  sure  to 
find  a  drone  without  being  compelled  to  make  frequent  ex- 
cursions: for  being  larger  than  workers,  and  less  active  on 
the  wing,  queens  are  more  exposed  to  be  caught  b;  birds, 
or  destroyed  by  sudden  gusts  of  wind. 

In  a  large  Apiary,  a  few  drones  in  each  hive,  or  thB  duid- 

THB  DRONS.  83 

ber  usaallj  found  in  one,  would  suffice.  Under  such  cir- 
cumstances bees  are  not  in  a  stat^  of  nature,  like  a  colony 
living  in  a  forest,  which  often  has  no  neighbors  for  miles. 
A  good  stock,  even  in  our  climate,  sometimes  sends  out 
three  or  more  swarms,  and  in  the  tropical  climates,  of 
which  the  bee  is  probably  a  native,  they  increase  with  aston- 
ishing rapidity. •  Every  new  swarm,  except  the  first,  is  led 
off  by  a  young  queen ;  and  as  she  is  never  impregnated 
until  she  has  been  established  as  the  head  of  a  separate  fam- 
ily, it  is  important  that  each  should  be  accompanied  by  a 
goodly  number  of  drones :  this  requires  the  production  of  a 
large  number  in  the  parent-hive. 

190.  This  necessity  no  longer  exists  when  the  bee  is  do- 
mesticated, since  several  colonies  are  kept  in  the  same 
place,  and  the  breeding  of  so  many  drones  should  be  dis- 
couraged. Their  brood  takes  useful  space  that  might  as 
well  be  occupied  with  worker-brood.  One  thousand  good- 
for-nothing  drones  take  up  as  much  breeding-space  as  fif- 
teen hundred  workers  (224),  and  require  as  much  food, 
with  negative  results.  Some  hives,  in  a  state  of  nature, 
produce  so  many  drones  that  a  great  part  of  the  surplus 
crop  is  disposed  of  by  these  voracious  loafers.  Besides,  the 
comparatively  large  volume  of  the  male  organs,  in  connec- 
tion with  the  gluttony  of  the  drones,  explains  why  they  void 
their  dejections  in  the  hive,  while  workers  retain  them  till 
they  are  on  the  wing  (73),  and  why  the  cells  of  the  combs 
of  hives  which  have  a  large  quantity  of  these  gormands, 
become  dark  and  thick  sooner  than  the  others. 

The  importance  of  preventing  the  over-production  ot 
drones  has  been  corroborated  by  the  discovery  of  Mr.  V.  J. 
Mahan,  that  those  leaving  the  hive  have  quite  a  large  drop 
of  honey  in  their  stomachs — while  those   returning  from 

*  At  SydiMj,  in  ▲wtiAlUi,  ailngle  colony  U  stated  to  hare  maltiplled  to  300, 



their  pleasure  excursioos,  hkving  digested  their  dinners,  are 
prepared  for  a  new  supply. 

Aristotle  ("Hiatory  of  Animals,"  Book  IX,  Chap.  XI) 
speaks  of  the  irregular  and  thick  combs  built  by  some  colo- 
nies, and  the  superabundance  of  drones  issuing  from  them. 
He  describes  their  excursions  as  folloirs : 

"  Tbe  drones,  when  ttaey  go  abroad,  rise  Into  the  air  wltb  t 
circular  flight,  as  though  to  take  violent  exercise,  and  when  the7 
have  taken  enough,  return   home,  and   gorge  themsetves  with 

"The  drone,"  says  quaint  old  Butler  (1603)  "  is  a  groM.  Stlng- 
less  bee,  that  spendcth  his  time  In  gluttony  and  idleness.  For 
howsoever  he  brave  it  with  his  round  velvet  cap,  his  side  gown, 
his  full  paunch,  and  his  loud  voiue,  yet  is  he  bat  an  idle  compan- 
ion, living  by  the  sweat  of  others'  brows.  He  worketh  not  st 
all,  either  at  home  or  abroad,  and  yet  spendeth  as  mncb  as  two 
laborers:  you  shall  never  find  bis  maw  without  a  drop  of  the 
purest  nei'tar.  In  the  heat  of  the  day  he  flieth  abroad,  aloft  and 
about,  and  that  with  no  5iiiili  noise,  as  though  he  would  do  some 
great  act ;  but  it  is  only  for  Ills  pleasure,  and  to  get  him  a  stom- 
ach, and  then  returns  he  presently  to  bis  cheer." 

lOl,   Tbe    bee-kee|) 
haliit  of  dci^troyirig  the 
excess  otdroiiuri.   Tiioy 


in  Aristotle's  lime  were    in  the 

hive  — when    t  a  U  i  n  ^' 
their  :ifctiil"inf.l:iiriii;r 
—  by    contrafliii;:    tli.' 
entraiK'cs  willi  a  kirul 

isnsiSiisujyuSR^H^^HI^H  H 


trai^  wiiidi  be  calls  a 

One  of  [he  modern  in 
dronc-tra|i*  improved 

•  Tlie  inTforal-"!  tint,  aaed  1 
Coliln,    (■■,"   p.S,    FBTf 

Pig.  33. 

ntions  to  destroy  them  is  Alley's 
J.  A.  Batchelder;  but  it  is  much 

on(-i™|>9,  which  we  think  wu  Intenled  bj 

»!',) .  1.  to  cat.  U»t  MllhCT  qarra  .-r  dren* 
through  Ita  oppiilnit. 

THB  DROMS.  85 

better  to  save  the  bees  the  labor  and  expense  of  rear- 
ing such  a  host  of  useless  consumers.  This  can  readily 
be  done,  when  we  have  the  control  of  the  combs ;  for, 
by  removing  the  drone-comb,  and  supplying  its  place  with 
worker-cells,  the  over-production  of  drones  may  be  easily 
prevented.  Those  who  object  to  this,  as  interfering  with 
nature,  should  remember  that  the  bee  is  not  in  a  state 
of  nature ;  and  that  the  same  objection  might,  with  equal 
force,  be  urged  against  killing  off  the  supernumerary  males 
of  our  domestic  animals. 

192.  Soon  after  the  harvest  is  over,  or  if  there  is  a  lull 
in  the  yield  of  honey,  the  drones  are  expelled  from  the  hive. 
The  worker-bees  sting  them,  or  gnaw  the  roots  of  their 
wings,  so  that  when  driven  from  the  hive,  they  cannot  re- 
turn. If  not  ejected  in  either  of  these  summary  ways,  they 
are  so  persecuted  and  starved,  that  they  soon  perish.  At 
Buch  times  they  of  ten  retreat  from  the  comb,  and  keep  by 
themselves  upon  the  sides  or  bottom-board  of  the  hive. 
The  hatred  of  the  bees  extends  even  to  the  unhatched 
young,  which  are  mercilessly  pulled  from  the  cells  and  de- 
stroyed with  the  rest. 

Healthy  colonies  almost  always  destroy  the  drones,  as  soon 
08  forage  becomes  scarce.  In  the  vicinity  of  Philadelphia, 
there  were  only  a  few  days  in  June,  18r)8,  when  it  did  not 
rain,  and  in  that  month  the  drones  were  destroyed  in  most 
of  the  hives.  When  the  weather  became  more  propitious, 
others  were  bred  to  take  their  place.  In  seasons  when  the 
honey-harvest  has  been  abundant  and  long  protracted,  we 
have  known  the  drones  to  be  retained,  in  Northern  Massa- 
chusetts, until  the  1st  of  November.  If  bees  could  gather 
honey  and  could  swarm  the  whole  year,  the  drones  would 
probably  die  a  natural  death. 

How  wonderful  that  instinct  which,  when  there  is  no  longer 
any  occasion  for  their  services,  impels  the  bees  to  destroy 
those  members  of  the  colony  reared  with  such  devoted 



mon  parent ;  and  the  same  result  must  have  taken  place  in 
each  successive  generation,  until  the  whole  species  would 
eventually  have  ^*run  out."  By  the  present  arrangement, 
the  young  queens,  when  they  leave  the  hive,  often  find  the 
air  swarming  with  drones,  many  of  which  belong  to  other 
colonies,  and  thus,  by  crossing  the  breed,  provisioi  is  con- 
stantly made  to  prevent  deterioration. 

Experience  has  proved  that  impregnation  may  be  c  f  ected 
not  only  when  there  are  no  drones  in  the  colony  of  the 
young  queen,  but  even  when  there  are  none  in  her  iLimedi- 
ate  neighborhood.  Intercourse  takes  place  very  high  'n  the 
air  (perhaps  that  less  risk  may  be  incurred  from  birds), 
and  this  favors  the  crossing  of  stocks. 

197.  *'  Comparative  Table  of  the  Normal  Duration 
OF  THE  Bee's  Transformations  from  Eggs  to  Winged 


Growth  of  larva  .     •     . 
Spinning  of  cocoon  .     . 
Period  of  rest      .     .     . 
Metamorphosis  into  pupa 
Duration  of  this  stage  . 










.  3 






.  1 



.  2 



.  1 






Average  time  from  egg  to  winged  insect  16 








108.  When  a  swarm  (406)  has  found  a  suitable  habi- 
tatkm,  some  of  the  bees  clean  it  of  its  rubbish,  if  neces- 
Mry,  ifliile  others,  at  once,  prepare  to  build  the  furniture, 
which  is  intended  as  cradles  for  the  young  bees,  and  as  a 
store-room  for  the  proTisions,  and  is  called  comb. 

According  to  Webster,  this  word  is  probably  taken  from 
the  Anglo-Saxon  ^^  comb,"  which  means  a  hollow ;  the 
combs  being  hollow  structures,  with  exceedingly  light 

199.  The  combs  are  usually  begun  at  the  highest  point 
of  the  hive  and  built  downwards,  yet,  when  some  breaking 
happens,  the  bees  sometimes  build  them  upwards;  but 
they  are  far  from  haying  the  usual  regularity.  Combs  are 
made  of  wax,  a  natural  secretion  which  is  produced  by  bees 
as  cattle  produce  fat,  by  eating. 

300.  ^*  Wax  is  not  chemically  a  fat  or  glyceride,  yet  it  is  nearly 

allied  to  the  fats  in  atomic 
constitution,  and  the  physi- 
ological conditions  favouring 
the  formation  of  one  are  cu- 
riously similar  to  those  aiding 
in  the  production  of  the  other. 
We  put  our  poultry  up  to  fat 
Id  confinement,  with  partial 
light,  to  secure  bodily  inac- 
tivity, we  keep  warm  and 
fsed  highly.  Our  bees,  under  Nature^s  teaching,  put  themselves 
np  to  yield  wax  under  conditions  so  parallel,  that  the  suitability 
«f  the  fktting  ooops  is  yindioated."^Che8hire.) 

Fig.  M, 



THE  Btnutme  or  bemb. 

rcmnin  quiettf  ctoBtered  together,  when 
gorged  with  honey,  or  any 
liquid  sweet,  the  wax  is  se- 
creted io  the  shape  of  deli- 
cate scales  in  four  smaU 
pouches,  on  each  side  of  the 
abdomeo  of  worker-bees. 

"These  scales,  of  an  fmg- 
nUr  pentagonal  shape,  an  so 
(rt^fh.-l.'u.u^UBUn*^t^.")  u„„  „d   ng^^    u,^  ^^  ^^^ 

died  of  them  hardly  weigh  as  much  as  a  kernel  of  wheat." — (Dn- 
*lnl,  "L'Ape.") 

202.  In  the  yoaog  bees,  which  are  endowed  with  a  great 
appetite,  they  form,  probably,  without  their  knowledge,  dar- 
ing the  honey  season  and  if  there  is  no  place  to  ase  them, 
they  are  gatlicred   in  small   knots  here   and   there.     This 

as   or  Tua  woRXXB-BBB. 

(MBgalSed.    PromGinrd.) 

only  happens  when  the  combs  are  entirely  filled  and  sealed. 
It  has  been  noliucd,  most  espcuially,  in  hives  in  which  a 
comb  hail  been  broken  down  by  beat.  (333.)  In  such 
cases,  many  of  ttie  bees  gijt'ge  themselves  with  the  wasting 
honey,  anil  cluster  ou  the  outside,  until  the  heat  has  sub- 
sided,  and    the    running    honey    has   been  g*thered   up. 

00MB.  91 

Scales  of  waat,  in  luxnpSi  Cftn  then  be  found  where  they  have 

203.  Although  the  faculty  of  producing  wax  is  dimin- 
ished in  old  bees,  who  are  subject  to  the  natural  law  which 
makes  it  more  difficult  to  fatten  an  old  animal,  it  is  proved 
that  they  may  also  produce  small  scales  of  wax. 


During  the  active  storing  of  the  past  season,  especially  when 
comb  htalding  was  in  rapid  progreaa,  1  foond  that  nearly  every 
b^  taken  from  the  Howers  contained  wax  scales  of  varying  sizes 
in  the  wax-pockets."— (A.  J.  Cook.) 

204.  The  first  condition  indispensable  for  bees  to  pro- 
duce wax,  is  to  have  the  stomach  well  filled. 

It  is  an  interesting  fact  that  honey-gathering  and  comb- 
building  go  on  simultaneously ;  so  that  when  one  stops,  the 
other  ceases  also.  As  soon  as  the  honey  harvest  begins  to 
fail,  so  that  consumption  is  in  advance  of  production,  the 
bees  cease  to  build  new  comb,  even  though  large  portions 
of  their  hive  are  unfilled.  When  honey  no  longer  abounds 
in  the  fields,  it  is  wisely  ordered  that  they  should  not  con- 
sume, in  comb-building,  the  treasures  which  may  be  needed 
for  Winter  use.  What  safer  rule  could  have  been  given 

It  takes  about  twenty-four  hours,  for  a  bee's  food  to  be- 
come transformed  into  wax. 

305.  ^^  Having  filled  themselves  with  honey,  they  gather  in 
chains ;  not  In  a  single  group,  bat  In  a  number  of  groups,  hang- 
ing in  a  parallel  curtain,  In  the  direction  of  the  comb  to  be  con- 
Btmcted.  Thus  a  bee  clings  to  the  ceiling  with  her  claws,  or  the 
sticky  rubber  of  her  feet,  her  posterior  limbs  hanging  down ; 
another  bee  grapples  the  claws  of  these  posterior  feet,  with  the 
claws  of  her  anterior  limbs,  letting  her  hind  limbs  hang  also,  to 
be  grappled  by  a  third,  and  so  on,  till  the  first  chain  meets  an- 
other, and  both  united  form  an  arch,  top  downward,  (fig.  37.) 
This  single  chain  becomes  compound  when  several  are  in  the 
same  line  (fig.  38),  and  grouped  near  one  an  other.''— (Sartor!  and 
Ranschenfeto,  ''L'Apicoltora  in  Italia,"  Milan,  1878.) 

92  tWt  BDILOMO  or  BUB. 

SOfi.  "  If  we  exunlne  the  be«a  oloMly  daring  Qie  nmaon  of 
oomb-bnlldlng  Bud  boney-gatberiag,  we  Bhftll  flod  many  of  Uiem 
with  the  wax  BCAles  protrndlng  between  the  rings  that  form  the 
bodj,  and  thcH  ac&les  are  either  picked  fh>m  Uielr  bodlei,  or 
from  the  bottom  of  the  hive  or  honey  boxes  in  wlileta  thej  are 
bnildtng.  If  a  bee  Is  obliged  to  cany  one  of  these  wax  ecalea 
but  a  short  distance,  be  takes  It  in  hlfl  mandibles,  and  looks  as 
boilnesa-ltke  with  It  thus,  as  a  carpenter  with  a  board  on  bit 
Shonlder.  If  he  baa  to  carry  It  ttoia  the  bottom  of  the  honey  box, 
ha  takes  it  in  a  way  that  I  cannot  explain  any  better  than  to  aay 
ha  slips  it  under  his  chin,  in  the  mandibles  or  Jawa.  When  thns 
ttqntpped,  yon  would  never  know  be  waa  encnmbered  with  any^ 
tUsg,  onless  it  chanced  to  slip  out,  when  he  will  very  dextronsly 
tack  it  back  with  one  of  his  foreltet.    The  little  plate  of  wax 

Fig.  j;.  Flf.n. 

Is  io  warm,  fTom  being  kept  anUer  hia  chin,  as  to  be  qntte  soft 
when  It  gets  back ;  and  as  be  takes  it  oat,  and  glres  It  a  pinch 
against  the  comb  where  tbe  building  Is  going  on,  one  woold 
think  he  might  stop  a  while  and  put  it  into  place  ;  but  not  he; 
for  off  he  scampers  and  twists  around  so  many  different  ways, 
yon  might  think  he  was  not  one  of  the  working  kind  at  all.  An- 
other follows  after  him  sooner  or  later,  and  gives  the  wax  a  pinch, 
or  a  tittle  scraping  or  burnishing  with  his  poUahed  mandibles, 
then  another,  and  so  on,  and  the  sum  total  of  all  these  mantea* 
vres  is  that  the  comb  seems  almost  to  gro*  out  of  nothing;  yet 
no  bee  ever  makes  a  cell  himseLf,  and  no  comb  building  la  ever 
done  by  any  bee  while  standing  In  a  cell ;  neither  do  the  t>eea  eT«r 
stand  in  lowa  and  '  exoavate,'  or  any  thing  of  tbe  kind." 

ooicB.  98 

**  Tbe  flniahed  eomb  ii  the  result  of  the  united  efforts  of  the 
moTing,  restless  mass,  and  the  great  mystery  is,  that  anythlDg 
so  wonderftil  oan  ever  result  at  all,  from  such  a  mixed-ap,  skip- 
ping about  way  of  working,  as  they  seem  to  have.'* 

^  When  the  cells  are  built  out  only  part  way,  they  are  flUed 
with  honey  or  eggs,  and  the  length  is  increased  when  they  feel 
disposed,  or  *get  around  to  it,  perhaps;  as  a  thick  rim  is  left 
around  tiie  upper  edge  of  the  cell,  they  have  the  material  at 
hand,  to  lengthen  it  at  any  time.  This  thick  rim  is  also  very 
neeessaiy  to  give  the  bees  a  secure  foothold,  for  the  sides  of  the 
eells  are  so  thin,  they  would  be  very  apt  to  break  down  with  even 
the  light  weight  of  a  bee.  When  honey  is  coming  in  rapidly,  and 
the  bees  are  crowded  for  room  to  store  it,  their  eagerness  is  so 
plainly  apparent,  as  they  push  the  work  along,  that  they  fairly 
seem  to  quiver  with  excitement;  but,  for  all  that,  they  skip 
about  from  one  cell  to  another  in  the  same  way,  no  one  bee 
working  in  the  same  spot  to  exceed  a  minute  or  two,  at  the  very 
outside.  Very  frequently,  after  one  has  bent  a  piece  of  wax  a 
certain  way,  the  next  tips  it  in  the  opposite  direction,  and  so 
on  until  completion ;  but  after  all  have  given  it  a  twist  or  a  pull, 
it  is  found  in  pretty  nearly  the  right  spot.  As  near  as  1  can  dis- 
cover, they  moisten  the  thin  ribbons  of  wax,  with  some  sort  of 
fluid  or  saliva  (41).  As  the  l>ee  always  preserves  the  thick  rib*  or 
rim  of  the  comb  he  is  working,  the  looker-on  would  suppose  he 
was  making  the  walls  of  a  considerable  tliicknoss,  but  if  we  drive 
him  away,  and  break  this  rim,  we  will  find  that  his  mandibles 
have  come  so  nearly  together,  that  the  wax  between  them,  be- 
yond the  rim,  is  almost  as  thin  as  a  tissue  ^aper/^ — (A.  I.  Root, 
"  A.  B.  C.  of  Bee  Culture.") 

207.  It  is  very  difficult  to  ascertain  who  first  discovered 
these  scales  of  wax.  According  to  Mr.  S.  Wagner,  J.  A. 
Overbeck,  in  his  ^''Cflossarium  MflUturfjium^'^  \).  hi>,  Bremen, 
1765,  claims  that  a  Hanoverian  pastor,  named  Herman  C. 
Hornbostel,  described  them  in  tlie  Hamhnrfj  Lihninj^  al)C)ut 
174.5.  Mr.  L.  Stachelbaiiscn  informed  us  tliat  lln'y  were 
mentioned  by  Martin  John  in  Ehi  Nea  Bienenbuchel,  1091. 

•  Tht  eomtant  yimi  ihift  of  this  rib  or  heary  edge  of  the  comb  while  the 
wock  |BegiMaw»  caqplmLiui  why  old  comb  lengthened  and  Rcaled  with  new  wax, 
■ooMttmfliivUiint  a  ptrt  of  its  dark  color  throaghont.  Some  of  the  old  wax 
Is  andoahtodly  mizsd  with  the  new,  in  the  eonitant  remodeling  of  thia  hearier 
I,  tOl  tte  eoab  Is  MaUd. 

94  ^  THB  BUILDING   OF   BEES. 

They  were  also  discovered,  in  Germany,  by  a  fanner. 
This  discovery  was  commanicated  to  the  naturalist  Bonnet 
by  Willelmi,  under  the  date  of  August  22,  1765.    (Huber.) 

In  1779,  Thos.  Wildman  bad  noticed  tbe  scales  of  wax 
on  the  abdomen  of  the  workers ;  and  he  was  so  thoroughly 
convinced  that  wax  was  secreted  from  honey,  that  he  rec- 
ommended feeding  new  swarms,  when  the  weather  is  stormy, 
that  they  may  sooner  build  comb  for  the  eggs  of  the  queen. 

From  the  books  written  in  the  French  language,  it  seems 
that  it  was  Duchet,  who,  in  his  '*  Culture  des  Abeilles/' 
printed  in  Friburg  in  1771,  wrote  first  that  beeswax  is  pro- 
duced from  honey,  of  which  they  eat  a  large  quantity, 
'*  which  is  cooked  in  their  bodies,  as  in  a  stove,*'  increasing 
thereby  the  warmth  of  the  hive,  and  that  beeswax  *'  exudes 
out  of  this  stove  '*  through  the  rings  of  their  body  which  are 
near  the  corselet.  This  idea  of  Duchet  led  Beaunier  to  ex- 
amine bees,  and  he  discovered  that  they  produce,  at  one 
time,  not  two  scales  of  wax  only,  but  nine,  the  last  ring 
having  seemed  to  produce  one.     He  adds: 

30S.  ^^  To  employ  this  material,  bees  use  their  Jaws,  their 
tongues,  and  their  antennae.  In  favorable  years  you  can  see 
a  great  quantity  of  these  pieces  of  wax  which  have  fallen  on  tbe 
bottom  of  the  hives."— {"  Trait6  sur  rjEducation  des  Abeilles,*' 
Vendome,  1808.) 

209.  When  bees  are  building  combs,  some  scales  of  wax 
are  often  found  on  the  bottom  board,  the  bees  having  been 
unable  to  use  them  before  they  became  too  tough.  Some- 
times they  pick  them  up  afterwards  and  use  them ;  some 
races  of  bees,  the  Italian  (551),  for  instance,  often  use 
also  pieces  of  old  combs,  which  may  be  within  their  reach. 

The  comb,  thus  built,  is  easily  detected  on  account  of  its 
darker  color.  Queen-cells  seem  to  be  always  built  of  par- 
ticles, taken  from  the  comb  on  which  they  hang,  and  are 
never  of  pure  wax  (104). 

OOMB.  95 

**  Thnfl,  filtered  thraunfh  yen  flatterer's  folded  mail* 
CUngi  tlw  cooled  wax,  and  hardens  to  a  scale. 
Swift,  at  the  well-known  call,  the  ready  train 
(For  not  a  buz  boon  Nature  breathes  in  vain) 
Spring  to  each  falling  flake,  and  bear  along 
Their  glossy  burdens  to  the  bailder  throng. 
These  with  sharp  sickle,  or  with  sharper  tooth. 
Pare  each  excrescence,  and  each  angle  smoothCy 
Till  now,  in  finished  pride,  two  radiant  rows 
Of  snow  white  cells  one  mutaal  base  disclose. 
Six  shining  panels  gird  each  polishM  round; 
The  door's  fine  rim,  with  waxen  fillet  bound; 
While  walls  so  thin,  with  sister  walls  combined, 
Weak  in  themselves,  a  sore  dependence  find." 


210.  The  cells  of  bees  are  found  to  fulfill  perfectly  the 
most  sabtle  conditions  of  an  intricate  mathematical  problem. 

Let  it  be  required  to  find  what  shape  a  given  quantity  of 
matter  most  take,  in  order  to  have  the  greatest  capacity 
and  strength,  occupying,  at  the  same  time,  the  least  space y 
and  consuming  the  least  labor  in  its  construction.  When 
this  problem  is  solved  by  the  most  refined  mathematical 
processes,  the  answer  is  the  hexagonal  or  six-sided  cell  of 
the  honey-bee,  with  its  three  four-sided  figures  at  the  base  I 

The  shape  of  these  figures  cannot  be  altered  ever  so  lit- 
tlei  except  for  the  worse. 

211.  The  bottom  of  each  cell  is  formed  of  three  lozenges, 
the  latter  forming  one  third  of  the  base  of  three  opposite 

**  If  the  little  lozenge  plates  were  square,  we  should  have  the 
same  arrangement,  bat  the  bottom  would  be  too  sharp  pointed  as 
it  were, to  use  wax  with  the  best  economy,  or  to  best  acconimodnte 
the  body  of  the  infantile  bee.  Should  we,  on  the  contrary,  make 
the  losenge  a  little  longer,  we  should  have  the  bottom  of  the  cell 
too  nearly  flat  to  use  wax  with  most  economy,  or  for  the  comfort 
of  the  yoong  bee."  (A.  I.  Root,  "A.  B.  C.  of  Bee  Culture.") 

31S«  **  There  are  only  three  possible  figures  of  the  cells,** 
MjB  Or.  BftlAf  ^  whMi  can  make  them  all  equal  and  similar. 

96  THE  BUILDniO  OF  BSI8. 

without  any  lueless  spaces  between  them.  These  tie  the  equi- 
lateral triangle,  the  square,  and  the  regular  hexagon.  It  is  well 
known  to  mathematicians,  that  there  is  not  a  fourth  way  possible 
in  which  a  plane  may  be  cut  into  little  spaoes  that  shall  be  equal, 
similar,  and  regular,  without  leaving  any  interstices." 

An  equilateral  triangle  would  have  been  impossible  for 
an  insect  with  a  round  body  to  build.  A  circle  seems  to  be 
the  best  shape  for  the  development  of  the  lanrs ;  but  such 
a  figure  would  have  caused  a  needless  sacrifice  of  space, 
materials,  and  strength.  The  body  of  the  immature  insect, 
as  it  undergoes  its  changes,  is  charged  with  a  superabun- 
dance of  moisture,  which  passes  off  through  the  reticulated 
cover  of  its  cell ;  may  not  a  hexagon,  therefore,  while  ap- 
proaching so  nearly  to  the  shape  of  a  circle,  as  not  to 
incommode  the  young  bee,  furnish,  in  its  six  corners,  the 
necessary  vacancies  for  a  more  thorough  ventilation  ? 

Is  it  credible  that  these  little  insects  can  unite  so  many 
requisites  in  the  construction  of  their  cells? 

213.  The  fact  is  that  the  hexagonal  shape  of  the  cells  is 
naturally  produced,  and  wihout  any  calculation,  by  the  bee. 
She  wants  to  build  each  cell  round;  but  as  every  cell 
touches  the  next  ones,  and  as  she  does  not  wish  to  leave  any 
space  between,  each  one  of  the  cells  flattens  at  the  contact, 
as  would  soap  bubbles  if  all  of  the  same  diameter.  It  is  the 
same  for  the  lozenges  of  the  bottom.  The  bee,  wanting  the 
bottom  of  the  cell  concave  inside,  makes  it,  naturally,  con- 
vex outside.  As  this  convexity  projects  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  median  line,  the  bee  who  builds  the  opposite 
cells  begins,  naturally,  on  the  tip  of  the  convexity,  the 
walls  of  cells  just  begun,  since  she  wants  also  to  make  their 
bottom  concave.  The  final  result  is  that  one-third  of  the 
bottom  of  each  of  three  cells  makes  the  bottom  of  the  one 
cell  opposite,  and  each  one  of  the  lozenges  is  flattened,  so 

not  to  encroach  on  the  opposite  cells. 

214.  The  cells  are  not  horizontal,  but  inclined  from  tbs 



orifice  to  the  bottom  (fig.  89),  bo  as  to  be  filled  with  honey 

more  easily.  The  thickness 
of  •worker-brood  comb  is 
about  one  inch,  with  cells 
opening  on  each  side.  The 
distance  between  combs  is 
about  ^g>  of  an  inch.  This 
apace  is  not  always  exact, 
but  is  never  under  -f^^  that  be- 
ing necessary  for  the  bees  to 
travel  between  the  combs 
without  interfering  with  one 
another.       These    distances 


OTrom  Sertoli  and  RamfihenflBia.) 

can  be  a  little  increased  without  troubling  the  bees,  and  we 
place  the  combs  in  our  hives  one  and  a  half  inches  from 
center  to  center,  for  easier  manipulation. 

215.  When  the  combs  are  newly  built,  they  are  white, 
but  they  get  color  shortly  afterwards,  especially  during  the 
harvest  of  yellow  honey.  When  used  for  breeding,  the  cast 
skins  and  residues  from  the  larvae  (167)  give  them  a  dark 
color,  which  becomes  nearly  black  with  age,  especially  if 
bees  have  suffered  with  diarrhoea  (784),  or  raised  a  great 
many  drones  (73-190). 

As  wax  is  a  bad  conductor,  the  combs  aid  in  keeping  the 
bees  warm,  and  there  is  less  risk  of  the  honey  candying 
in  the  cells. 

216.  Is  the  size  of  the  cells  mathematically  exact? 
When  the  first  Republic  of  France  inaugurated  the  decimal 
system  of  weights  and  measures,  Reaumur  proposed  to  take 
the  cells  of  the  bees  as  a  standard  to  establish  the  basis  of 
the  system,  but  it  was  ascertained  that  cells  are  not  uni- 
form in  size. 

217.  The  cells  in  which  workers  are  reared  are  the 
smallest.  Those  in  which  the  drones  are  reared  are  larger. 
It  is  generally  admitted  that  five  worker-cells  measure  about 



TBB   BmLDmO  OF   BKE8. 

a  linear  Inch,  or  tweDty-ftve  to  the  square  inch,  but  this  ia 
iacorrect.  If  five  worker-cellB  measured  exactly  an  inc^, 
the  number  contained  in  a  square  inch  would  be  about 
twenty-nine.  As  they  are  usually  eomcwhat  larger,  the  ar* 
erage  number  in  a  square  inch  is  a  triQe  over  twenty-seven. 
Dcone-cells  number  about  eighteen,  in  the  same  area. 

L'Abb^  Collin  measured  the  average  dimensions  of  the 
cells  very  carefully,  and  the  measurements  given  in  his 
work  (Paris,  1865)  are  about  the  same  as  those  given  above. 

218.  The  queen-cells  have  already  been  described. 

As  bees,  in  building  their  cells,  cannot  pass  immediately 
from  one  size  to  another,  they  dispby  an  admirable  aagao- 
ity  in  making  the  transition  by  a  set  of  irregular  inter- 
mediate celts.  Fig.  40  exhibits  an  accurate  and  beaatUol 
representation  ot  comb,  drawn  for  this  work  from  nBtnr*, 

00MB.  99 

by  M.  M.  Tidd,  and  engraved  by  D.  T.  Smith,  both  of 
Boston  Mass.  The  cells  are  of  the  size  of  nature.  The 
large  ones  are  drone-cells,  and  the  small  ones,  worker-cells. 
The  irregular;  five-sided  cells  between  them,  show  how 
bees  pass  from  one  size  to  another. 

Mr.  Cheshire,  in  his  book,  has  criticized  this  engraving, 
on  account  of  the  acuteness  of  the  cells  of  transition,  or  as 
he  terms  them,  of  accommodation.  He  writes:  ''The  head 
of  a  bee  could  not  reach  the  bottom  of  the  acute  angles  as 
they  are  represented."  Our  first  impression,  on  reading 
the  criticism,  was  that  Mr.  Cheshire  was  right.  Then  the 
thought  that  Mr.  Langstroth  had  his  engravings  made  from 
nature  led  us  to  inspect  some  combs,  when  we  found  several 
cells  of  accommodation  with  angles  at  least  as  acute  as  in 
the  cut.  But  we  noticed  also  that  this  acuity  exists  only 
on  the  rims  of  the  cells  and  not  inside ;  the  bees,  inside  the 
cellSy  having  pushed  out  the  walls,  to  be  enabled  to  reach 
the  bottom  of  the  angles  which  were  thus  rounded  inside.* 

210.  The  combs  are  built  with  such  economy,  that  tlie 
entire  construction  of  a  hive  of  a  capacity  of  nine  gallons 
does  not  yield  more  than  two  pounds  of  bees- wax  when 

According  to  Dr.  Donhofl,  the  thickness  of  the  sides  of 
a  cell  in  a  new  comb  is  only  the  one  hundred  and  eightieth 
part  of  an  inch!  Cheshire  states  that  he  found  some  that 
measured  only  the  fourhundreth  of  an  inch. 

220.  Most  Apiarists  before  Ruber's  time  supposed  that 
wax  was  made  from  pollen,  either  in  a  crude  or  digested 
state.  Confining  a  new  swarm  of  bees  to  a  hive  in  a  dark 
and  cool  room,  at  the  end  of  live  days  he  found  several  beau- 
tiful white  combs  in  their  tenement ;  these  being  taken  from 
them,  and  the  bees  supplied  with  honey  and  water,  new 

•  Mr.  LMgitroth  wrote  to  ni,  in  regnd  to  this  critlclam  of  Mr.  Cheshira; 
"  Tlds  pieee  of  eomb  wm  aetiiftUy  copied  from  natore  bj  a  man  of  extraoidi- 




combs  were  again  constructed.  Seven  times  in  succession 
their  combs  were  removed,  and  were  in  each  instance  re- 
placed, the  bees  being  all  the  time  prevented  from  ranging 
the  fields  to  supply  themselves  with  pollen.  By  subsequent 
experiments,  he  proved  that  sugar-syrup  answered  the 
same  end  with  honey.  Giving  an  imprisoned  swarm  an 
abundance  of  fruit  and  pollen,  he  found  that  they  subsisted 
on  the  fruit,  but  refused  to  touch  the  pollen ;  and  that  no 
combs  were  constructed,  nor  any  wax-scales  formed  in  their 

Notwithstanding  Huber's  extreme  caution  and  unwearied 
patience  in  conducting  these  experiments,  he  did  not  dift> 
cover  the  whole  truth  on  this  important  subject.  Though  be 
demonstrated  that  bees  can  construct  comb  when  fed 
honey  or  sugar,  without  pollen,  and  that  they  cannot 
make  it  if  fed  pollen  without  honey  or  sugar,  he  did  not 
prove  that  when  permanently  deprived  of  it  they  can  con- 
tinue to  work  in  wax,  or  if  they  can,  that  the  pollen  does 
not  aid  in  its  elaboration. 

Some  pollen  is  always  found  in  the  stomach  of  wax-pro- 
ducing workers,  and  they  never  build  comb  so  rapidly  as 
when  they  have  free  access  to  this  article.  It  must, 
therefore,  in  some  way,  assist  the  bee  in  producing  it. 

221.  The  experiments  made  by  Berlepsch  show  that 
bees,  which  are  deprived  of  pollen  when  they  construct 
combs,  consume  from  sixteen  to  nineteen  pounds  of  honey 
to  produce  a  pound  of  comb,  while,  if  provided  with  it,  the 
amount  of  honey  is  reduced  to  ten  or  twelve  pounds.  If 
the  experiment  is  continued  without  pollen  for  some  time, 
the  bees  become  exhausted  and  begin  to  perish.  It  is 
therefore  demonstrated  that  although  nitrogen,  which  is 
one  of  the  elements  of  pollen,  does  not  enter  into  the 
composition  of  bees- wax  (222),  yet  it  is  indispensable  as 
food  to  sustain  the  strength  of  bees  during  their  work*  in 
comb  making. 

OOKB.  101 

222.  Honey  and  sogar  contain  by  weight  about  eight 
pounds  of  oxygen  to  one  of  carbon  and  hydrogen.  When 
oonyerted  into  wax,  these  proportions  are  remarkably 
changed,  the  wax  containing  only  one  pound  of  oxygen  to 
more  than  sixteen  of  hydrogen  and  carbon.  Now  as  oxy- 
gen is  the  grand  supporter  of  animal  heat,  the  large  quan- 
tity consumed  in  secreting  wax  aids  in  generating  that 
extraordinary  heat  which  always  accompanies  comb-build- 
ing, and  which  enables  the  bees  to  mould  the  softened  wax 
into  such  exquisitely  delicate  and  beautiful  forms.  This 
interesting  instance  of  adaptation,  so  clearly  pointing  to 
the  Divine  Wisdom,  seems  to  have  escaped  the  notice  of 
previous  writers. 

223.  Careful  experiments  prove  that  from  ten  to  sixteen 
pounds  of  honey  are  usually  required  to  make  a  single 
pound  of  wax.  As  wax  is  an  animal  oil,  secreted  chiefly 
from  honey,  this  fact  will  not  appear  incredible  to  those 
who  are  aware  how  many  pounds  of  corn  or  hay  must  be  fed 
to  cattle  to  have  them  gain  a  single  pound  of  fat.  From 
experiments  made  by  Mr.  P.  Viallon  here,  and  by  Mr.  De 
Layens  in  France,  it  seems  that  in  good  circumstances 
bees  use  only  about  seven  pounds  of  honey  to  produce  a 
pound  of  wax. 

Many  bee-keepers  are  unaware  of  the  value  of  empty 
comb.  Suppose  honey  to  be  worth  only  ten  cents  per  pound, 
and  comb,  when  rendered  into  wax,  to  be  worth  thirty 
oentSy  the  Apiarist  who  melts  a  pound  of  comb  loses  largely 
by  the  operation,  even  without  estimating  the  time  his  bees 
have  consumed  in  building  it.  It  is,  therefore,  considered 
a  first  principle  in  bee-culture  never  to  melt  good  worker- 
oomba.  A  strong  colony  of  bees,  in  the  height  of  the  honey- 
harvest,  wiU  fill  them  with  very  great  rapidity. 

With  the  box  hives  (275),  but  little  use  'yan  be  made 
of  empty  comb,  unless  it  is  new  and  can  be  put  into  the 
anrplos  honey-boxea  (728),  but  by  the  uje  of  movable 


frames,  every  good  piece  of  worker-comb  may  be  given  to 
the  bees  (286). 

224.  As  we  have  seen  before  (217),  while  the  amall 
cells  are  designated  as  worker-cells,  the  large  ones,  which 
vary  greatly  in  depth  and  are  more  especially  prepared  to 
store  honey,  and  in  which  the  drones  are  raised,  are  known 
as  store  or  drone-cells. 

225.  Generally,  bees  build  a  larger  number  of  worker 
than  of  store-cells ;  yet  they  do  not  follow  any  regulation 
as  to  the  relative  proportion  in  the  quantity  of  each  kind. 
Not  two  colonies,  in  the  same  Apiary,  will  show  the  same 
number  of  large  cells,  even  when  the  hives  are  of  equal 
capacity,  and  even  if  the  building  was  done  in  circumstances 
seemingly  identical.  You  will  find  a  colony  whose  comb 
will  consist  of  two- thirds  worker  and  one- third  store  cells, 
the  adjacent  colony  will  have  but  one-sixth  of  the  latter, 
another  a  few  square  inches  only.  In  a  hive  all  the  large 
cells  are  together,  in  another  they  are  scattered.  Some  of 
these  drone-combs  are  built  from  top  to  bottom  of  the  hive, 
others  are  at  the  top  only,  others  at  the  side,  or  at  the* bot- 
tom, or  scattered,  etc. 

226.  These  facts,  not  explainable  by  themselves,  when 
added  to  the  wonderful  habits  of  bees,  have  led  to  the  theory 
that  it  was  with  foresight,  with  perfect  knowledge  and  for  a 
special  purpose,  that  bees  construct  such  a  varied  propor- 
tion of  the  two  kinds  of  cells.  Bees  are  represented  as 
knowing  the  sex  of  the  eggs  which  each  kind  of  cells  will 
receive ;  and  foreseeing  that  their  queen  may  not  live  long 
and  that  the  young  queens  have  to  be  fecundated  (120), 
they  build  laro^e  cells  in  which  drones  could  be  raised. 

227.  We  have  demonstrated  (213)  that  bees* construct 
their  cells  without  any  geometrical  calculation.  We  had 
previously  (142)  established  that  the  queen  does  not  know 
the  sex  of  the  eggs  she  is  laying,  and  although  regretting 
to  decrease  the  charm  with  which  bees  ware  sorrounded  by 

OOKB.  108 

the  imflginfttion  of  bee-keepers,  we  will  try  to  demonstrate 
that,  in  the  building  of  cella,  they  simply  follow  their  incli- 
nation ;  as  do  all  other  beings,  in  the  acts  that  they  perform. 
Bat  we  hikve  first  to  put  forward  a  few  facts,  which  are  gen- 
erally accepted,  on  which  we  will  ground  our  reasoning. 

228.  i^,  A  swarm  (406),  hived  on  empty  frames, 
always  begins  its  constructions  by  worker  or  small  cells : 

2d^  If  the  queen  of  a  swarm  is  very  prolific  (97),  very 
MtUe  of  large,  or  store-comb,  will  generally  be  built  by  her 

3dy  If,  on  the  contrary,  from  old  age,  or  from  some 
other  cause,  the  fecundity  of  a  queen  is  deficient  (155), 
her  bees  wiU  fill  the  hive  with  a  large  quantity  of  store- 

4thy  If  the  queen  of  a  swarm  is  removed,  or  dies  while 
the  bees  are  building,  all  the  combs,  made  during  her  ab- 
sence, will  consist  of  store-cells : 

5thy  If  all  or  part  of  the  store-combs  of  a  hive  are  re- 
moved, the  bees  will  rebuild  large  cells,  at  least  three  times 
out  of  four. 

229.  Besides  these  five  propositions,  we  will  remember 
that  queens  prefer  to  lay  in  small  cells  (145),  and  that  they 
■eem  to  know  how  to  ask  the  workers  to  narrow  the  orifices 
of  the  store-cells,  when  there  are  no  others  in  the  hive  to 
xeceive  their  impregnated  eggs  (146  to  148). 

We  hikve  to  remark  also  that,  while  the  queen  prefers  the 
narrow  cells,  the  workers  prefer  to  build  the  wide  ones, 
since  they  cease  to  construct  worker-cells  when  the  queen  is 
gone,  or  when  she  is  not  on  the  spot,  to  remind  them,  by 
her  presence,  that  she  needs  narrow  cells  for  her  impregnated 
eggs  (146),  and  we  will  find  out  the  cause  of  such  differ- 
ences, in  the  number  and  in  the  position  of  each  kind  of 
combs,  by  following  the  work  of  the  bees,  in  some  of  the 
drcumstaaces  in  which  they  may  have  to  build. 

280.  (a)  Hie  queen  of  a  swarm  is  very  prolific,  the  crop 


is  abundant,  and  the  building  goes  on  very  fast.  The  queen 
lays  in  all  the  cells,  as  soon  as  begun,  disputing  for  them 
with  the  workers,  who  want  to  fill  them  with  honey.  As 
she  follows,  the  builders,  waiting  for  cells,  no  large  oells 
are  made.  After  about  three  weeks,  the  bees  of  the  first 
laid  eggs  begin  to  leave  their  cells  (171);  the  queen 
goes  back  to  fill  these  empty  cells,  and  the  workers,  hene^ 
forth  free  from  restraint,  follow  their  preferences  by  build- 
ing store-combs.  Result :  A  few  large  cells,  placed  on  the 
side  or  at  the  back  of  the  hive. 

231.  (6)  This  other  swarm  has  a  queen  as  prolific  as 
the  one  above.  For  two  weeks  she  follows  the  builders  as 
the  first  did,  laying  in  the  cells  as  soon  as  built.  But,  the 
crop  stopping  suddenly,  both  the  building  and  the  lajring 
slacken,  when  only  two- thirds  of  the  constructions  are 
made.  After  three  weeks  of  scarcity,  abundance  comes 
again,  and  the  building  ia  resumed.  But  the  queen  is  no 
longer  among  the  workers,  waiting  for  cells ;  she  is  at  the 
other  end  of  the  hive,  where  she  lays  in  the  cells  which 
were  left  empty  when  the  larvae  that  they  harbored  were 
born.     Result :  About  one-third  of  store-combs. 

232.  (c)  This  third  swarm  has  a  queen  whose  prolific- 
ness  is  deficient,  yet  she  has  been  able  to  follow  the  build- 
ers  for  a  few  days.  She  is  at  last  left  behind,  and  the 
workers  begin  combs  with  large  cells.  On  reaching  these 
cells,  one  or  two  days  later,  she  passes  over  them  without 
laying  (149),  and  rejoins  the  builders,  who  hasten  to  com- 
ply with  her  desire  to  have  worker-cells.  But  she  is  soon 
left  behind  for  the  second  time,  and  the  workers,  unre- 
strained again,  build  large  cells  till  she  again  rejoins  them, 
to  be  again  left  behind,  and  so  on.  Result:  Parts  of  store- 
combs  mixed,  here  and  there,  with  worker-combs. 

233.  (d)  We  have  removed  from  a  hive  all  its  drone- 
combs  ;  but  as  the  queen  is  occupied  in  filUng  empty  worker- 
cells  in  another  part  of  the  hive,  the  builders,  following  their 


preference,  reconstruct  large  cella,  thus  annulling  our  work 
of  removiL 

234.  (e)  We  have  given  one  or  two  combs  to  a  swarm 
as  soon  as  it  was  hived  (422),  and  we  wonder  why  its  bees 
have  built  so  much  drone-comb.  The  cause  is  obvious: 
the  queen,  finding  empty  cells  to  fill,  remained  a  long  time 
far  from  the  builders,  who,  following  their  inclination,  con« 
stracted  drone-cells. 

2d/S.  We  have  to  utiliae  the  facts  just  enunciated.  If 
we  desire  to  prevent  a  swarm  from  building  too  many  store- 
combs,  we  should  watch  the  builders,  and  remove  the  large 
cells  as  soon  as  built ;  these  combs,  if  worth  saving,  may  be 
used  in  the  surplus  sections  (728).  We  must  remember 
that,  to  succeed,  it  is  indispensable  that  no  other  cells  but 
the  ones  to  be  rebuilt  be  left  at  the  disposal  of  the  queen. 
The  same  rule  applies  also  to  the  removal  of  drone-combs 
at  any  time ;  and  as  the  fulfilling  of  this  condition  is  not 
always  possible,  it  is  better  to  replace  the  removed  combs 
with  worker  comb  or  comb  foundation  (674). 

The  above  rules  are  not  without  exceptions,  for  unnoticed 
circumstances  may  have  some  influence  on  the  building  of 
combs ;  but  we  think  that  we  have  stated  the  main  causes 
of  variation. 


236.  This  substance,  which  is  used  by  the  bees  to  coat 
the  inside  of  the  bee-hive,  and  make  it  water  and  air  tight, 
is  obtained  from  the  resinous  buds  and  limbs  of  trees ;  the 
different  varieties  of  poplar  jrield  a  rich  supply.  When  first 
gathered,  it  is  usually  of  a  bright  golden  color,  and  so  sticky 
that  the  bees  never  store  it  in  cells,  but  apply  it  at  once  to 
the  purposes  lor  which  they  procured  it.  If  a  bee  is  caught 
while  bringing  in  a  load,  it  will  be  found  to  adhere  very 
firmly  to  her  l^pi* 

106  THE   BUILDINO  OF   BEE8. 

Huber  planted  in  Spring  some  branches  of  the  wild  pop- 
lar, before  the  leaves  were  developed,  and  placed  them  in 
pots  near  his  Apiary ;  the  bees  alighted  on  them,  separated 
the  folds  of  the  large  buds  with  their  forceps,  extracted  the 
varnish  in  threads,  and  loaded  with  it,  first  one  thigh  and 
then  the  other ;  for  they  convey  it  like  pollen,  from  one  leg 
to  the  other.  We  have  seen  them  thus  remove  the  warm 
propolis  from  old  bottom-boards  standing  in  the  sun. 

Propolis  is  frequently  gathered  from  the  alder,  horse- 
chestnut,  birch,  and  willow ;  and  as  some  think,  from  pines 
and  other  trees  of  the  fir  kind.  Bees  will  often  enter  var- 
nishing shops,  attracted  evidently  by  their  smell ;  and  in  the 
vicinity  of  Matamoras,  Mexico,  where  propolis  seems  to  be 
scarce,  we  saw  them  using  green  paint  from  window-blinds, 
and  pitch  from  the  rigging  of  a  vessel.  Bevan  mentions  the 
fact  of  their  carrying  off  a  composition  of  wax  and  turpen- 
tine from  the  trees  to  which  it  had  been  applied.  Dr. 
Evana  says  he  has  seen  them  collect  the  balsamic  varnish 
which  coats  the  young  blossom-buds  of  the  hoUy-hock,  and 
has  known  them  to  rest  at  least  ten  minutes  on  the  same 
bud,  moulding  the  balsam  with  their  fore-feet,  and  trans- 
ferring it  to  the  hinder  legs,  as  described  by  Huber. 

'^  With  merry  hum  the  Willow's  copse  they  8oal6t 
The  Fir's  dark  pyramid,  or  Poplar  pale ; 
Scoop  from  the  Alder's  leaf  its  oozy  flood, 
Or  strip  the  Chestnut's  resin-coated  bud; 
Skim  the  light  tear  that  tips  Narcissus'  ray, 
Or  round  the  Hollyhock's  hoar  fragrance  play; 
Then  waft  their  nut-brown  loads  exalting  home. 
That  form  a  fret- work  for  the  future  comb ; 
Caulk  every  chink  where  rushing  winds  may  roar, 
And  seal  their  circling  ramparts  to  the  fioor.*^ 


237.  A  mixture  of  wax  and  propolis  being  much  more 
adhesive  than  wax  alone,  serves  admirably  to  strengthen  the 
attachments  of  the  combs  to  the  top  and  sides  of   the  hive. 

PBOPOUS.  107 


If  the  combs  are  not  filled  with  honey  or  brood  soon  after 
they  are  built,  they  are  varnished  with  a  delicate  coating  of 
propolis,  which  adds  greatly  to  their  strength ;  but  as  this 
natural  varnish  impairs  their  snowy  whiteness,  the  bees 
ought  not  to  be  allowed  access  to  the  surplus  honey-recep- 
tacles, except  when  about  ready  to  store  then^  with  honey. 

238.  Bees  make  a  very  liberal  use  of  propolis  to  fill  any 
crevices  about  their  premises ;  and  as  the  natural  summer- 
heat  of  the  hive  keeps  it  soft,  the  bee-moth  (802)  selects  it 
as  a  place  of  deposit  for  her  eggs.  Hives  ought,  therefore,  to 
be  made  of  lumber  entirely  free  from  cracks.  The  corners, 
which  the  bees  usually  fill  with  propolis,  may  have  a  melted 
mixture  run  into  them,  consisting  of  three  parts  of  resin  and 
one  of  bees-wax;  this  remaining  hard  during  the  hottest 
weather,  will  bid  defiance  to  the  moth. 

239.  Bees  gather  propolis,  especially  when  they  can  find 
neither  honey  nor  pollen  in  the  fields.  Thus,  during  the 
honey-crop,  very  little  of  it  is  taken.  In  some  countries, 
they  use  it  much  more  plentifully,  owing  to  its  being  found 
more  readily. 

240.  Propolis  is  hard  and  brittle  in  the  Winter,  and  its 
use  by  the  bees  to  glue  up  all  parts  of  the  hive,  has  created 
the  greatest  objection  to  drawers,  close-fitting  frames, 
hinged  doors,  etc.,  with  which  some  patent  hives  are  pro- 
vided, and  which  become  entirely  immovable,  when  once 
coated  with  it.  It  is,  at  all  times,  the  greatest  hindrance 
to  the  neat  handling  of  the  combs,  and  in  warm  weather 
daubs  the  hands  of  the  Apiarist.  It  can  only  be  cleaned 
from  the  fingers  by  the  use,  in  place  of  soap,  of  a  few  drops 
of  turpentine,  alcohol,  spirits  of  hartshorn,  or  ether. 

241.  Propolis  is  sometimes  put  to  a  very  curious  use  by 
the  bees. 

**A  mail,  having  crept  into  one  of  M.  Reaumur's  hives  early 
In  the  morning,  after  crawling  about  for  some  time,  adhered,  by 


means  of  its  own  slime,  to  one  of  the  glass  panes.  The  bees  bar- 
ing discovered  the  snail,  surrounded  it,  and  formed  a  border  of 
propolis  round  the  verge  of  its  shell,  and  fastened  it  so  seourelj 
to  the  glass  that  it  became  immovable." — (Bevan.) 

*^  Forever  closed  the  impenetrable  door ; 
It  naught  avails  that  in  its  torpid  veins 
Year  after  year,  life's  loitering  spark  remains.'* 


'*  Maraldi,  another  eminent  Apiarist,  states  that  a  snail  without 
a  shell  having  entered  one  of  his  hives,  the  bees,  as  soon  as  they 
observed  It,  stung  it  to  death ;  after  which,  being  unable  to  dl^ 
lodge  it,  they  covered  it  all  over  with  an  impervious  eoat  ef 

**  For  soon  in  fearless  ire,  their  wonder  lost, 
Spring  fiercely  from  the  comb  the  indignant  host. 
Lay  the  pierced  monster  breathless  on  the  ground. 
And  clap  In  Joy  their  victor  pinions  round : 
While  all  in  vain  concurrent  numbers  strive 
To  heave  the  slime-girt  giant  from  the  hive— 
Sure  not  alone  by  force  instinctive  swayed, 
But  blest  with  reason's  soul-directing  aid. 
Alike  in  man  or  bee,  they  haste  to  pour. 
Thick,  hard*ning  as  it  falls,  the  flaky  shower; 
Embalmed  in  shroud  of  glue  the  mummy  lies, 
No  worms  Invade,  no  foul  miasmas  rise." 


242.  In  these  instances,  who  can  withhold  his  admiration 
of  the  ingenuity  and  judgment  of  the  bees?  In  th€  Jirti 
ease,  a  troublesome  creature  gained  admission  to  the  hir^ 
which,  from  its  unwieldiness,  they  could  not  remove,  and 
which,  from  the  impenetrability  of  its  shell,  they  could  nol 
destroy ;  here,  then,  their  only  source  was  to  deprive  it  ot 
locomotion,  and  to  obviate  putrefaction;  both  which  objects 
they  accomplished  most  skillfully  and  securely,  and,  as  ia 
usual  with  these  sagacious  creatures,  at  the  least  possible 
expense  of  labor  and  materials.  They  applied  their  cement 
where  alone  it  was  required — round  the  verge  of  the  shell. 
In  the  loiter  case,  to  obviate  the  evil  of  decay,  by  the  total 

PBOPOUS.  109 

exclusion  of  air,  they  were  obliged  to  be  more  lavish  in  the 
oae  of  their  embalming  material,  and  to  case  over  the 
'*  slime-girt  giant,"  so  as  to  guard  themselves  from  hid  noi* 
some  smell.  What  means  more  effectual  could  human  wis- 
dom have  devised,  under  similar  circumstances? 

243.  In  bygone  days,  it  was  a  prevalent  belief,  that 
when  any  member  of  a  family  died,  the  bees  knew  what 
had  happened ;  and  some  were  superstitious  enough  to  put 
the  hives  in  mourning,  to  pacify  their  sorrowing  occupants ; 
imagining  that,  unless  this  was  done,  the  bees  would  never 
afterwards  prosper!*  It  was  frequently  asserted  that  they 
sometimes  took  their  loss  so  much  to  heart,  as  to  alight 
apon  the  coflin  whenever  it  was  exposed.  A  clergyman 
told  the  writer  that  he  attended  a  funeral,  where,  as  soon  as 
the  coffin  was  brought  from  the  house,  the  bees  gathered 
apon  it  so  as  to  excite  much  alarm.  Some  years  after  this 
occurrence,  being  engaged  in  varnishing  a  table,  the  bees 
alighted  upon  it  in  such  numbers,  as  to  convince  him,  that 
love  of  varnish,  rather  than  sorrow  or  respect  for  the  dead, 
was  the  occasion  of  their  conduct  at  the  funeral.  How  many 
superstitions,  believed  even  by  intelligent  persons,  might  be 
as  easily  explained,  if  it  were  possible  to  ascertain  as  fully 
all  the  facts  connected  with  them ! 

344.  CoMMKRCiAL  UsBS  OF  Propolis. —  **  Dissolved  in  alcohol 
and  filtered,  it  Is  osed  as  a  varnish,  and  gives  a  polish  to  wood, 
and  a  golden  color  to  tin.  A  preparation  made  with  finely-ground 
propolis,  gam  arable,  incense,  storax,  benzoin,  sugar,  nitre,  and 
charcoal,  in  quantities  varied  at  will,  is  moulded  into  fumigating 
oones,  for  perftiming  rooms  or  halls." — (Dubini,  Milan,  1881.) 

245.  The  following  letter  from  a  noted  Russian  Apiarist, 
to  Mr.  £.  Bertrand,  editor  of  the  Revue  Internationale 
dT  Apiculture  J  of  Nyon,  Switzerland,  one  of  the  most  pro- 
gressive bee-publications,  will  be  found  of  interest : 

•  Whlttlisr  hM  wxlttan  a  Uttle  poem  entitled  '  'Temng  the  Beet, "  spr^pct  ol 
IMr  kBfiWlns  ef  aoiiM  one's  deetli. 


*^  During  mj  pleAMOit  staj  at  joux  prettj  vUla,  I  spoke  to  joa 
of  the  utilization  of  propolis  in  the  yamiah  of  oar  wooden  ware, 
which  reaiata  the  diaaolving  power  of  hot  water  ao  well.  I  have 
juat  found  a  description  of  the  proceas,  and  will  communicate  it 
to  you. 

**  Propolis  is  purchased  bj  hucksters,  who  pay  five  copecks — a 
little  over  two  cents— and  sometimes  even  less,  for  permission  to 
scrape  or  plane  the  propolis  from  the  walla  of  a  hive  that  haa 
lost  its  bees.  The  shavings,  covered  with  propolis,  are  heated, 
put  into  a  wax-press,  and  aubjected  to  the  treatment  used  in 
the  extraction  of  beeswax ;  the  propolia  is  then  purified  in  hot 
water,  to  which  sulphuric  acid  ia  added.  About  fifty  per  cent, 
of  propolis  is  thus  obtained,  which  sells  at  forty  centa  per  pound. 

*'  Thia  propolis  is  poured  into  hot  linseed-oil  and  beeswax,  in 
the  following  proportions :  Propolis  1,  beeswax  },  oil  2.  Previ- 
ously, the  oil  should  '  linger,*  aa  we  say,  on  the  stove,  for  fifteen 
or  twenty  days,  that  is,  remain  hot  without  boiling,  to  give  it  the 
property  of  drying.  The  wooden  ware  is  dipped  into  the  above 
mentioned  preparation,  and  must  remain  in  it  ten  or  fifteen  min- 
utes, after  which  it  is  cooled,  and  rubbed  and  polished  with 
woolen  rags."— (A.  Zoubareff,  St.  Petersburgh,  Sept.  26,  1882.) 

We  would  suggest  to  manufacturers  of  supplies,  that  the 
soaking  or  painting  of  wooden  feeders,  and  of  queen-cages, 
with  a  similar  preparation,  would  prevent  the  warm  feed 
from  soaking  into  the  wood* 

Hoxxr.  Ill 



240.  The  main  food  of  bees  is  the  honey  or  nectar,  pro- 
dneed  by  plants  and  flowers.  That  honey  is  a  vegetable 
product  was  known  to  the  ancient  Jews,  one  of  whose  Rab- 
bins asks:  **  Since  we  may  not  eat  bees,  which  are  unclean ^ 
why  are  we  allowed  to  eat  honey?  "  and  replies :  *'  Because 
bees  do  not  make  honey,  but  only  gather  it  from  plants  and 

247.  Yet  during  its  sojourn  in  the  honey-sack,  the  nectar 
undergoes  a*  chemical  change.  Most  of  its  cane-sugar,  or 
saccharose,  is  changed  into  grape-sugar,  or  glucose.*  This 
change  is  due  to  its  mixture  with  the  saliva  of  the  glands, 
while  in  the  honey-sack  (03).  *' But  the  cane-sugar  yet 
remains  in  large  proportion  in  honey  gathered  oa  the  moun* 
tains"(Girard), — or  when  it  is  gathered  very  fast. 

248.  The  nectar  is  produced  by  the  plants  in  nectarifer- 
ous tissues ,  in  which  accumulations  of  sugar  can  be  found, 
and  exudes  most  frequently  through  small  apertures,  named 

240.  It  contains  more  or  less  water,  according  to  the 
kind  of  flowers,  and  the  conditions  in  which  it  is  produced. 
Some  flowers  give  nectar  which  is  almost  completely  de- 
prived of  water.  Such  is  the  Fuschia  (fig.  41).  When  the 
nectar  of  this  flower  is  produced  in  very  dry  weather,  it 
sometimes  crystallizes  in  the  blossom,  as  it  comes  iu  con- 
tact with  the  air. 

•  WbAt  la  ektmictUlp  known  m  glnooM  thonld  not  be  conlbnnded  with  tho 

112  rOOD  OF   BKU. 

In  some  other  flowera,  as  in  the  Fritiliaria  imperialia,  Ot» 
neotar  contains  as  much  as  nine- 
^•Sve  per  cent  of  water, 
we  except  dr^  and  warm  days, 
we  can  saiely  assert  that,  in  most 
cases,  the  proportion  of  water 
in  the  nectar  varies  between 
•izt;  and  eight;  per  cent. 

2AO.  The  quantity  of  neo- 
tar produced  bj  the  flowers 
decreases  during  drought,  and 
increases  on  the  first  or  sec- 
ond day  after  a  r^n.  But  it 
Is  then  more  watery.  In  some 
seasons  the  saccharine  juices 
abound,  while  in  others  they 
are  so  deficient  that  bees  can 
obtiUQ  Bcarcely  any  food  from 
fields  all  white  with  clover.  A 
change  in  the  secretion  of  honey 
will  often  take  place  so  sud- 
denly, that  the  bees  will,  in  a 
tew  hours,  pass  from  idleness 
to  great  activity.  fobcmi*. 

As  a  rule,  the  quantity  of  nectar,  exuded  by  the  plants, 
varies  according  to  the  time  of  day  and  atmospheric  condl- 
tioua.  Usually,  it  is  most  abundant  in  the  morning.  Its 
quantity  decreases  as  the  sun  rises  higher.  At  three 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  the  flowers  give  the  least  nectax. 
Then  the  yield  again  increases  till  dark.  In  Algeria,  AfricK, 
in  the  neighborhood  of  Itlidafa,  bees  cannot  find  honey  later 
than  eight  iu  the  morning. 

251.  It  is  Tueo  the  blossom  is  ready  for  fertilization, 
that  the  aectar  is  most  abundant  in  it ;  if  It  is  not  gathered 
by  insects,    it  is  re-absorbed  by    the    plant   and  aerre*, 

HONET.  118 

together  with  the  sugar  accumiilated  in  the  oyaries,  to 
nourish  the  seeds. 

252.  The  accumulations  of  sugar  in  the  tissues,  may 
exist,  not  only  in  the  flower,  but  in  different  parts  of  plants, 
in  the  cotyledons,  in  the  leaves,  in  the  stipules,  in  the  brae- 
teas,  and  between  the  leaves  and  twigs.  They  help  the 
development  of  the  tissues. 

Sometimes  the  nectariferous  tissues  are  destitute  of  sto- 
mats  or  openings.  Then  the  accumulated  nectar  may  force 
itself  through  the  cuticle  or  skin  of  the  plant. 

The  water  of  the  sap,  which  runs  incessantly  in  the  plants, 
goes  out  through  the  different  tissues  in  unequal  quantities ; 
as  some  tissues  are  more  porous  than  others.  Generally, 
water  escapes  in  the  form  of  steam ;  but,  in  some  circum- 
stances, when  the  air  is  moist,  the  water  is  emitted  in  liquid 
form,  and  may  carry  with  it,  to  the  outside,  a  part  of  the 
accumulations  of  sugar  through  which  it  has  passed,  thus 
producing  honey-dew.  The  more  sugar  this  water  contains, 
tlie  slower  its  evaporation  will  be. 

253.  The  dampness  of  the  soil  and  of  the  air,  and  a 
temperature  producing  a  profuse  transpiration  in  plants, 
then  a  sudden  stop  of  transpiration,  are  the  best  conditions 
to  produce  the  maximum  of  nectar  in  the  nectariferous  tis- 
sues and  of  liquid  exudations  on  the  outside. 

254.  Most  of  the  above  statements  are  taken,  or  rather 
abridged,  from  **  Les  Nectaires,"  of  Gaston  Bonnier,  a 
professor  at  the  l^cole  Normale  Superieure  of  Paris  (1879). 
This  work  was  awarded  a  medal  by  the  Academy  of  Science 
of  Paris.  Bonnier  back^  his  statements  with  one  hundred 
and  thirty  engravings  made  from  microscopic  researches. 

255.  He  explains,  not  only  how  the  nectar  is  formed  in 
the  blossoms,  but  also  how  the  extra  floral  nectar,  the  so- 
called  honey-dew^  is  produced  on  different  parts  of  plants, 
or  trees. 

He  has  noticed  and  described  the  production  of  nectar 

(honey-dew  without  (^Atdet),*oa  muiy  herbaoeons  plftnts, 
and  on  the  following  trees  or  shrubs :    Two  kinds  of  0«k, 

HONKT.  115 

the  ash,  two  kinda  of  linden,  the  sorb,  the  barberry,  two 
kinds  of  raspberry,  the  poplar,  the  birch,  two  kinds  of 
mafde,  and  the  hazel  brush.  In  some  parts  of  Europe,  this 
honey 'dew  is  so  plentiful,  that  some  Apiarists  transport  their 
bees  to  the  districts  in  which  it  is  produced,  during  its 
yield.     (Fig.  42.) 

256.  Bees  also  harrest,  in  some  seasons,  a  sweet  sub- 
stance of  poorer  quality,  which  is  a  discharge  from  the 
bodies  of  small  aphides  or  *'  plant  lice."* 

Messrs.  Eirby  and  Spence,  in  their  interesting  work  on 
Entomology,  have  given  a  description  of  the  honey-dew 
furnished  by  the  aphides: 

*'  The  loYes  of  the  ants  and  the  aphides  have  long  been  cele- 
brated ;  yon  will  always  find  the  former  very  busy  on  those  trees 
&nd  plants  on  which  the  latter  abound;  and,  if  you  examine 
somewhat  more  closely,  you  will  discover  that  the  object  of  the 
ants  in  thus  attending  upon  the  aphides^  is  to  obtain  the  saccha- 
rine fluid  secreted  by  them,  which  may  well  be  denominated  their 
milk.  This  fluid,  which  is  scarcely  Inferior  to  honey  in  its 
sweetness,  issues  in  limpid  drops  from  the  abdomen  of  these  in- 
sects, not  only  by  the  ordinary  passage,  but  also,  by  two  setiform 
tubes,  placed  one  on  each  side.  Just  above  It.  Their  sucker  boint? 
inserted  In  the  tender  bark  is,  without  Intermission,  employed  in 
absorbing  the  sap,  which,  after  it  has  passed  through  these  or- 
f^ans,  they  keep  continually  discharging.  When  no  ants  attend 
them,  by  a  certain  jerk  of  the  body,  which  takes  place  at-  regular 
intervals,  they  ejaculate  it  to  a  distance." 

thl,  "Mr.  Knight  once  observed  a  shower  of  honoy-dew 
descending  In  innumerable  small  globules,  near  one  of  his  oak 
trees.  He  cat  off  one  of  the  branches,  took  it  into  the  house, 
and,  holding  it  in  a  stream  of  light  admitted  ttirou^fh  a  small 
opening,  distinctly  saw  the  aphides  ejecting  the  lluid  from  their 
bodies  with  considerable  force,  and  this  accounts  for  its  being 

•  The  AbM  BoUaicrde  SAUTaget,  In  1763,  describod  two  species  of  honey- 
dow.  The  flnt  kind,  Im  i^rt,  hat  the  same  origin  with  the  m(i>i/t.i  on  the  a^h 
aud  maple  trcot  of  Calabria  and  Briau.on,  whero  it  flows  plentifully  from 
thnr  learoa  and  tmnka,  and  thickens  in  the  form  in  which  it  is  nemally  seen. 
— ("  Obaervationa  anr  I'Ozifina  dn  Mlel. ")  We  have  received  specimena  of 
a  honey -dew  ttom.  Calitornia,  which  la  aaid  to  fall  flrom  the  oak  trees  in  ata- 
lactitea  of  eonaldflnhia  riaa. 

116  FOOD  OF   BEES. 

frequently  fonnd  in  situations  where  It  eonld  not  have  arriTed 
by  the  mere  Inflnenoe  of  gravitation.  The  drops  that  are  thm 
sported  oat,  unless  Interrupted  by  the  surrounding  foliage,  or 
some  other  interposfhg  bo^y,  fall  upon  the  g^und ;  and  the 
spots  may  often  be  observed,  for  some  time,  beneath  and  around 
the  trees,  affected  with  honey-dew,  till  washed  away  by  the  rain. 
The  power  which  these  insects  possess  of  ejecting  the  fluid  from 
their  bodies,  seems  to  have  been  wisely  instituted  to  prenerre 
cleanliness  in  each  individual  fly,  and,  indeed,  for  the  presenra- 
tlon  of  the  whole  family ;  for,  pressing  as  they  do  upon  one  sn- 
other,  they  would  otherwise  soon  be  glued  together,  and  rendered 
Incapable  of  stirring.  On  looking  steadfastly  at  a  g^np  of  these 
insects  (Afihidei  9aUeii)  while  feeding  on  the  bark  of  the  willow, 
their  superior  size  enabled  us  to  perceive  some  of  them  elevating 
their  bodies  and  emitting  a  transparent  substance  in  the  form  of 
a  small  shower: 

"  Nor  scorn  ye  now,  fond  elves,  the  foliage  sear, 
When  the  light  aphids,  arm'd  with  puny  spear, 
Probe  each  emulgent  vein,  till  bright  below. 
Like  falling  stars,  clear  drops  of  nectar  glow.*' 


358.  '*  Honey-dew  usually  appears  upon  the  leaves  as  a  vis* 
cid  transparent  substance,  as  sweet  as  honey  itself,  sometimes  in 
the  form  of  globules,  at  others  resembling  a  syrup.  It  is  gen- 
erally most  abundant  from  the  middle  of  June  to  the  middle  of 
July — sometimes  as  late  as  September. 

**  It  is  found  chiefly  upon  the  oak,  the  elm,  the  maple,  the  plane, 
the  sycamore,  the  lime,  the  hazel,  and  the  blackberry ;  occasion- 
ally also  the  cherry,  currant,  and  other  fruit  trees.  Sometimes 
only  one  species  of  trees  is  affected  at  a  time.  The  oak  gener- 
ally affords  the  largest  quantity.  At  the  season  of  its  greatest 
abundance,  the  happy,  humming  noise  of  the  bees  may  be  heard 
at  a  considerable  distance,  sometimes  nearly  equalling  in  loud- 
ness the  united  hum  of  swarming." — (Bevan.) 

In  some  seasons,  bees  gather  large  supplies  from  these 
hoDe3'-dcws,  but  it  is  abundant  only  once  in  three  or  four 
years.  The  honey  obtained  from  this  source  is  osuallj  of  a 
dark  color,  and  seldom  of  a  very  good  quality. 

250.  It  is  very  difficult  to  ascertain,  at  all  times,  the 
special  source  of  honey-dew,  whether  from  the  trees  or  froa 

HONET.  117 

the  aphides.  In  order  to  give  all  sides  a  hearing,  we  will 
cite  a  letter  from  Mr.  Bonnier  on  this  subject,  and  leave 
the  reader  to  draw  his  own  conclusions : 

**  Plant  lice  are  seen  even  on  trees  that  have  no  extra  floral 
aeetaries.  Thej  do  not  prodaoe  exadations  (properly  speaking), 
hat  bore  the  tissues  to  eat  the  contents.  Their  presence  on  the 
plant  has  no  connection  with  that  of  the  nectar.  The  excre men- 
tal liquid  of  apMdes  is  not  equally  sweet  in  all  the  species,  and 
the  bees  harvest  only  that  which  is  very  sweet.  They  generally 
prefer  the  true  honey-dew  (mUlUe),  which  exudes  from  the  leaves 
at  certain  times,  and  contains  mannite  and  saccharine  matter. 

*'  I  have  seen  bees,  however,  harvesting  the  sweet  liquid  of  the 
mphideg  and  the  true  mieUie  at  the  same  time,  on  the  aspen,  maple, 
and  sycamore. 

^  I  have  rarely  seen  the  extra  floral  nectar  of  the  'special  nec- 
taries overflow  and  run  in  drops,  but  the  true  mielUe  of  trees  may 
fkll  in  small  drops,  and  some  observers  conclude,  from  this  fact, 
that  it  is  produced  by  aphitUs,  I  have  often  seen  some  trees,  and 
even  all  the  trees,  of  a  timber,  covered  with  an  abundant  mUlUe, 
&lling  in  small  drops,  although  there  was  not  a  single  louse  on 
the  higher  limbs. 

^  To  sum  up,  we  must  not  confound  the  three  kinds  of  sweet 
liquid,  which  may  be  produced  outside  the  flowers:  Ist,  The 
extra*floral  nectar  proper,  produced,  like  the  nectar  of  flowers, 
from  special  sugar  tissues;  td^  The  true  mielUe,  produced  on  the 
iurfftoe  of  the  leaves  of  trees  or  shrubs,  without  the  action  of 
mphiim;  Sd,  The  excretion,  more  or  less  sweet,  sometimes  con- 
taining very  little  sugar,  abundantly  produced  by  a  great  num- 
ber of  apHtUf." 

860.  In  some  blossoms,  as  in  the  red  clover,  the  corolla 
Is  so  deep  and  narrow,  that  the  nectar  is  out  of  reach  of  the 
honey-bee.  Larger  insects,  such  as  the  bumble-bee,  or 
immUer  ones,  as  some  wasps,  enjoy  it  to  the  exclusion  of 
oer  favorites.  Yet  in  some  seasons,  we  have  seen  bees 
wwking  on  red-oloyer  bloom,  and  have  attributed  this  to 
the  corollas  being  shorter,  owing  to  drouth,  or  scant  growth. 
Mr.  Bonnier  has  discovered  that,  in  some  such  flowers,  the 
nectar  is  sometimes  so  abundant  that  the  bees  can  reach 
li.    It  Is  troe  that  insects,  and  even  bees,  oan  tear  the 

118  FOOD  OF   BEX8. 

tender  corollas  of  some  blosBoms,  opposite  the  honey  recep- 
tacle, to  reach  the  nectar,  but  this  is  of  such  rare  instance, 
in  the  honey-bee,  that  it  cannot  be  considered  of  any  prac- 
tical value. 

201.  The  honey,  when  harvested,  is  stored  in  the  rear  of 
the  hive,  above  the  brood,  and  as  near  it  as  possible. 

When  just  gathered,  it  is  too  watery  to  be  preserved  for 
the  use  of  the  bees.  To  evaporate  this  water,  they  force  a 
strong  current  of  air  through  the  hive,  and  the  bee-keeper 
can  ascertain  the  days  of  large  honey-yield,  by  the  greater 
roar  of  the  bees  in  front  of  their  hive  during  the  night  fol* 
lowing.  If  a  strong  colony  is  put  on  a  platform  scale,  it 
will  be  found,  during  the  height  of  the  honey-harvest,  to  gain 
a  number  of  pounds  on  a  pleasant  day.  Much  of  this  weight 
will  be  lost  in  the  night,  from  the  evaporation  of  the  newly- 
gathered  honey.  A  thorough  upward  ventilation,  in  hot 
weather,  will  therefore  contribute  to  increase  the  ripening 
of  honey. 

When  the  cell  is  about  fuU,  the  bees  seal  it  with  a  flat 
cover  or  capping  made  of  wax.  This  capping  is  begun  at 
the  lower  edge  of  the  cell,  and  is  raised  gradually,  as  the 
honey  is  deposited  within,  till  the  cell  is  entirely  sealed. 
These  cappings  being  flat,  depressed,  or  uneven,  are  easily 
distinguished  from  the  caps  of  the  brood,  which  are  convex 
and  of  a  darker  color. 

202.  Are  the  caps  of  the  honey-cells  air-tight?  This 
much-debated  question  is  not  yet  satisfactorily  answered. 

The  caps  of  the  brood-cells,  made  of  pollen  and  wax,  are 
undoubtedly  porous  enough  to  allow  the  air  to  reach  the 
larva;  and  some  Apiarists  question  the  impervioosneas 
of  the  sealing  of  honey-comb.  Mr.  Cheshire  himself,  whfle 
of  opinion  that  ^^  the  bee  aims  at  compact  coverings  for  her 
honey/'  says  that  ^^  not  more  than  ten  percent,  of  these  are 
absolutely  impervious  to  air."  Yet  his  own  description  d 
the  cause  of  the  weU-known  whiteness  of  the  eappinga. 

POLLKN.  119 

owing  to  the  Air  which  is  left  behind  and  ^''cannot  escape," 
wonld  prove  that  these  cappings  are  original]  j  made  as  air* 
tight  as  a  thin  coat  of  wax  can  make  them.  The  fact  that 
honey  shrinks  and  swells  inside  of  the  cell,  is  only  a  proof 
that,  like  many  other  things,  its  Yolame  depends  on  the 
temperature.  Again,  its  fermenting  in  sealed  cells,  proves 
only  that  it  contains  the  elements  of  fermentation,  and  these 
can  be  developed  at  certain  degrees  of  temperature,  even 
in  air-tight  vessels.  Mr.  Cheshire's  tests  of  honey-combs, 
steeped  in  water,  to  ascertain  whether  the  honey  in  sealed 
cells  would  absorb  moisture  and  expand,  have  been  tried  by 
OS  with  altogether  contrary  results.  The  difference  of 
opinion  on  this  subject  may  be  due  to  the  fact  that  the  cap- 
pings are  very  fragile,  and  crack  imperceptibly,  when  ex- 
posed to  variations  of  temperature  outside  of  the  hive. 

Would  it  be  possible  that  the  thin  coat  of  wax,  though 
evidently  air-tight,  be,  in  some  circumstances,  porous 
enough  to  allow  moisture  to  soak  through  it  slowly,  like 
water  through  leather? 


298.  The  pollen,  or  fertilizing  dust  of  flowers,  is  gath- 
ered by  the  bees  from  blossoms,  and  is  indispensable  to  the 
nourishment  of  their  young — ^repeated  experimenfs  having 
proved  that  brood  cannot  be  raised  without  it.  It  is  very 
rich  in  the  nitrogenous  substances  which  are  not  contained 
in  honey,  and  without  which  ample  nourishment  could  not 
be  furnished  for  the  development  of  the  growing  bee.  Dr. 
Hunter,  on  dissecting  some  immature  bees,  found  that  their 
stomachs  contained  pollen,  but  not  a  particle  of  honey. 

We  are  indebted  to  Huber  for  the  discovery,  that  pollen 
is  the  principal  food  of  the  young  bees.  As  large  supplies 
were  often  found  in  hives  whose  inmates  had  starved,  it  was 

120  FOOD  OF   BEES. 

evideat  that,  without  honey,  it  could  not  support  the  mAtnre 
bees;  and  this  led  former  observers  to  conclude  that  it 
serred  for  the  building  of  comb.  Huber,  after  demonstrat- 
ing that  wax  can  be  secreted  from  an  entirely  different  sub- 
stance, soon  ascertained  that  pollen  was  used  for  the 
nourishment  of  the  embryo  bees.  Confining  some  bees  to 
their  hive  without  any  pollen,  he  supplied  them  with  honey, 
eggs,  and  larrse.  In  a  short  time,  the  young  all  perished. 
A  fresh  supply  of  brood  being  given  to  them,  with  an  ample 
allowance  of  pollen,  the  development  of  the  larvs  pro- 
ceeded in  the  natural  way. 

264.  We  had  an  excellent  opportunity  of  testing  the 
value  of  this  substance,  in  the  backward  Spring  of  1852.  On 
the  5th  of  February,  we  opened  a  hive  containing  an  artifi- 
cial swarm  of  the  previous  year,  and  found  many  of  the  cells 
filled  with  brood.  The  combs  being  examined  on  the  23d, 
contained  neither  eggs,  brood  nor  bee-bread ;  and  the  col- 
ony was  supplied  with  pollen  from  another  hive ;  the  next 
day,  a  large  number  of  eggs  were  found  in  the  cells.  When 
this  supply  was  exhausted,  laying  again  ceased,  and  was 
only  resumed  when  more  was  furnished.  During  the  time 
of  these  experiments,  the  weather  was  so  unpromising,  that 
the  bees  were  unable  to  leave  the  hive. 

Dzierzon  is  of  opinion  that  bees  can  furnish  food  for  their 
youne^,  without  pollen ;  although  he  admits  that  they  can  do 
it  only  f6r  a  short  time,  and  at  a  great  expense  of  yital  en- 
ci'gy ;  just  as  the  strength  of  an  animal  nursing  its  yovmg  Is 
rapidly  reduced,  if,  for  want  of  proper  food,  the  rery  sub- 
stance of  the  mother's  body  must  be  convntod  into  milk. 
The  experiment  just  described  does  not  corroborate  this 
theory,  but  confirms  Ruber's  view,  that  poUen  is  indispeB- 
sable  to  the  development  of  brood. 

Gundelach,  an  able  German  Apiarist,  says  that  if  a  ool* 
ony  with  a  fertile  queen  be  confined  to  an  empty  hire,  and 
supplied  with   honey,  comb  will  be  rapidly  built,  aad  tlM 

POLLEN.  121 

cells  filled  with  eggs,  which  in  due  time  will  be  batdied ; 
bat  the  worms  will  all  die  within  twentj-f our  hours. 

Some^nes  bees,  unable  to  feed  their  brood  for  lack  of 
pollen,  desert  their  hives  (407). 

265.  In  September,  1856,  we  put  a  very  large  colony  of 
bees  into  a  new  hiye,  to  determine  some  points  on  which  we 
were  then  experimenting.  The  weather  was  fine,  and  they 
gathered  pollen,  and  built  comb  very  rapidly ;  still  for  ten 
days,  the  queen-bee  deposited  no  eggs  in  the  cells.  During 
all  that  time,  these  bees  stored  very  little  pollen  in  the 
combs.  One  of  the  days  being  so  stormy  that  they  could  not 
go  abroad,  they  were  supplied  with  rye  flour  (207),  none  of 
which,  although  very  greedily  appropriated,  could  be  found 
in  the  cells.  During  all  this  time,  as  there  was  no  brood  to 
be  fed,  the  pollen  must  have  been  used  by  the  bees  either 
for  nourishment,  or  to  assist  them  in  secreting  wax  ;  or,  as 
we  belieye,  for  both  these  purposes. 

266.  Bees  prefer  to  gather /res^  pollen,  even  when  there 
are  large  accumulations  of  old  stores  in  the  cells.  With  hives 
giving  the  control  of  the  combs,  the  surplus  of  old  colonies 
may  be  made  to  supply  the  deficiency  of  young  ones ;  the 
latter,  in  Spring,  being  often  destitute  of  this  important 

If  honey  and  pollen  can  both  be  obtained  from  the  same 
blossom,  the  industrious  insect  usually  gathers  a  load  of  each. 
To  prove  this,  let  a  few  pollen-gatherers  be  dissected  when 
honey  is  plenty;  and  their  honey-sacks  will  ordinarily  be 

When  the  bee  brings  home  a  load  of  pollen,  she  stores  it 
away,  by  inserting  her  body  in  a  cell,  and  brushing  it  from 
her  legs;  it  is  then  carefully  packed  down,  being  often  cov- 
ered with  honey,  and  sealed  over  with  wax.  Pollen  is  sel- 
dom  deposited  in    any  except   worker-cells.       This  fact 

•  iKhowgh  the  bett  of  quMnleM  ooloniee  do  not  lUTiaUy  go  In  quest  of  pollen » 
MOM  ooimlonrtlj  tuoTMl  it,  ftnd  m  It  U  not  nied,  it  Aoonmolatet  in  the  Mto. 

122  FOOD  OF  BBK8. 

snpports  the  idea  that  large  cells  are  not  built  to  raise  brood 

Aristotle  obserred,  that  a  bee,  in  gathering  pollen,  con- 
fines herself  to  the  kind  of  blossom  on  which  she  begins,  eyen 
if  it  is  not  so  abundant  as  some  others ;  thus  a  ball  of  this 
substance  taken  from  her  thigh,  is  found  to  be  of  a  uniform 
color  throughout ;  the  load  of  one  insect  being  yellow,  of 
another,  red,  and  of  a  third,  brown ;  the  color  varying  with 
that  of  the  plant  from  which  the  supply  was  obtained.  They 
may  prefer  to  gather  a  load  from  a  single  species  of  plant, 
because  the  pollen  of  different  kinds  does  not  pack  so  well 
together.  Reaumur  has  estimated,  that  a  good  colony  may 
gather  and  use  as  much  as  one  hundred  pounds  of  it  in  a 

207.  When  bees  cannot  find  pollen,  in  early  Spring,  they 
will  gather  flour,  or  meal,  or  even  fine  sawdust,  as  a  substi- 
tute.    This  was  noticed  by  Hartlib,  as  early  as  1655. 

Dzicrzon,  early  in  the  Spring,  observed  his  bees  bringing 
rye-meal  to  their  hives  from  a  neighboring  mill,  before  they 
could  procure  any  pollen  from  natural  supplies.  The  hint 
was  not  lost ;  and  it  is  now  a  common  practice,  wherever 
bee-keeping  is  extensively  carried  on,  to  supply  the  bees 
early  in  the  season  with  this  article.  Shallow  troughs  or 
boxes  are  set  not  far  from  the  Apiaries,  filled  about  two 
inches  deep  with  finely-ground^  dry^  unbolted  rye-mealy  oat- 
meal or  even  with  flour.  Where  bolted  fiour,  or  meal,  is 
given,  it  should  be  tightly  pressed  with  the  hands,  to  pre- 
vent the  bees  from  drowning  in  it.  lo  attract  them  to  it, 
wc  bait  them  with  a  few  old  combs,  or  a  little  honey. 

The  boxes  must  be  placed  in  a  warm  spot  sheltered  from 
the  wind.  Thousands  of  bees,  when  the  weather  is  favor- 
able, resort  eairerly  to  them,  and  return  heavily  laden  to 
their  hives. 

This  artificial  pollen  or  bee -bread,  is  kneaded  by  them 
with  saliva,  or  honey  brought  from  the  hive.     This  iseasilj 

POLLBN.  123 

saoertained  by  tasting  the  little  pellets,  which  in  the  hurry 
are  loosened  from  their  baskets,  and  fall  to  the  bottom  of 
the  floor  box.  In  flne,  mild  weather,  they  labor  at  this 
work  with  great  industry;  preferring  the  meal  to  the  old 
pollen  stored  in  their  combs.  They  thus  breed  early,  and 
rapidly  recruit  their  numbers.  The  feeding  is  continued 
till,  .the  blossoms  furnishing  a  preferable  article,  they  cease 
to  carry  off  the  meal. 

We  will  here  add  that,  as  a  rule,  colonies  that  do  not 
carry  in  meal  or  pollen,  at  the  opening  of  Spring,  are  without 
brood,  either  because  they  are  queenless,  or  from  want  of 
honey,  or  from  some  other  cause. 

The  discovery  of  flour,  as  a  substitute  for  pollen,  removes 
a  very  serious  obstacle  to  the  culture  of  bees.  In  many 
districts,  there  is  for  a  short  time  such  an  abundant  supply 
of  honey,  that  almost  any  number  of  strong  colonies  will, 
in  a  good  season,  lay  up  enough  for  themselves,  and  a  large 
surplus  for  their  owners.  In  many  of' these  districts,  how- 
ever, the  supply  of  pollen  is  often  quite  insufficient,  and  in 
Spring,  the  swarms  of  the  previous  year  are  so  destitute, 
that  unless  the  season  is  early,  the  production  of  brood  is 
seriously  checked,  and  the  colony  cannot  avail  itself  prop- 
erly of  the  superabundant  harvest  of  honey. 

208.  As  bees  carry  on  their  bodies  the  pollen,  or  fertil- 
izing substance,  they  aid  most  powerfully  in  the  impregna- 
tion of  plants,  while  prying  into  the  blossoms  in  search  of 
honey  or  bee-bread.  In  genial  seasons,  fruit  will  often  set 
abundantly,  even  if  no  bees  are  kept  in  its  Ticinity ;  but 
many  Springs  are  so  unpropitious,  that  often  during  the 
critical  period  of  blossoming,  the  sun  shines  for  only  a  few 
hours,  so  that  those  only  can  reasonably  expect  a  remuner- 
ating crop  whose  trees  are  all  murmuring  with  the  pleasant 
hum  of  bees. 

209.  One  of  the  laws  of  Nature  is  that  the  crossing  of 
tbe  races  produces  offspring  with  greater  vigor,  endurance, 

U4  Fot»  or  ma. 

ftod  Ucaltj  of  reprodnctioD.  FrnitB  snoceed  better,  wheo 
the  p<dleo,  whidi  feitflizea  the  pistil,  comes  from  some  other 
blossom ;  and  tbe  insects  sre  intrusted  with  the  mission  of 
tnnsportiDg  this  poUeo  from  one  blossom  to  another,  whils 
plfaering  it  tor  their  own  use.  In  some  plants,  fertilizstioB 
would  have  been  unpaocdble,  without  the  help  of  insects. 
For  instance,  some  plants,  sodi  as  the  willows,  sre  diecioos, 
hSTing  their  male  organs  on  one  tree,  and  their  female  or> 
gans  on  another,  llie  bees  after  Tisiting  the  one  for  pollen, 
go  to  the  other  for  honey,  acd  the  fecondation  Is  effected. 

(Magnlflcd.     Pnm  ChaaMn.) 

A,  jonng  blOBaom.     >.  aUsnu. 

B,  Mctloa  of  bloHom.     m,  calyx;    r,  catoUai    H,  >ba«MI   Battel 
1,  itlsnui  ',  Up;  D,  autben;  n,  aectari  M,  black  Up. 

C,  older  blouom.     i,  dn>ppliiBitlK>D*i  i,  anthen. 

In  some  other  plants,  such  as  the  Scrophtdaria  Nodoia 
(Simpson  hooey  plaot — Fig.  43),  tbe  female  orgaos  are 
ready  for  fecundation  earlier  than  the  male.  But  as  the 
flower  secretes  a  Urge  quantity  of  honey,  which  Is  replaced 
in  its  nectaries  as  fast  as  tbe  bees  gather  it,  the  bees,  in 
traveling  from  one  blossom  to  another,  carry  the  pollen  of 
an  old  blossom  to  the  pistil  of  a  yoimger  one,  and  fertiliza- 
tion is  accomplished.     Some  plauts,  corn,  tor  instance,  pro- 

POLLBN.  125 

dnce  Buch  quantities  of  pollen,  that  the  agency  of  insects  is 
less  indispensable  to  the  fertilization  of  their  blossoms. 

270.  To  determine  the  advantages  which  flowers  derive 
from  insect  fertilization,  any  one  can  wrap  a  few  flowers  in 
ganze,  jnst  before  the  opening  of  the  bud,  and  compare  the 
number  of  fertile  seeds,  from  flowers  thus  treated,  with 
those  of  other  blossoms. 

We  have  heard  farmers  mention  the  fact  that  the  first 
crop  of  red  clover  furnishes  but  little  seed,  compared  with 
the  second  crop.  This  is  because  the  bumble-bees,  which 
help  its  fertilization,  are  very  scarce  in  Spring,  while  they 
are  much  more  plentiful  in  Summer.  ^^  In  Australia  it  was 
found  impossible  to  obtain  seed  from  red  clover  until  the 
bumble-bees  were  imported  into  that  country  "  (Darwin). 

A  large  fruit-grower  told  us  that  his  cherries  were  a  very 
uncertain  crop,  a  cold  northeast  storm  frequently  prevailing 
when  they  were  in  blossom.  He  had  noticed  that,  if  the 
sun  shone  only  for  a  couple  of  hours,  the  bees  secured  him 
a  crop. 

If  those  horticulturists,  who  regard  the  bee  as  an  enemy, 
could  exterminate  the  race,  they  would  act  with  as  little 
wisdom  as  those  who  attempt  to  banish  from  their  inhospit- 
able premises  every  insectivorous  bird,  which  helps  itself  to 
a  small  part  of  the  abundance  it  has  aided  in  producing. 
By  making  judicious  efforts  early  in  the  Spring,  to  entrap 
the  mother-wasps  and  hornets,  which  alone  survive  the 
Winter,  an  effectual  blow  may  be  struck  at  some  of  the 
worst  pests  of  the  orchard  and  garden.  In  Europe,  those 
engaged  extensively  in  the  cultivation  of  fruit,  often  pay  a 
small  sum  in  the  Spring  for  all  wasps  and  hornets  destroyed 
in  their  vicinity. 

rooD  OF  Bsm. 


Water  is  necessary  to  bees  to  diMotre  the  hooer, 

which  Bometimes  granulates  in  the  cella,  to  digest  the  poUen 
and  to  prepare  the  food  with  which  they  feed  the  larvK. 
They  can  raise  a  certain  amount  of  brood  without  water, 
but  they  always  seem  to  suffer  more  or  less  in  consequence 
(602).  Id  the  Winter,  they  breed  but  Uttle,  and  the 
moisture  which  condenses  on  the  walla  of  the  hive  Is  gener- 
ally sufficient.  Yet  we  have  noticed  that  as  soon  as  bees 
are  brought  out  of  the  cellar  (6S3),  if  the  temperature 
is  sufficiently  warm,  a  great  many  will  be  seen  sucking 
water.  This  fact  shows  that  Berlepscb  was  right  when  he 
advised  bee-keepers  to  give  water  to  bees  during  Winter, 
to  avoid  what  he  called  disease  of  the  thirst.  Besides, 
every  one  may  notice  that  bees  take  advantage  of  any  warm 
Winter  day  to  bring  it  to  their  hives;  and,  in  early  Spring, 
may  be  seen  busily  drinking  around  pumps,  drains,  and 
other  moist  places.  Later  in  the  season,  they  sip  the  dew 
from  the  grass  and  leaves. 

272.  Every  careful  bee-keeper  will  see  that  his  bees  are 
well  supplied  with  water.  If 
he  has  not  some  sunny  spot, 
olose  at  hand,  where  they  can 
safely  obtain  it,  be  will  fur- 
nish them  with  shallow  wood- 
en troughs,  or  vessels  filled 
with  Qoats  or  straw,  from 
which — sheltered  from  cold 
winds,  and  warmed  by  the 
genial  raya  of  the  sun — they 
can    drink    without    risk   of 


A  bnrri'l  halt  Hlled  with 
earth  and  then  filled  with 
water,  in  which  some  water- 

Fig. «. 

(From  Sutoil  M  8— Bfciiftli,  < 

WATER.  127 

cress  or  other  aquatic  plants  are  kept,  to  preserve  it  from 
putrefaction,  and  to  prevent  the  bees  from  drowning,  will 
do  very  well.  For  a  small  Apiary,  a  jug  or  bottle  (fig.  44), 
filled  with  water,  and  inverted  on  a  plate,  covered  with  a 
small  piece  of  carpet,  will  be  sufficient*  It  can  also  be  given 
in  the  combs.  Mr.  Vogel,  editor  of  the  Bienen-Zeitung,  on 
the  19th  of  March  gave  to  a  colony  a  comb  containing  crys- 
tallized honey,  and  another  containing  about  three-fourths 
of  a  pound  of  water.  Within  sixteen  hours,  both  combs 
were  altogether  emptied  by  the  bees. 

278.  A  learned  French  bee-keeper,  Mr.  Da  Layens^ 
made  many  experiments  in  regard  to  this  matter. 

^  In  the  month  of  May,  1878,  I  put  a  lump  of  sugar  near  a 
■pot  where  a  great  many  bees  came  for  water;  they  paid  no- 
attention  to  it.  The  sugar  was  then  moistened  and  covered 
with  honey.  The  bees,  attracted  by  the  honey,  came  in  great 
numbers,  and  sacked  up  most  of  the  moist  sugar.  After  they 
became  accustomed  to  this,  I  decreased  the  moistening,  till  I 
gave  them  nothing  but  dry  sugar,  when  they  brought  water  to 
dissolve  the  sugar,  and  removed  all  except  the  parts  which  were 
too  hard  to  be  dissolved  easily.''— (BuZ/e^n  <U  la  Suisse,  Nov.  1880.) 

The  same  writer  has  noticed  that,  in  Spring,  if  the  bees 
are  compelled  to  go  very  far  for  water,  many  of  them  per- 
ish. He  found  a  loss  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  grammes 
of  bees — ^four-fifths  of  a  pound — from  a  hive,  during  a  sud- 
den Spring  storm. 

From  the  10th  of  April  to  the  81st  of  July,  forty  colonies 
consumed  187  litres  of  water,  about  fifty  gallons ;  the  great- 
est quantity  used  in  a  day  being  seven  litres,  or  about  fif- 
teen pints. 

That  bees  do  not  need  water,  in  circumstances  other  than 
those  mbove  named,  is  evidenced  from  the  fact  that,  in  im- 
porting bees  from  Italy,  we  did  not  succeed  in  receiving 
them  alive,  untO  our  shippers  reluctantly  consented  to  send 
them  without  water  (595). 

128  food  of  bxb8. 


274.  Bees  seem  to  be  so  fond  of  salt,  that  they  will 
alight  upon  our  hands  to  lick  up  the  saline  perspiration. 

**  During  the  early  part  of  the  breeding  season,"  said  Dr.  Bevao, 
'*  till  the  beginning  of  May,  I  keep  a  constant  supply  of  salt  and 
water  near  my  Apiary,  and  find  it  thronged  with  bees  firom  early 
mom  till  late  in  the  eyenlng.  About  this  period  the  quantity 
they  consume  is  considerable,  but  afterwards  they  seem  indiifei^ 
ent  to  it.  The  eagerness  they  eyince  for  it  at  one  period  of  the 
season,  and  their  indifference  at  another,  may  account  tot  the 
'Opposite  opinions  entertamed  respecting  it*" 




S7ff.  Tbe  first  hives  that  were  provided  for  bees  were  as 
nde  as  their  natural  abodes.  We  do  not  need  to  look  back 
very  far  to  remember  the  "  bee-gum,"  so  c&Iled,  probably, 
becaose  it  had  often  been  made  out  of  the  gum  tree,  with 
two  sticks  crossing  in  the  middle,  and  a  rough  board  nailed 
on  top,  whiles  notch  in  the  lower  end  formed  the  entrance. 
In  the  Old  World,  they  manufactured  straw  or  willow 
"  skeps  "  and  pottery  hives,  which  are  still  used  in  Asia  and 
Africa.  The  earthen  hive  was  simply  a  tube,  laid  on  its 
side,  and  closed  at  each  end  with  a  movable  wooden  disk. 
This  disk  was  removed  to  take  the  honey,  which  is  always 
located  at  tlic  back  part  of  the  hives. 

(rrem  "L'AploaltoTe," 

These  earthen  hives  were,  unqueationably,  the  most 
sensible  of  those  old  kinds.  In  the  Islands  of  Greece  they 
were  set  in  thick  stone  walls,  built  on  purpose  with  the 
entrance  on  one  side  of  the  wall.  Somellmes  they  were 
located  in  the  walls  of  the  houses,  aad  the  honey  was 
removed  from  the  Inside  of  the  house,  or,  if  in  walls,  from 
behind,  out  of  the  flight  of  bees. 


276.  To  get  the  honey  from  the  giims,  or  boxes,  th« 
bee-keepers  used  at  first  to  drive  the  bees  to  another  hiv« 
(574)  and  take  all  the  contents.  But  most  of  the  thus 
impoverished  colonies  perished.  This  led  to  the  thought 
that  killing  bees  would  be  more  facile,  and  the  brim- 
stone-pit was  invented.  This  killing  of  bees  wu  bo  cus- 
tomary that,  about  one  hundred  yeara  ago,  Joseph  II, 
Emperor  of  Austria,  decreed  that  every  bee-keeper  who 
would  cut  the  combs  in  Spring,  Instead  of  brinutonlng 
the  bees,  would  receive  one  florin  (about  forty  oaoti)  per 

rig.  *6.  rig.  n. 

antAW  HiVK,  WITH  CAP.  BOX  HIVE,  wmi  or. 

[(^m  Hsinct.)  (Froni  BuoM.) 

377.  Nearly  sixty  years  ago,  our  senior,  then  a  boy, 
saw  tliis  barvestingof  combs  for  the  first  time.  Clothed  with 
a  heavy  linen  frock,  equipped  with  a  mask  of  wire, 
strong  enough  to  be  sword-proof,  and  sweating  under  a 
scorching  sun  in  this  heavy  garment,  he  helped  (  ?)  the  old 
priest  of  his  village  to  prune  about  twenty  colonies,  removing 
the  back  combs  with  a  curved  knife,  from  the  upturned 
hives.     It  was  in  April ;  and,  white  the  crop  thus  harvested 



wu  light,  the  damAgfl  inflicted  to  the  bees  was  immenBe, 
tor  the;  had  to  rebnild  their  combs  at  a  time  when  queens 
begin  Uieir  greatest  laying.  But  the  bee-keepers  of  old 
were  persuaded  that  tiiis  crop  of  beeswax  was  beneficial 
to  bees,  since  it  compelled  them  to  make  new  combs,  which 
were  considered  better  than  older  ones  (076)- 

B,  bodrt  1,  Btua  >u  CDomn  u 
■tailes  with  tha  nuiila*  c*p. 

(mm  BuDst.) 

27S.  Some  bee-keepers,  having  noticed  that  beea  place 
their  bone;  at  the  highest  part  of  the  hive,  added  a  cap  or 
a])per  story,  which  communicated  with  the  hive  through  a 
hole  in  the  top  of  the  latter  (figs.  46  and  47).  Still  later, 
Apiarists  found  out  that  when  the  hive  was  very  deep  and 
the  connecting  hole  amall,  the  bees  refused  to  store  their 
honey  in  the  cap,  and  they  made  their  hiveB  with  open  ceil- 
ings, replacing  the  t(q>  board  of  the  breeding-storynith  slats 
or  bars.  The  Uvea  were  afterwards  divided  into  several  bor- 
iionUl  sectionB,  called  "ekes"  (figs.  48  and  49).  Instead 
of  using  a  cap,  acme  Apiarists  removed  the  upper  atory, 
when  full  of  honey,  and  pUoed  a  new  story  under  the  others. 

182  T 

The  bees  then  coDtloued  thdr  coiutructiom  downwudi. 
To  eeparate  the  sections  from  one  aootfaer,  the;  used  it  win 
tbnt  cut  the  combs.  Butler,  in  his  "  Feminine  Honuchj," 
1634,  shows  hives  composed  of  four  sections,  piled  opOD  one 
another.  P&lteau,  In  1750,  adrises  bee-keepers  to  use  a 
perforated  ceiling  at  the  top  of  each  section.  Badouan,  in 
1621,  instead  of  a  perforated  ceiling,  uses  triangular  bars, 
to  which  the  bees  attach  their  combs  (fig.  49).  Chaa. 
Soria,  in  1645,  used  these  bars  at  the  bottom  of  each 
story  as  well  as  at  the  top,  with  bee  space  between,  so  that 
they  can  be  removed,  exchanged,  or  reversed,  without 
crushing  any  bees,  or  damaging  a  aingle  cell  {tig.  ftO). 




(From  HuiKt.i 

279.  Other  Apiarists  divided  their  hives  vertically,  ooi^ 
formably  wilh  the  shape  of  the  combs  of  the  bees,  which 
hanp;  vcrticall.v.  If  we  are  correctly  informed,  it  was  Jonas 
de  Gclicu  who  inaugurated  this  style  (fig.  51).  He  m«d« 
his  hive  divisible  into  only  two  parU.  (Ettl,  towards  th« 
middle  of  this  century,  made  a  slraw  hive  divided  into  thras 
vertical  parts.  Tbe  main  advantage  of  these  hives  reaides 
In  the  facility  of  dividing  ihem  tor  artificial  swarming.  But 
as  this  method  of  making  artificial  Bwarms  ia  defective,  as 
will   be  shown    further,    (471),  and  as  all  these  coubri- 


TEoces  did  not  allow  a  olose  study  of  the  habits  of  the  bee, 
or  permit  the  needed  manipulations,  it  became  necessary  to 
Inyent  a  hive  whose  every  comb,  and  every  part,  the  Apiarist 
ooold  promptly  and  easily  control ;  a  hive  which,  to  employ 
the  forcible  expression  of  Mr.  Hamet,  could  '^  se  dUmonter 
wmme  un  jeu  de  marionettes;*'  (be  taken  to  pieces  like  a 

RBQuisrrES  of  a  Cohplbts  HrvB. 

280.  i.  A  complete  hive  should  give  the  Apiarist  such 
perfect  control  of  all  the  combs,  that  they  may  be  easily 
taken  oat  without  cutting  them,  or  exciting  the  anger  of  the 

2.  It  should  permit  all  necessary  operations  to  be  per- 
formed without  hurting  or  killing  a  single  bee. 

Some  hives  are  so  constructed,  that  they  can  not  be  used 
without  injuring  or  destroying  some  of  the  bees ;  and  the 
destruction  of  even  a  few  materially  increases  the  difficulty 
of  managing  them  (399). 

3.  It  should  afford  suitable  protection  against  extremes 
of  heat  and  cold,  sudden  changes  of  temperature,  and  the 
injurious  effects  of  dampness. 

The  interior  of  a  hive  should  be  dry  in  Winter,  and  free 
In  Sununer  from  a  pent  and  almost  suffocating  heat. 

4.  Not  one  unnecessary  motion  should  be  required  of  a 
dngle  bee. 

As  the  honey-harvest,  in  most  locations,  is  of  short  con- 
tinuance, all  the  arrangements  of  the  hive  should  facilitate, 
to  the  utmost,  the  work  of  the  busy  gatherers.  Hives 
which  compel  them  to  travel  with  their  heavy  burdens 
through  densely  crowded  combs,  are  very  objectionable. 
Bees  instead  of  forcing  their  way  through  thick  clusters, 
mutt  easily  pass  into  the  top  surplus  honey-boxes  of  the 

184  THK   BBB-HIYBS. 

hives,  from  any  comb  in  the  hive,  and  into  everj  box,  with- 
out traveling  much  over  the  combs. 

6.  It  should  be  capable  of  being  readily  adjusted  to  the 
wants  of  either  large  or  small  colonies  (349). 

6.  It  should  allow  every  good  piece  of  worker-comb  to  be 
given  to  the  bees,  instead  of  melting  it  into  wax,  and  should 
permit  of  the  use  of  comb-foundation  (674). 

7.  It  should  prevent  the  o^er-production  of  drones,  by 
permitting  the  removal  of  drone-comb  from  the  hive. 

A  hive  containing  too  much  comb  suitable  only  for  storing 
honey,  or  raising  drones,  cannot  be  expected  to  prosper. 

8.  It  should  allow  the  bottom  board  to  be  loosened  or 
fastened  at  will,  for  ventilation,  or  to  clear  out  the  dead 
bees  in  Winter.  If  suffered  to  remain,  they  often  become 
mouldy,  and  injure  the  health  of  the  colony.  In  dragging 
them  out,  when  the  weather  moderates,  the  bees  often  fall 
with  them  on  the  snow,  and  are  so  chilled,  that  they  never 
rise  again ;  for  a  bee,  in  flying  away  with  the  dead,  fre- 
quently retains  its  hold  until  both  fall  to  the  ground. 

9.  No  part  of  the  interior  of  the  hive  should  be  below 
the  level  of  the  place  of  exit. 

If  this  principle  is  violated,  the  bees  must,  at  great  dis- 
advantage, drag,  up  hilly  their  dead,  and  all  the  refuse  of 
the  hive. 

10.  It  should  afford  facilities  for  feeding  bees,  both  in 
warm  and  cool  weather,  in  case  of  need. 

11.  It  should  furnish  facilities  for  enlarging,  contracting, 
and  closing  the  entrance,  to  protect  the  bees  against  rob- 
bers ;  and  when  the  entrance  is  altered,  the  bees  ought  not, 
as  in  some  hives,  to  lose  valuable  time  in  searching  for  it. 

12.  It  should  furnish  facilities  for  admitting  at  once  a 
large  body  of  air,  that  the  bees  may  be  tempted  to  fly  oat 
and  discharge  their  faeces,  on  warm  days  in  Winter,  or 
early  Spring  (344). 

If  such  a  free  admission  of  air  cannot  be  giTe&9  ^^  bees, 


by  losing  m  favorable  opportunity  of  emptying  themselyes, 
may  suffer  from  diseases  resulting  from  too  long  confine- 

13.  It  should  allow  the  bees,  together  with  the  heat  and 
odor  of  the  main  hive,  to  pass  in  the  freest  manner,  to  the 
surplus  honey-receptacles. 

In  this  respect,  many  hives  with  which  we  are  acquainted 
are  more  or  less  deficient ;  the  bees  being  forced  to  work  in 
receptacles  difficult  of  access,  and  in  which,  in  cool  nights, 
they  find  it  impossible  to  maintain  the  requisite  heat  for 
comb-building,  or,  in  which,  in  hot  days,  they  cannot  send 
air  enough  to  make  the  place  habitable. 

14.  Each  of  the  parts  of  every  hive  in  an  Apiary  should 
be  so  made,  as  to  be  interchangeable  from  one  hive  to  an- 
other. In  this  way,  the  Apiarist  can  readily  make  the 
exchanges  of  brood,  honey,  or  pollen,  which  circumstances 

15.  The  hive  should  permit  the  surplus  honey  to  be 
taken  away  in  the  most  convenient,  beautiful  and  salable 

16.  It  should  be  equally  well  adapted  to  be  used  as  a 
swarmer,  or  non-swarmer. 

17.  It  should  enable  the  Apiarist  to  multiply  his  colonies 
with  a  certainty  and  rapidity  which  are  impossible  if  he 
depends  on  natural  swarming. 

18.  It  should  enable  the  Apiarist  to  supply  destitute  col- 
onies with  the  means  of  obtaining  a  new  queen. 

19.  It  should  enable  him  to  catch  the  queen,  for  any 
purpose ;  especially  to  remove  an  old  one  whose  fertility  is 
impaired  by  age. 

20.  {t  should  enable  a  single  bee-keeper  to  superintend 
several  hundred  colonies  for  different  individuals. 

Many  persons  would  keep  bees,  if  an  Apiary,  like  a  gar- 
den, could  be  superintended  by  a  competent  individual.  No 
person  can  agree  to  do  this  with  the  common  hives.     If  tuo 

186  THK    BBB-HiyiS. 

bees  are  allowed  to  swarm,  he  may  be  called  in  a  dozen  dif- 
ferent directions  at  once,  and  if  any  accident,  such  as  the 
loss  of  a  queen,  happens  to  the  colonies  of  his  cnstomert, 
he  can  usually  apply  no  remedy. 

21.  All  the  Joints  of  the  hive  should  be  water-tight  and 
moth-proof  (804),  and  there  should  be  no  doors  or  thntters 
liable  to  shrink,  swell,  or  get  out  of  order. 

22.  A  complete  hive  should  be  protected  against  the  de* 
structive  ravages  of  mice  in  Winter  (348). 

23.  It  should  permit  the  honey,  after  the  gathering  sea- 
son is  over,  to  be  concentrated  where  the  bees  will  most 
need  it. 

24.  It  should  permit  the  space  for  spare  honey  recepta- 
cles to  be  enlarged  or  contracted  at  will,  without  any  alter- 
ation or  destruction  of  existing  parts  of  the  hive. 

Without  the  power  to  do  this,  the  productive  force  of  a 
colony  is  in  some  seasons  greatly  diminished. 

25.  Its  surplus  honey  receptacle  should  be  as  close  to  the 
brood  as  possible. 

26.  A  complete  hive,  while  possessing  oi/ these  requisites, 
should,  if  possible,  combine  them  in  a  cheap  and  simple  form, 
adapted  to  the  wants  of  all  who  are  competent  to  cultivate 

281.  There  are  a  few  desirables  to  which  a  hive,  even  if 
it  were  perfect,  could  make  no  pretensions! 

It  could  not  promise  splendid  results  to  those  who  are 
too  ignorant  or  too  careless  to  be  entrusted  with  the  man- 
agement of  bees.  In  bee-keeping,  as  in  all  other  pursuits, 
man  must  first  understand  his  business,  and  then  proceed 
upon  the  good  old  maxim,  that  ^^the  hand  of  the  diligent 
makcth  rich."  ^^  In  a  word,  to  succeed  U  is  indispensable  to 
know  what  to  do,  and  to  do  it  just  in  ttm€."^-(S.  Wsgner). 

It  could  not  have  the  talismanic  influence  to  convert  a  bad 
situation  for  honey  into  a  good  one ;  or  give  the  Apiarist  an 
abundant  harvest,  whether  the  season  was  productive  or 


Otherwise.  As  well  might  the  farmer  seek  for  some  kind  of 
wheat  which  will  yi^ld  an  enormous  crop,  in  any  soil,  and 
in  every  season. 

It  could  not  enable  the  cultivator,  while  rapidly  multiply- 
ing his  stocks,  to  secpre  the  largest  yield  of  honey  from  his 
bees.  As  well  might  the  breeder  of  poultry  pretend,  that 
in  the  same  year,  and  from  the  same  stock,  he  can  both 
raise  the  greatest  number  of  chickens,  and  sell  the  largest 

number  of  eggs. 


Movable-Comb  Hives. 

282.  The  bee-keepers  of  Greece  and  of  Candia  seem  to 
have  been  the  first  to  provide  their  hives  with  movable  bars, 
under  which  bees  suspended  their  combs.  Delia-  Rocca  men- 
tions these  and  gives  engravings  of  them  in  his  work,  pub- 
lished in  1790.  In  1838,  Dzierzon  revived  this  hive  and 
improved  it.  In  spite  of  the  difficulty  of  its  managemeDt, 
since  the  combs  not  being  attached  to  movable- frames,  but 


J         1   ■ 

1 — \_ 





Fio.  52. 




to  top  bars  (flg.  52),  cannot  be  removed  without  cutting  them 
looee  from  the  sidea  of  the  hive,  Dzierzon  succeeded  in 
making  discoveries,  in  bee  physiology,  which  rank  among 
the  most  important  (1S2).  His  success  was  marvelous  for 
the  epoch.    Mr.  Wagner  wrote  of  him  Ic  185Z; 


83*  '^As  the  best  test  of  the  va^ue  of  Mr.  Dzierzon's  system 
18  the  results  which  have  been  made  to  flow  from  it,  »  brief  account 
of  its  rise  and  progress  may  be  found  interesting.  In  1835,  be  com- 
menced bee-Veeping  in  the  common  way,  with  twelve  colonies,  and 
after  various  mishaps  which  taught  him  the  defects  of  the  common 
hives  und  the  old  mode  of  management,  his  itock  was  so  reduced,  that, 
in  1838,  he  had  virtually  to  begin  anew.  At  this  period  I  e  contrived 
bis  impioved  hive,  in  its  ruder  form,  which  gave  him  the  command 
over  all  the  combs,  and  he  began  to  experiment  on  the  theory  which 
observation  and  study  had  enabled  him  to  devise.  Thenceforward  his 
progress  wiis  as  rapid,  as  his  success  was  complete  and  triumphant. 
Though  he  met  with  frequent  reverses,  about  seventy  colonies  having 
been  stolen  from  him,  sixty  destroyed  by  fire,  and  twentj'-four  by  a 
flood,  yet,  in  1840,  his  stock  had  increased  to  three  hundred  and  sixty 
colonicii,  and  lie  realized  from  them  that  year  six  thousand  pounds  of 
honey,  besides  several  hundred  weight  of  wax.  At  the  same  time,  most 
of  the  cultivators  in  his  vicinity,  who  pursued  the  common  methods, 
had  fewer  hives  than  the}'  liad  wlien  he  commenced, 

"in  the  year  1848,  a  fatal  pestilence,  known  by  the  name  of 'foul 
brood'  (787)'  prevailed  among  his  bees,  and  destroyed  nea*ly  all  his 
colonies  before  it  eoukl  be  subdued,  only  about  t«»n  having  escaped 
the  inaladv  which  attacked  alike  the  old  stocks  and  his  artiflcial  swarms. 
(469)-  U»'  e>tiinat<-i  his  entin*  loss  that  year  at  over  fivo  hundred 
colonic-.  NevertlK'lt'ss,  he  succeeded  so  well  in  multiplying  by 
artificial  s\varm>,  the  few  that  remained  healthy,  that,  in  the  fall  of 
1851,  his  stock  oonsi>t«*d  of  nearly  four  hundred  colonies.  He  must 
therefore  ha\«'  multiplied  his  >tocks  more  than  three-fold  each  year." 

But  io  the  Dzierzon  hive,  it  is  often  Decessary  to  cat  and 
remove  many  cumbs  to  get  access  to  a  particular  one;  thus 
If  the  tenth  from  the  end  Is  to  be  removed,  nioe  must  he 
taken  out.  This  hive  cannot  furnish  the  surplus  honey  In  a 
form  the  most  salable  in  our  markets,  or  admitting  of  safe 
transportation  In  the  comb.  Notwithstanding  these  disad- 
vantages, it  has  achieved  a  great  triumph  in  Germany,  and 
given  a  new  impulse  to  the  cultivation  of  bees. 

Dzierzon  builds  hives  in  structures  of  two,  fbur  and  cren 
more  colonies,  piled  upon  one  another.    On  the  fronttspiece 


to  the  fiiat  edition  ol  this  work,  Hr.  Langatroth  gave  a  rep- 
naentation  of  %  triple  hive.  The  little  that  can  be  saved  in 
the  first  cost  of  anch  hives,  he  found  to  be  more  than  lost 
by  the  great  inconvenieace  of  handling  them. 

Uovablb-Fbau  Hives. 

284.  Aboat  one  hundred  years  ago,  Huber  invented  the 
leaf-hive,  which  enabled  him  to  make  his  discoveries  It 
eonaisted  of  twelve  frames,  each  sn  inch  and  a  quarter  in 
width,  which  were  connected  together  by  hinges  so  that 
they  could  be  opened  or  shut  at  pleasure,  hke  the  leaves 
of  a  book 

(rrom  Bunet.) 
885.  Thia  hive  wae  lately  improved  upon  by  several  bee- 
keepers in  Europe  and  America,  the  most  noted  of  whom 
■re  the  Late  Mr.  Quinby,  and  his  son  in-law,  L.  C.  Root, 
■athor  and  publisher  of  one  of  the  most  progressive  bee- 
fcooka,  "Qotnby's  New  Bee-keeping."     This  style  of  hive 

140  THB    BSB-HIYKS. 

is  generally  known  as  the  closed-end  8t4uiding-frsmae  hire. 
Mr.  Armstrong  of  Illinois,  seems  to  be  successful  with  a 
hive  almost  entirely  similar  to  the  Huber  leaf-hive  in  its 
principles.  Mr.  Heddon,  of  Michigan,  has  also  patented  a 
closed-end  frame  hive,  which  is  praised  by  some  bee-keepers 
of  note.  The  reader  will  understand  that,  in  these  hives, 
the  combs  hang  separately  in  frames,  which,  when  jc^ned 
together,  make  a  body,  enclosed  in  an  outer  covering.  Their 
being  used  by  a  number  of  Apiarists,  shows  that  these 
hives  have  some  advantages,  the  greatest  objection  to  them 
being  the  difficulty  of  fitting  the  frames  together,  after  in- 
spection, without  crushing  some  bees,  unless  they  have  been 
previously  shaken  out. 

280.  Several  attempts  were  made,  in  the  first  half  of 
this  century,  to  invent  a  practical  hanging- frame  hive  ;  that 
is,  a  hive  in  which  each  comb,  hanging  in  a  separate  frame, 
could  bo  readily  taken  out  and  replaced  without  jarring  the 
hive,  or  removing  the  other  frames.  Propokovitsch,  in 
Russia,  Munn,  in  England,  Debeauvoys,  in  France,  tried 
and  failed.  At  last,  in  October,  1851,  Mr.  Langstroth 
invented  the  top-opening  movable-frame  hive,  now  used 
the  world  over,  in  which  the  combs  are  attached  to  movable 
frames  so  suhpendcd  in  the  hives  as  to  touch  neither  the 
top,  bottom,  nor  sides;  leaving,  between  the  frames  and 
the  hive  walls,  a  space  of  from  one- fourth  to  three-eighths 
of  an  inch,  called  bee-space.     (Fig.  54.) 

287.  By  this  device  the  combs  can  be  removed  at  pleas- 
ure, without  any  cutting,  and  speedily  transferred  to  an- 
other hive.  Our  conf^enial  friend,  Prof.  A.  J.  Cook,  of 
the  Michigan  State  Agricultural  College,  and  author  of 
**The  Bee-kee|)or*s  Guide,"  says  of  it:  ^^  It  is  this  hive, 
the  greatest  Apiarian  invention  ever  made,  that  has  placed 
American  Apiculture  in  advance  of  t*^at  of  all  other  coun- 
tries.'* And  no  one  knows,  better  than  the  revisers  of  this 
work,  that  such  is  the  plain  truth,  as  they  have  watched 


Um  progress  of  bee-keeping  in  Europe,  throagh  its  French, 
lUJtan,  Swiss,  and  Gennan  bee-papers,  for  twenty  yeara 


288.  Ur.  Langstroth,  however,  modestly  disclainicd  tlie 
Idea  of  having  attained  perfection  in  his  hive.     He  wrote : 

"Having  oarefDllf  studied  the  nature  of  the  honey-bee,  for 
Many  rean,  and  compared  my  obBerratlons  witb  those  of  writ- 
an  and  enltlvaton  who  tiare  spent  their  Uvea  In  extending  tb* 

142  THR    BEB-HIVBS. 

Sphere  of  Apiarian  knowledge,  I  have  endeavored  to  remedy  the 
many  difficulties  with  which  bee-culture  is  beset,  by  adapting 
my  invention  to  the  actual  habits  and  wants  of  the  insect.  I  have 
also  tested  the  merits  of  this  hive  by  long  continued  experi- 
ments, made  on  a  large  scale,  so  that  I  might  not,  by  deceiving 
both  myself  and  others,  add  another  to  the  useless  contrivances 
which  have  deluded  and  disgusted  a  too  credulous  public.  I 
would,  however,  utterly  repudiate  all  claims  to  having  devised 
even  a  perfect  bee-hive.  Perfection  belongs  only  to  the  works  of 
Him,  to  whose  omniscient  eye  were  present  all  causes  and 
effects,  with  all  their  relations,  when  He  spake,  and  from  nothing 
formed  the  Universe.  For  man  to  stamp  the  label  of  perfection 
upon  any  work  of  his  own,  is  to  show  both  his  folly  and  pre- 

289.  A  short  time  after  the  issuing  of  the  Langstroth 
patent,  the  Baron  Von  Berlepsch,  of  Seebach,  Thuringia, 
invented  frames  of  a  somewhat  similar  character.  Carl  T. 
E.  Von  Siebokl,  Professor  of  Zoology  and  Comparative 
Anatomy,  in  the  University  of  Munich,  thus  speaks  of  tliese 
frames : 

'^As  the  lateral  adhesion  of  the  combs  built  down  from  the 
bars  frequently  rendered  their  removal  difficult,  Berlepsch  tried 
to  avoi(i  this  inconvenience,  in  a  very  ingenious  way,  by  sus- 
pending in  his  hives,  instead  of  the  bars,  small  quadrangular 
frames,  tlie  vacuity  of  which  the  bees  fill  up  with  their  comb,  bj 
wliicli  tlie  removal  and  suspension  of  the  combs  are  greatly  fa- 
cilitated, and  altogether  such  a  convenient  arrangement  is  given 
to  the  Dzierzon-hive,  that  nothing  more  remaim  to  be  detiretL"  (???) 

Mr.  Cheshire  (2d  vol.  page  46)  was  mistaken  in  attribut- 
ing to  Dzicrzon  the  invention  of  the  frame-hive,  for  Dzier- 
zon  has  not  even  invented,  but  only  perfected  the  movable- 
conib  hive  (282-1283),  having  always,  to  this  day,  been 
(Apposed  to  frames.  So  the  German  hive  is  known  as  the 
Herlepsch   hive. 

290.  For  years,  both  of  these  inventions  shared  equally 
the  attention  of  bee-keepers  in  Kiirope.  Berlepsch's  hive 
is  used  prineipally  in  Germany,  Italy,  and  part  of  Switzer- 
land ;   Langstroth's  in  England,  France,  and  the  French* 



■pe&kiag  part  of  Switzerland )  bat  it  ie  to  be  noted,  that 

btveB  made  on  the  priociple  of  the  Langetroth  inveotion, 

aru  Btesdily  gaining  ground  wherever  both  styles  are  used.* 

291.  Ani]  this  is  not  tobewondered  at.     The  Berlepsch 

■KKiJWcn  HiTB  wrm  back  cusntot. 

(7nmO»"PtMttritrltButitiulitjtig  " 

hive  opens  from  the  rear,  like  a  cu[)board  Two  stones 
are  used  for  the  brood,  and  the  third  for  surplus  honey. 
This  is  sometimes  separated  from  the  main  apartment  by 
perforated  zinc  (407),  to  exclude  the  queen,  or  by  a  board 

•At  tbaIUllaiiBee-k«p«n'  Coarsntlon.  hold  in  Hllsn.  [n  ncpl^'mbir  ie^, 
■emal  Aplnfita  axlilUtad  Utim  of  thu  ityle.  and  yet  none  could  bo  found  is 
Italj,  tf  xtMB  ;>■>■  •80'  ^^  <^t  Luigitrath  hlrs  nhlcb  ■ppcuod  la  IXnij 
wai  IntMdnccd  br  u.  In  isn. 



wilh  a  square  bole  in  the  center.  The  frames  are  n^ 
pended,  in  grooves,  by  the  ends  of  their  apper  bus,  uid 
have  to  be  taken  out  with  pincers. 

292.  The  worst  feature  of  this  hive  is  that,  if  it  is  nec- 
essary to  reach  the  last  frame,  ever;  one  of  the  others  has 
to  be  taken  out.  There  are  twenty  combs  in  the  brood- 
chamber.  It  is  safe  to  say,  that  a  hive  built  on  the  Lang- 
stroth  -principle,  can  be  visited  five  Umes  more  rapidly, 
than  a  hive  built  on  the  Berlepsch  idea.  These  Inconven- 
iences, coupled  with  the  fact  that  the  brood  apartment  of 
the  Berlepsch  hive  is  divided  into  two  stories,  and  that  the 
surplus  apartment  cannot  be  enlarged,  ad  infinitum,  make 
the  Berlepsch  hive  inferior ;  and  we  can  safely  predirt  that 
hives  with  movable  ceiling  will,  some  day,  be  excltuivelf 
used  throughout  the  world. 


203.  The  superiority  of  the  Lan;;stroth  hive  is  so  evi- 
dent that  we  wore  not  surprised  to  read  in  the  Remu  It^ 
tentationaie  d' Apiculture,  Sept.  ISH.t: 


Author  of  '•  The  Mysterie*  of  litt-Kttpity.'^ 


M  xhe  question  of  the  mobility  of  the  ceiling  was  discussed  at 
length  at  the  Bee-keepers'  Meeting  held  in  Milan,  Italy,  in 
September  1885.  Mr.  Cowan  and  I  were  unable  to  conceal  from  the 
Italian  bee-keepers  our  wonder  that  it  was  not  solved  for  them, 
as  it  has  been,  for  a  long  time,  in  the  countries  of  large  produc- 

'^  We  can  predict,  and  without  any  fear  of  mistake,  that  the 
principles  on  which  the  Langstroth  hiye  is  based  will  be  ad- 
mitted sooner  or  later  by  the  most  prog^ssiye  bee-keepers  of 
the  world."— (Ed.  Bertrand.) 

204.  The  introduction  of  the  Langstroth  hive  in  Italy, 
and  especially  in  (Germany,  has  been  hindered,  so  far,  by 
the  premature  adoption  of  a  standard  frame,  which  '^  shuts 
the  door  to  progress. "^-(Ed.  Bertrand.) 

205.  The  success  of  American  bee-culture,  in  the  last 
twenty  years,  was  first  attributed,  by  European  bee-keepers, 
to  the  honey-producing  power  of  the  country ;  but  the  most 
intelligent  Apiarists,  who  have  tried  the  American  methods, 
with  the  Langstroth  hive,  now  recognize  that  success  is 
principally  due  to  the  manipulations  that  it  permits. 

2911.  Nay,  if  the  student  will  but  refer  to  the  former  re- 
vision of  this  very  book  (1859),  the  first  words  of  it  will 
show  him  the  progress  accomplished  since  then : 

'*  Practical  bee-keeping  in  this  country  is  in  a  very  de- 
pressed condition,  being  entirely  neglected  by  the  mass  of 
those  most  favorably  situated  for  its  pursuit.  Notwithstand- 
ing the  numerous  hives  which  have  been  introduced,  the 
ravages  of  the  bee-moth  have  increased,  and  success  is  becom- 
ing more  and  more  precarious.  While  multitudes  have 
abandoned  the  pursuit  in  disgust,  many  even  of  the  most 
experienced  are  beginning  to  suspect  that  all  the  so-called 
*  Improved  Hives '  are  delusions  or  impostures ;  and  that 
they  must  return  to  the  simple  box  or  hollow  log,  and  '  take 
up  •  their  bees  with  sulphur  in  the  old-fashioned  way." 

207.  Mr.  Gravenhorst,  also  a  German,  invented  a  mov* 
able-frame  hive  made  of  straw.     We  give  a  cut  of  his  hive 



and  Apiary,  not  that  they  hxve  any  practical  importance 
tor  UB,  b-jt  because  his  system  is  peculiar.  The  tramea  an 
removed  from  the  bottom,  so  that,  in  order  to  open  one  d 

these  hives,  it  requires  Ihe  strength  of  a  strong  man  to  iO' 
rert  it,  espefially  if  it  is  fuil  of  honey. 
The  Gravcnhorst  hive  is  not  intended  for  ladiea. 



208.  Although  the  movable  frame,  hanging  in  the  hive. 
bj  projections  of  the  top  bar  (figs.  54,  58),  as  invented  by 
Mr.  Langstroth,  is  the  style  now  almost  universally  adopted, 
there  is  a  great  diversity  of  opinions  as  to  the  proper  size 
and  shape  of  the  frames,  and  the  number,  which  a  hive 
should  contain.  Hundreds  of  different  sizes  are  used  with 
success,  from  Maine  to  California,  and  from  Canada  to 
Texas.    We  herewith  give  a  diagram  of  the  principal  frames 
















•  < 



12  S 



Fig.  00. 


I1gnnsgiT8Dan<mtiidediiiieo8ioiisliiinohns.    Snspendod  fjrames  hare 
HC-inch  aapportlog  anna,  or  an  equal  prolongatioa  of  top  bar. 

in  use.  The  ''Simplicity  "  is  almost  exactly  sirnilar  to  the 
original  Langstroth  frame:  so  much  so,  in  fuct,  thut  they 
are  interchangeable.  This  style  of  frame  has  been  iiKinu- 
factured  and  sold,  by  the  most  prominent  dealers,  to  sucli 
an  extent,  that  it  may  be  called  the  Standard  Frame  of 

209.  The  "  Hanging  Quinby  "  is  the  frame  preferred  by 


the  writers.  The  '*  Gallup  **  frame  is  used  with  success  bj 
such  practical  Apiarists  as  G.  M.  Doolittle  and  O.  Clute, 
author  of  a  charming  little  novel  entitled  ''  The  Blessed 
Bees,"  under  the  nom  de  plume  of  ''John  Allen."  The 
<< American"  and  ''Adair"  frames  are  somewhat  in  use 
also.  The  "  Closed-End  Quinby  "  (285)  is  not  a  hanging 
frame,  but  it  is  nevertheless  used  by  such  bee-keepers  as 
Messrs.  L.  C.  Root,  Hetherington,  Bingham,  etc. 

300.  It  is  evident  that  profit  can  be  derived  from  bee- 
culture  with  almost  any  style  of  frame ;  but  it  is  certain 
also,  that,  in  every  pursuit,  some  conditions  produce  better 
effects  than  others,  under  the  same  circumstances. 

In  Apiculture,  as  in  everything  else,  we  should  try  to  ob- 
tain the  best  results  with  the  least  labor  and  expense,  and 
these  can  only  be  attained  by  studying  the  habits  of  the 
bee,  and  complying  with  them,  as  far  as  is  practicable. 

The  combs  of  the  brood-chamber,  or  main  apartment  of 
the  hive,  are  used  by  the  bees  to  raise  their  young,  and  to 
store  their  food  for  Winter.  The  size  of  frames  must  be 
considered,  with  reference  to  this. 

301.  We  have  seen  (153)  that  the  queen  lays  her  eggs 
in  a  circle.  In  fact,  it  is  necessary  that  she  should  do  so, 
in  order  to  lose  no  time  in  bunting  for  cells ;  else  how  could 
she  lay  three  thousand  eggs,  or  more,  per. day?  A  very 
shallow  frame  will  break  the  circle,  and  compel  her  to  lose 
time.  In  a  comb  five  inches  deep,  for  instance,  and  fifteen 
or  sixteen  inches  long,  the  largest  circular  area  contains 
less  than  twenty  square  inches,  or  five  hundred  and  fifty 
worker-cells  on  each  side.  When  these  are  occupied  with 
eggs,  the  queen,  while  hunting  for  empty  cells,  will  find 
wood  above  and  below,  instead  of  comb,  at  every  half  turn, 
and  will  lose  not  only  time,  but  eggs ;  for,  in  the  busy  sea- 
son, her  eggs  have  to  drop,  like  mature  fruit,  if  not  laid  in 
the  cells.  Loss  of  eggs  is  loss  of  bees;  loss  of  bees  at  the 
proper  time  is  loss  of  honey. 



302.  A  two-story  shallow  brood- chamber  is  objection- 
Kble  for  the  same  reason.  Besides,  the  bees  which 
cover  the  brood  and  keep  it  warm,  must  also  keep  w&rm 
the  lower  bar  of  the  top  frame,  the  upper  bar  of  the  lower 
frame,  and  the  space  between  the  two,  without  deriving  any 
benefit  from  such  an  arrangement.  This  division  ot  the 
brood-comba  into  two  shallow  stories,  is  one  of  the  causes, 
which  prevent  the  bee-keepeia  of  Germany  from  raising  as 
many  beea,  in  their  hives,  as  we  do  here  in  the  ordinary 
LtDgstroth  hives.  This  disadvantage  was  so  evident  that 
the  bee-keepers  of  Switzerland,  who  had  adopted,  as  a 
standard,  the  Berlepach  hive  (fig.  55),  decided  to  replace 
the  double  story  by  a  single  one  of  the  same  dimension,  as 
tbe  Italian  bee-keepers  had  done  before,  but  for  half  the 
hire  only. 

DUOUMS  OF  oalluf  ahd  lakqstkdth  nivca. 

(Fram  tb*  "A.  B.  C.  of  Bee-Cnltoie,") 

A  small  frame  like  the  Gallup  (fig.  59),  presents  another 
objection,  the  cluster  being  divided  among  a  greater  num- 
ber  of  frames. 

"  For   Winter,  It  la  evident  that  the  sideB  of   the  clusters 

A.  B.  and  C.  D.  (flg.  60)  are  better  protected  than  the  ends  G.  H. 
and  K.  F.,  and  also  that  the  long  frames  protect  the  center  of  the 
brood-nest  mnch  better  than  the  short  ones."— (A.  I.  Root,  "  A. 

B.  C") 

ETen  t  oroos-bu  through  a  frame  (fig.  54)  will  hinder 
the  Uying  of  the  qneen,  so  that  brood  will  often  be  raised 
only  on  oim  side  of  it.     Any  one  can  easily  try  this. 


303.  From  the  foregoing,  it  appears  that  a  square  frame 
is  the  best  for  breeding.  But  square  frames  are  objecUon- 
able.  If  they  are  small,  they  do  not  have  enough  apace  in 
each  frame  for  Winter  supplies,  above  or  behind  the  brood. 
If  they  are  large,  they  are  unhandy,  and  their  depth  makes 
them  difficult  to  take  out  without  crushing  bees.  We  have 
used  some  sixty  hives,  American  frames,  12iXl2|,  for 
eighteen  years  or  more,  and  this  is  our  greatest  objection  to 

304.  A  deeper  frame  is  still  more  objectionable  for  the 
same  reason,*  and  because  the  surplus  cases  on  top  are  too 
remote  from  the  brood.  (278.)  In  early  Spring,  the  bees 
have  more  difficulty  in  keeping  the  lower  end  of  such  frames 
warm,  as  the  heat  always  rises,  and  a  part  of  it  is  wasted, 
warming  up  the  stores,  which  in  this  hive  are  all  above  the 
brood.  In  hot  weather,  the  combs  are  also  more  apt  to 
break  down  from  heat  and  weight  combined.  Such  a  hive 
is  deficient  in  top-surface  for  the  storing  of  honey  in  boxes. 

305.  It  is  thus  evident,  that  Mr.  Langstroth  and  Mr. 
Quiubyt  were  right  in  using  frames  of  greater  length  than 
depth,  especially  as  these  frames  allow  of  more  surplus 
room  above  the  brood,  a  matter  of  some  importance. 

306.  But  we   must  beware  of  excess  in  anything.     A 

*  The  i'rvcr  the  frames,  the  more  dlfDcnlt  it  Is  to  make  tbeni  hang  trnt  oa 
the  rabbets,  and  the  ^eatcr  the  diflicalty  of  taaudling  them  witboot  cnuhinf 
the  bees  or  breaking  the  combs. 

t  The  late  Mr  M  Quinby,  of  St.  JohnsTllle,  New  York,  In  caUlng  my 
attention  to  Bome  stocks,  which  he  had  purchased  in  box  blToa  of  this  abape, 
informiHl  me  that  bees  wintered  In  thein  about  as  well  as  in  taU  hives,  Uie  bees 
drawing  '>  i  X.  among  their  stores  in  cold  weather.  Jnst  as  in  taU  hives  Mkej 
draw  '  /)  amon^  thom.  My  hive,  as  at  flrst  conetrnctod,  was  fourteen  and  one- 
eighth  inches  from  front  to  rear,  eighteen  and  one-eighth  ioobea  firom  aide  to 
aide,  and  nine  inches  deep,  holding  twelve  frames.  After  Mr.  Qlllnby  eaUed 
my  attention  to  the  wintering  of  bees  in  his  long  box-blvoa,  I  OOnatmeted  out 
that  measured  twenty-fonr  inches  from  ftont  to  rear,  twelve  lochea  flromsido 
to  side,  and  ten  inches  deep,  holding  eight  flram^.  I  have aiiMM  pretorad  to 
make  my  hives  eighteen  and  one-eighth  inches  ftom  trouX  to  rear,  ftrarteeo  anA 
one-eighth  inches  ftom  side  to  side,  and  ten  Inches  deep.  Mr.  Qvimby  p>n»- 
tarred  to  make  my  movable  frames  longer  and  deeper.— JL>.  I^  !«• 


•hallow  frame  has  too  little  honey  above  the  cluster  in 
Winter,  and  in  long  cold  Winters,  like  that  of  1884-5,  a 
great  many  bees  die  for  want  of  food  above  them,  in  hives 
containing  plenty  of  honey  (030),  the  combs,  back  of  the 
duster,  being  too  cold. 

The  Langstroth-Simplicity  frame  is  long  enough,  but 
hardly  deep  enough.  The  Quinby  frame  is  deep  enough, 
but  would  be  better  if  a  little  shorter. 

307.  We  have  used  on  a  large  scale  Quinby,  American 
and  Standard  Langstroth-sized  frames  for  years,  and  have 
obtained  better  results  from  the  Quinby,  both  for  wintering 
out  of  doors,  and  for  honey  producing.  Yet,  the  Lang- 
Btroth-Simplicity  being  the  standard  frame  of  America,  we 
would  hesitate  to  advise  any  Apiarist  to  change  from  this 
size ;  knowing,  by  practical  experience,  how  annoying  it  is, 
not  to  have  all  frames  and  all  hives  in  one  Apiary  uniform 
in  size. 

But  we  would  counsel  beginners  to  use  the  Quinby  size, 
^^specially  if  they  intend  to  winter  out-of-doors, — or  at 
least  to  use  a  frame  as  long  as  the  standard  Langstroth  and 
as  deep  as  the  Quinby. 

308.  The  number  of  frames  to  be  used  in  a  hive  depends 
on  their  size ;  for  we  should  manage  our  bees,  as  we  do  our 
other  domestic  animals,  and  give  them  as  much  space  as  is 
necessary  to  obtain  the  best  results.  What  would  we  think 
of  a  farmer  who  would  build  a  barn  without  first  consider- 
ing the  number  of  animals  and  the  amount  of  feed  which 
he  intended  to  shelter  in  it? 

300.  Many  hives  cannot  hold  one-quarter  of  the  bees, 
comb,  and  honey  which,  in  a  good  season,  may  be  found  in 
larg^  ones ;  while  their  owners  wonder  that  they  obtain  so 
little  profit  from  their  bees.  A  good  swarm  of  bees,  put, 
in  a  good  season,  into  a  diminutive  hive,  may  be  compared 
to  a  powerful  team  of  horses  harnessed  to  a  baby  wagon,  or 
a  noble  faD  of  water  wasted  in  turning  a  petty  water-wheel. 

152  THE   BEE-HIVES. 

As  the  harvest  of  hone j  is  always  in  proportion  to  the 
number  of  bees  in  the  hive,  and  as  a  large  colony  requires 
no  more  labor  from  the  Apiarist  than  a  small  one,  the  hive 
should  afford  the  queen  sufficient  space  to  deposit  all  the 
^ggS)  which  she  is  able  to  lay*  during  twenty-one  days,  the 
average  time  for  an  egg  to  be  transformed  into  a  worker. 
Besides,  it  should  contain  a  certain  amount  of  food,  honey 
and  pollen. 

310.  We  have  seen  before  (07)  that  a  good  queen  can 
lay  8,500  eggs  per  day  in  the  good  season,  so  that  73,500 
cells  may  be  occupied  with  brood  at  one  time.  If  we  add 
to  this  number  about  20,000  cells  for  the  provisions  needed 
in  the  breeding  season,  we  have  about  94,000  cells  as  the 
number  required  for  a  strong  colony.  As  every  square  inch 
of  comb  contains  about  55  cells  (217),  27  to  28  on  each 
side,  the  combs  of  a  hive  should  measure  over  1,700  square 
inches.  This  space  must,  of  course,  allow  of  contraction, 
according  to  the  needs  of  the  colony,  by  what  is  called  mov- 
able division  boards.  (340.) 

311.  If  the  reader  will  refer  to  the  dimensions  of  frames 
g^ven  (208),  he  will  ascertain  that  as  a  Quinby  frame 
measures  189  square  inches  inside,  a  hive  should  contain  at 
least  9  of  these  frames. 

As  the  Standard  liangstroth-Simplicity  frame  measures 
about  149  square  inches,  the  hive  must  contain  12  frames. 
The  American  frames  must  number  12,  and  the  Gallup  14. 

312.  We  know  that  many  Apiarists  objectf  to  these  fig- 
ures, because  they  succeed,  and  harvest  good  crops,  with 

*  It  la  nnqneBtlonable  that  the  qnalitj  of  a  queen  dependi  on  the  qtumtlty 
of  ogga  that  she  Is  able  to  lay.  Then  why  limit  her,  by  juing  hirm  to  Darrow 
that  she  cannot  develop  her  fertility ? 

t  It  Is  perhaps  necessary  to  say  here,  that  wo  have  found  more  oppoeitlon  on 
this  subject  than  on  any  other,  especially  in  the  bee-papera.  Bat  we  take  thie 
opportnnity  of  again ''neryf/ira//v  asserting  that  our  preferenoe  fmr  Itffe  hlTea 
U  based  on  a  snccessfal  practice  of  more  than  twenty  yean,  with  MTcnd  hna* 
dred  colonies  in  different  sized  hives,  while  oor  opponents  oovld  hilnf  ftirwaid 
aoihlog  but  their  preoonoelTed  Ideas . 



■mftller  hives.  Bat  figureSi  based  on  facts,  cannot  lie. 
Smaller  bx?es  will  do  only  in  localities,  where  late  Springs 
and  short  honey  crops  make  it  impossible  for  the  queen  to 
lay  to  the  utmost  of  her  capacity,  before  the  time  when 
her  bees  would  be  useful. 

818.  It  is  only  by  testing  different  sizes  of  hives  and 
frames  side  by  side,  for  years,  on  a  large  scale,  and  with 
the  same  management,  as  we  have  done,  that  the  compari- 
son can  be  made  serviceable.  Our  experiments  prove  also 
that  small  frames  impede  the  laying  of  the  queen.  The 
hroad^hamber  of  a  large  hive  can  easily  be  reduced  in  size, 
(f  need  be;  but  a  smaU  hive  cannot  be  enlarged  at  will,  ex- 
cept by  the  addition  of  upper  stories,  which  sJwuld  properly 
be  devoted  to  the  storing  of  honey, 

814.  In  addition  to  the  disadvantages  of  small  frames 
and  small  hives  already  enumerated,  another  —  and  the 
greatest  of  all — ^is  the  excess  of  natural  swarming  which 
they  cause.  The  leading  advocates  of  small  hives,  some  of 
whom  are  large  honey  producers,  invariably  acknowledge 
that  they  have  too  much  natural  swarming;  nor  is  it  to  be 
wondered  at,  since  swarming  is  mainly  caused  by  the  lack 
of  breeding  room  for  the  queen.  (406. ) 

815.  The  main  criterion  of  a  good  farmer,  is  the  care 
that  he  takes  to  improve  his  stock,  by  selecting  the  best  an- 
imals as  reproducers.  If  we  use  hives  so  narrow  that  we 
cannot  discern  which  are  our  most  prolific  queens,  and  that 
they  incite  natural  swarming,  we  are  unable  to  improve  our 
bees  by  selection.  (452,  511.) 

816.  The  distance,  between  frames  from  center  to 
center,  can  be  varied,  as  we  have  seen  before  (214),  from 
If  inches  to  li,  in  the  breeding  apartment  of  which  we  are 
now  treating.  In  the  surplus  cases,  it  may  be  made  much 

817.  The  distance  of  li  inches,  advised  by  Mr.  Quinby, 
Is  preferable  for  two  reasons: 


Istj  It  facilitates  the  taking  out  of  the  oombSi  giiiiig  a 
little  more  room  to  handle  them,  and  thus  aids  in  inter- 
changing combs,  which  may  have  slight  irregularities ;  wlien 
such  changes  are  necessary  to  help  weak  colonies  with 
brood  or  honey  from  stronger  ones. 

2nd,  It  g^ves  more  room  between  brood-oombs  for  the 
bees  to  cluster  in  Winter,  and  a  greater  thickness  of  honey 
above  them,  thereby  placing  the  bees  in  better  condition 
for  Winter. 

818.  The  frames  must  be  properly  distanced  in  the  hire, 
and  the  combs  must  be  built  straight  in  them ;  for  a  moT* 
able-frame  hive,  with  crooked  combs,  is  worse  than  a  liive 
without  any  frames. 

310.  The  building  of  straight  combs  in  the  frames  was 
formerly  tolerably  secured  by  the  use  of  a  triangular 
wooden  guide  fastened  to  the  underside  of  the  top  bar  of 
the  frame,  and  which  the  bees  follow  in  most  instances. 
Something  of  this  kind  was  mentioned  by  Delia  Rocca  as 
early  as  1790.     (''  Traito  Complet  sur  les  Abeilles.") 

Fig.  61. 

The  figure  61  shows  the  form  of  a  metallic  stamp, 
Invented  by  Mr.  Mehriug,  of  Bavaria,  Germany,  for  print- 
ing or  stumpinfj  the  shape  of  the  combs  upon  the  under  side 
of  the  top  bar  of  tlie  frames.  After  the  outlines  were  made 
he  nibbed  melted  wax  over  them,  and  scraped  off  all 
tliat  (lid  not  sink  into  the  depressions.  Mr.  Mehring  rep- 
resented this  device  as  enabling  hira  to  dispense  with  guide 
combs,  the  bees  ap[)earing  to  be  delighted  to  have  their 
work  thus  accurately  sketched  out  for  them.*  In  practice  it 

*  This  Invention  should  not  bo  confused  with  that  of  oomb-ftmndatlon,  niAd* 
%  t9w  years  later  by  the  same  distingruished  Apiarist.    (ST7) 


was  found  to  be  inferior  to  the  triangular  comb  gnidee. 

Pieces  of  worker-comb,  glned  to  the  under  side  of  the 
i(^  bar  with  melted  wax,  were  used  saccessfnllj.  Bat  the 
introduction  of  comb-foundation  (674)  has  finally  given  us 
the  means  of  securing  straight  combs  at  all  tunes,  and  it  may 
be  used,  for  this  purpose,  in  such  narrow  strips,  that  its 
cost  cannot  be  an  objection. 

820.  Standabd  L.  Moyablb  Frame.  — Top  bar,  19} 
long  X  i  wide  x  f  thick.  In  each  end  a  notch  i^Xl-^^  is 
made  in  the  thickness  of  it,  leaving  a  projecting  or  support- 
ing shoulder  which  is  to  rest  in  a  rabbet  in  the  upper  ends 
of  the  hive,  and  by  which  the  frame  is  suspended  (fig.  54). 
Ends  or  vertical  pieces :  two  pieces  8}  long  X  i  wide  X  ^ 
thick.  Bottom  bar  16f  long  x  i  wide  X  i.  We  will  call 
the  attention  of  manufacturers  to  the  fact,  that  this  makes 
a  much  stronger  frame  than  the  former  style,  given  in  pre- 
vious editions,  and  preserves  the  exact  outside  measure- 
ments. The  ends,  or  vertical  pieces,  are  nailed  both  ways 
to  the  top  bar  (fig.  71),  and  the  bottom  bar  is  nailed  inside 
of  them,  instead  of  under  them  as  formerly. 

321.  We  must  not  forget  that  these  bottom  bars  some- 
times have  to  support  the  weight  of  heavy  combs,  as  in 
transferring  (574),  and  that  the  bees  may  glue  them  fast 
to  lumps,  which  happen  to  be  on  the  bottom  board.  Hence 
the  necessity  of  having  them  nailed,  so  that  they  will  not 
pull  out.* 

All  the  parts  of  the  movable  frames  should  be  cut  out  by 
circular  saws,  and  the  measurement  should  be  exact,  so  that 
the  frames  when  nailed  together  may  be  square.  If  they  are 
not  strong  and  perfectly  sqtiare,  the  proper  working  of  the 
hive  will  be  greatly  interfered  with. 

322.  The  under  side  of  the  top  bar  may  be  cut  to  a  tri- 

*Am%  nil«,  mftovfttctnren  make  the  top  bar  of  the  frames  too  weak;  aome 
hAT0  feoMdled  thla  by  ezoeaalve  wiring,  and  a  tin  brace  in  the  center.  Suoli 
eootslTaiiMa  an  eoatly  and  worse  than  useless. 


•ngnlar  edge,  bat  where  oomb  fonndatioii  la  nMd,  Ute  flat 
top  b&r  will  be  foond  much  better  (603).  Above  all,  the 
oataide  measareinents  of  the  frame  most  be  carefalljr  pre- 

323.  The  width  of  the  t(>p  &ar  hma  something  to  do  with 
the  amount  of  bridga  and  brace  combt  (397),  bailt  bj 
the  bees,  between  the  brood-chamber  and  the  upper  storiea. 
A  wide  top  bar,  leaving  but  a  narrow  apace  for  passage 
above,  will  almost  altogether  prevent  the  boilding  of  bridges, 
bat  it  has  other  disadvantages  that  have  rendered  it  unpop- 
ular, although  some  bee-keepers  of  note — Col.  Canun  of 
Dlinoia,  among  others  —  use  it.  In  producing  extracted 
honey  (749)  these  bridges  and  brace  oomba  do  not  anno; 

324.  L.  SuPLiciTT  Fraue  (fig.  59). — This  frame  baa 
been  made  and  sold  so  largely  by  A.  I.  Root,  and  other 
dealers,  that  it  is  established  now.  The  length  of  the  top 
bar  and  the  height  of  the  frame  are  the  same  as  those  of  the 
Standard  L.  Frame,  the  frame  itself  being  one-fourtb  inch 
longer  outside.  They  are  sometlmea  made  with  metal  cor- 
ners invented  by  A.  I.  Root  (lig.  62). 

The  angnTlng  la  ml)  ilie.     The  Tj 

le  apperitory— ("A,  B.  C.  of  Be«-C 

board  B  U  lappoMd  to  b*  tb*  « 
l1  nbbet,  ud  C  y  tlM  eamir. 

32S.  These  tin  corners  have  the  advantage  of  making 
the  frames  very  strong ;  and  as  the  tin  shoulder  rests  by  a 


**  knife  edge,"  C,  on  soother  tin  edge,  strigbt  angles  with 
It,  A.,  nsiled  In  the  rsbbet  of  the  hive,  the  bees  cannot 
glne  the  framea  fast.  Bat  these  frames  have  the  dia- 
advantage  of  getting  out  of  place  easily,  too  easily  in  fact, 
and  their  sharp  edges  make  them  very  inconvenient  to 

326.  For  the  L.  Qaioby  suspended  frame,  see  diagram 
(flg.  68).  This  frame  is  one-fourth  inch  deeper  than  that 
originally  given  by  Hr.  Quinby  in  his  "  Mysteries  of  Bee- 
keeping." Mr.  Quinby  had  too  much  space  in  the  hive, 
nnder  the  frame. 

327.  It  is  necessary  that  the  hive  should  always  slant 
forward,  toward  the  entrance,  when  occapied  by  bees,  to 
facilitate  the  carrying  out  of  dead  bees,  and  other  useless 
substances ;  to  aid  the  colony  In  protecting  itself  against 
robbers,  to  carry  off  moisture,  and  prevent  rain  from  beat- 
ing into  the  hive. 

328.  For  this,  and  other  reasons,  the  combs  should  run 
from  front  to  rear, — so  as 
to  hang  perpendicularly 
— and  not  from  side  to  side 
as  they  do  in  the  Berlepsch 

339.  The  Langstroth 
hive,  from  the  simple  form 
given  in  fig.  64,  was  Im- 
proved upon  in  many  dif- 
ferent ways.  The  Standard 
Langstroth  hive  has  been, 
for  a  long  time  (fig.  63), 
a  hive  with  portico, 
honey-board,  permanent 
bottom-board,  and  ten 
taoo.  "••■ 

880.  In  this  hire,  the  "  otuerving^loM,"  in  the  rear. 


was  first  discarded,  and  replaced  bj  a  board,  makiiig  the 
hive  more  simple  and  cheaper.  The  glass  in  the  rear  is  of 
no  use,  in  practical  bee-keeping,  and  for  experimenting,  the 
observing  hives  such  as  described  (375),  with  only  one 
comb,  and  both  sides  of  glass,  are  to  be  preferred  (fig.  80). 

331.  The  movable  haney-board^  between  the  brood- 
chamber  and  the  upper  stories,  has  been  also  discarded  of 
late  years,  the  great  objection  to  honey-boards  being  that 
the  bees  glue  them,  and  build  small  pieces  of  comb  or 
bridges,  in  the  space  between  them  and  the  frames ;  the  jar 
of  their  breaking,  when  the  honey-board  is  removed,  anger- 
ing the  bees. 

332.  The  permanent  bottom-board  has  lost  favor  with  the 

great  majority  of  bee-keepers, 
and  is  now  replaced  by  mov- 
able bottom-boards  adjustable 
at  will.  The  Van  Deusen  hive* 
clamp  (fig.  64),  is  used  by 
many  Apiarists  for  fastening 
movable  bottoms  or  additional 
stories.     We  have  discarded  tte 

permanent  bottom-board,  owing  to  the  difficulty  of  proaq^ 
ly  cleaning  it  of  dead  bees  and  rubbish,  when  removing  bees 
from  the  cellar  in  Spring,  or  after  a  hard  winter  passed  out 
of  doors. 

333.  In  the  ventilation  of  the  hive,  we  should  endeavor,  •■ 
far  as  possible,  to  meet  the  necessities  of  the  bees,  under  all 
the  varying  circumstaDces  to  which  they  are  exposed  in  oar 
uncertain  climate,  whose  severe  extremes  of  temperatore 
forcibly  impress  upon  the  bee-keeper,  the  maxim  of  Virgil, 

**  Utraque  vis  pariter  apibus  metueoda.^ 
**  Extremes  of  heat  or  cold,  alike  are  hortfkil  to  the  bees.** 

To  be  useful  to  the  majority  of  bee-keepers,  arfffCeW 
ventilation  must  be  simple,  and  not  as  in  Nntfa  hive,  and 

Fig.  64. 


Other  labored  contrivances,  so  complicated  as  to  require 
almoflt  Ma  cloee  saperriaion  as  a  hot-bed  or  Kreen-house. 

otner  laDorea  contriTances,  so  compucatea  aa  t< 
almoflt  as  cloee  saperriaion  aa  a  hot-bed  or  green-Ii 

',  WITH  Ksnucma  siima  nrr  n. 

Tba  c^  U  thniWD  b4ck  to  show  i: 
.  WiUianio(lepcii(leDttK>tliiiii 

be  given  to  any  amount  by  raking  the  hive,  as  In  fig.  65,  or 
even  more.  By  famishing  ventilation  independent  of  the 
entrance,  above  the  brood-chamber,  or  between  the  differ- 
ent surplus  apartments,  if  necessaiy,  we  improve  upon  the 
method  which  bees,  in  a  state  of  nature,  are  compelled  to 
adopt,  when  the  openings  in  their  hollow  trees  are  so  small, 
that  they  must  employ,  in  hot  weather,  a  larger  force  in  ven- 
tilation, than  would  otherwise  be  necessaiy. 

335.  The  bees,  finding  their  home  more  pleasant,  will 
cease  to  cluster  on  the  outside,  as  long  as  there  will  be 
honey  to  gather,  and  room  to  store  it  in. 

336.  On  the  other  hand,  by  the  use  of  movable  blocks, 
the  entrance  may  be  kept  so  small,  in  cool  weather,  that 
only  a  single  bee  can  go  in  at  once,  or  it  may  be  entirely 

While  sufficient  airing  must  be  given,  the  supply 
should  be  controlled,  so  as  not  to  injure  the  brood  by  ad- 
mitting too  strong  a  current  of  chilly  air.  In  the  chapter 
on  wintering  bees,  directions  are  g^ven  for  ventilating  the 
hives  in  cold  weather,  so  as  to  carry  off  all  superfiuous 
moisture.     {3ii3,) 

337.  For  the  benefit  of  beginners,  it  may  be  necessary 
to  add,  that  the  bees  will  glue  up  with  propolis  (236),  and 
sooner  or  later  entirely  close  any  ventilating  holes  through 
which  they  cannot  pass.  Hence  air  holes,  covered  with  wire 
cloth,  miss  their  purpose  altogether.  In  the  same  manner, 
and  with  a  great  deal  of  labor,  bees  will  try  to  close 
any  upper  entrances,  such  as  that  of  figs.  65  and  54d,  if 
these  remain  open,  when  not  needed  for  the  welfare  of  the 

338.  The  portico  of  the  Langstroth  hive  has  advantages, 
and  disadvantages,  which  about  balance  one  another.  Its 
advantages  are,  that  it  shelters  the  bees  from  rain  in  Sum- 
mer, and  from  cold  and  snow  in  Winter.  Its  disadvantages 
are,  that  it  sometimes  harbors  enemies  of  bees,  moths^  spi- 

den,  etc.,  eto.,  and  Bometimea  helps  to  hide  the  qaeen  from 
th«  Apiuist'a  diligent  Bearch.  It  bindera  the  bee-keeper 
when  he  wants  to  watch  cloael;  the  sport  of  beea  before  the 

389.  When  the  portico-hive  is  used,  two  entrance  blocks 
I  provided,  as  per  accompaoyiDg  diagram.  By  changing 

162  THE    BBK-HXYBB. 

the  position  of  these  blocks  on  the  alighting-board  (see  fig. 
67,  in  which  some  of  the  positions  are  shown),  the  size  of 
the  entrance  to  the  hive  may  be  varied  in  a  great  many  ways, 
and  the  bees  always  directed  to  it  by  the  shape  of  the  block, 
without  any  loss  of  time  in  searching  for  it. 

Thb  HrvE  We  Prefer. 

340.  The  diagram  we  give  (fig.  68),  of  the  hive  we  pre- 
fer to  all  others,  can  be  taken  as  a  pattern  for  any  other 
size,  by  changing  the  size  of  the  pieces  and  retaining  only 
the  exact  distances  between  the  frames  and  the  body,  and 
the  height  of  the  entrance.  Its  details  can  be  varied  ad 
infinitum.  It  can  hold  eleven  frames,  but  generally  we  use 
only  nine  frames  and  two  contracting,  or  division-boardi, 
or  ten  frames  and  one  division-board.     (340.) 

This  hive,  in  the  dimensions  given,  is  not  a  new,  untried 
pattern.  We  have  used  several  hundreds  of  them  for  years, 
with  the  best  of  success.  It  is  used  extensively  by  several 
large  producers. 

341.  In  consequence  of  our  writings  in  the  Swiss  and 
French  bcc-papers,  it  was  adopted,  under  the  name  of  the 
Quinl^y-Dadant  hive,  by  several  progressive  bee-keepers  on 
the  other  side  of  the  Atlantic,  where  it  gets  new  partisans 
everv  year. 

Tlu?  piihlishcr  of  the  Revue  InterncUianaie  d* Apiculture^ 
Mr.  Kd.  Ikrtrnnd,  in  the  number  of   October  1887,  writes: 

**Tlip>o  wide  hives,  Rcveral  bee-keepers  find  that  they  are 
toosniull;  for  some  have  increased  them  to  thirteen  frames  in- 
fitoati  of  (*Iov('ri,  and  I  have  seon  such  large  hives,  last  Summer, 
filled  with  bees  and  honey,  besides  two  upper  stories  of  thirteen 
half-frames  each,  the  whole  containing  120  quarts,  all  occapied 
by  the  daiiirhters  of  the  same  queen." 

In  the  same  number,  a  German  bee-keeper,  Mr.  Chas. 

Begnier,  of  Sarrelouis,  ^ves  the  result  of  h  compariHoa 
of  the   Standard    German    (289)    with    these  hives.     He 


Lt.nom  iiiiinrain  wrrnTtTlin  liiittiini.  nii'il  ^  botlam,  i'liTt^iH. 
C,  apiDn,  lOsnuvi-  on,  rroat  md  imr  or  t&e  hiTc.  le'iii^t.x'(.  E, 
«Miii]i.«,  *K%,  _^da«tlabo>nlD>ilad«lherfaT,  I^i^ilSi^.  {;<; .  gnntra 
iUU  to  rapport  Um  OOTV.  ^,  Utb.  «iil!4  to  wi-len  the  tup  edge  or  Iba 
BDBtlMtud.  /.topbarof  tlwfreniii,  H)),ic!ii;t.  X/^,  rabbeta  M  wide 
ij(  bl^,  dag  In  ftoat  and  mx  bouds,  md  foriilihed  with  sheels  of  Iron 
VlndM*  wlda,  pnijaotlnf  ij  ar*a  locb,  on  irhieh  the  rnme-Bhonldvn  are 
a>ppoited.  If  ttwirooTsa  ars  oot  praildnl  with  the  sheets  of  irou.  thrlr 
tfn  ahonld  bs  )(i$(.  KKfCK .  iboir  bow  tho  D|irli.-lil3  A  A  or  Iho  fremcs 
an  called  to  the  top  bar.    ^  bottom  bur  or  thr  framp,"l7;,iM'i,     XS, 

^R,  front  and  real  oT  the  anriilDii-boi,  1G><ti',\x~,  .  _r,  I'm^ty  npHiM'  on 
top  of  tbe  (DTpliU'boi ,  IV.  Uj  top  bu  of  the  rurplua-rrame.  eime  aa 
top-bar  /.  il,  bottom  bar  of  tbe  ■arplut  rramv*,  aamc  a*  .U.  VI'.  eld« 
«r  tbe  atnplu  IlaiiMa,  txiixji, 

tba ipaco bMwMo  u aad  s U  aboat  ti  locb;  bptwpen  n\.  .vf>.  iv,  ry, 
TB,  ihonldbaN  of  aa  Incb.  HlTia  of  eTer;  aire  can  be  constmeied  od 
(U*  i1la|niii.  wltb  tb»  oolf  caoUoD  to  preaene  tbe  ipacH  of  tbe  wldlb 

164  THE    BKK~KtVE3. 

writ«8  that  the  crop  of  his  German  averaged  about  twenty- 
one  pounds,  while  hie  Dadant  hives  averaged  about  fortj- 
eight  pounds,  adding  that,  at  the  start,  his  German  wen 
full  of  combs,  while  the  Dodant  had  Beveral  combs  to  buUd. 

a,  front  of  thublTCi  1,  sUiitl iig  Ward ^  r,  movBUeblOcki  d,  capi  (,  Mn« 
m&t;  /,  cnuntl  clatb;  g,  rnunce  «<ih  comba. 

34a.  navtomble  bottom  hoard  (fig.  69),  is  adjusted  or 
encased  In  the  body  of  llii'  main  liive,  on  all  sides  but  the 
fniut.  to  shed  tlie  rain  and  lielter  prolect  the  colony  against 
antd  and  motba.     It  prujeets  forward  thrc^  laches,  at  least. 



to  support  an  adjiuteble  eotraoce-block.  Some  Apiarists 
use  ft  tio  slide,  iiutead  of  ao  entrance-block.  We  object  to 
ft,  becMiee,  if  glued  by  bees  It  may  be  bent  in  huidliiig,  &nd 
it  it  ia  mislaid,  it  cannot  always  be  promptly  replaced  ; 
while  aoy  square  wooden-block  can  take  the  place  of  the 
entrance-block,  ff  n 

843.  The  apron,  or  slantiug-board.  liolps  overladen 
workers  to  reach  the  entrance,  when  tlioy  liavc  fsilleii  to  the 
ground.  The  blocks  that  support  ttif  bottom,  may  be  made 
of  unequal  height,  bo  as  to  give  the  liivclhc  pniper  forward 
slant,  on  level  ground.  If  the  grain  of  llio  liimlxT  it)  the 
bottom-board  runs  from  fn>iit  to  rear,  it  will  shed  water 


more  readily,  and  rot  less.  If  the  bottom  is  nailed  on  ths 
cross-blocks,  it  will  not  be  in  danger  of  warping. 

Our  Swiss  friends  make  the  bottom-board  with  the  grain 
running  from  side  to  side.  They  say  that  in  this  way 
they  can  make  it  fit  exactly  in  the  lower  rabbet  of  the  hive, 
without  swelling  or  shrinking.  They  also  make  the  apron, 
with  hinges  fastened  on  the  bottom-board,  and  in  snowy  or 
cold  weather,  they  raise  it  and  lean  it  against  the  hive,  to 
protect  the  entrance. 

344.  The  adjuMable  bottom  board  is  conrenient  in  many 
instances.  If  in  taking  the  bees  from  a  winter  repository, 
It  is  found  wet  and  mouldy,  you  caaat  onoe  exchange  it  for 
a  dry  one,  and  wipe  the  wet  board  at  leisure.  Or,  if  a 
comb  breaks  down  in  Summer,  by  weight  and  heat,  the 
hive  can  be  lifted  off  its  bottom,  and  placed  on  a  dean 
stand,  so  that  the  leaking  honey  and  broken  combs  can  be 
instantly  removed,  and  robbing  or  daubing  of  bees  avoided. 
Moreover,  the  bottom-board  is  the  first  part  of  the  hire  to 
decay,  and  a  hive-body  and  coTcr  will  usuaUy  oaibal  two 
bottom-boards.  The  movable  bottom  allowing  tbe  raUng 
of  the  hive  for  ventilation,  in  extremely  hoi  weather,  en- 
ables us  also  to  discard  the  back  ventilator,  of  the  old  Mve 
(fig.  63.) 

845.  The  body  of  the  hive  is  made  double  on  the  back, 
which  should  always  be  the  North  side  of  the  hive.  (597.) 
This,  with  the  division-board  inside,  on  the  West,  shelters 


"1   '**"  i      •'' 




FU    71. 

The  rahhi't    in 

the  colony  more  efiSciently  than  a 
siiicrle  board  against  the  cold  North- 
west winds  of  Winter.  If  the  bees 
:ire  to  be  wintered  indoors,  tbe 
<louble  back  may  be  dispensed  with. 
A  more  simple  form  of  body,  setting 
tlat  on  tlie  l)Ottom,  as  in  fig.  70,  can 
also  be  made, 
which    the  frames  hang,  is  made  with  a 



(fig.  71),  bbeet-lron  shoulder,  8upj>ortJng  the  frame,  simiUr 
to  Itoot'B  tin  edge.  This  can  be  dispensed  with  altogether, 
but  in  BDcfa  cases,  the  rabbet  ehoold  be  only  deep  enough 
tor  the  frame  to  hang  as  represented  in  fig.  64.     The  plun 


wooden  rabbet  Is  objectionablf,  because  Ihe  huifi  f;tiu^  the 
frame  shoulders  with  propolis.  Vet  we-  us*'  it  in  our  hives 
almost  altogether,  because  of  Ihe  diifliiiliy  of  lUtitii^  the 
dlTisioa'board  closely  oDic 

168  T 

S46.  la  any  style  of  hftngiDg-fruae  hives,  it  fa  Indlspen- 
Mble  tor  the  frames  to  be  so  suspended,  that  a  bee  can  psM 
between  them  and  the  body,  bottom,  and  upper  story,  to 
prevent  the  gluing  of  them  with  propolis.  (See  bee-spaoa, 

In  our  hives,  we  give  only  one-eij^tb  of  an  inch  of  apaoa, 
above  the  frames,  below  the  top  edge  of  the  hive,  aod  ^n 
one-fourth  inoh  under  the  frames  of  the  upper-story,  whteb 
preserves  the  three-eighths  bee-spaoe,  between  each  story 
(286).  We  found,  in  practice,  that  there  was  danger  of 
crushing  bees,  in  handling  the  upper  stories,  when  they 
were  made  so  that  the  frames  were  flush  with  their  lower 

347.  The  Spacing-uiire,  an  improvement  on  Quinby*! 
wire  brace,  to  space  the  frames  at  the  bottom,  is  found  very 
convenient  in  iiives  aa  deep  aa  this.  It  is  also  useful  in  in- 
dicating to  novices  the  number  of  frames  to  be  placed  io 

ifOTABLs-raAiR  mna.  169 

the  hire.  Evea  a  practical  bee-keeper  will  sometimes  make 
the  mistake  of  patting  eleven  or  thirteen  frames,  in  a  hive 
that  should  hold  twelve.  With  this  wire,  mistakes  are  im- 
poemble,  as  the;  will  at  once  be  detected.  Besides,  if  the 
hive  has  to  be  transported  some  distance,  it  keeps  the 
frames  from  Jarring.  Its  cost  is  insigniGcant.  Some  Swiss 
Apiarists  use  two  of  these,  one  in  each  end. 

348.  The  entrance  should  not  be  less  than  five- sixteenths, 
or  more  than  three-eighths  of  an  inch  in  depth,  in  order  to 
give  easy  pass^e  to  the  bees,  and  at  the  same  time,  keep 
out  mice.  Round  holes  are  objectionable.  Each  hive  is 
fDT&iahed  with  an  entrance- block,  somewhat  heavy,  and  cut 
as  in  fig  69,  to  reduce,  or  close  the  entrance,  according  to 
the  emergencies. 

349.  The  diviiion  board ,alao  called  contractor  or  dummy, 
is  an  induipejisable 
feature  of  all  good 
hives.  With  its  help, 
the  hive  may  be  ad- 
justed to  the  size  of 
the  weakest  swarm, 
and  in  Winter,  the 

viB.'i-  space  behind  it  can 

iHVisiOK  aoARD.  .      >.,i   J         1 

be  filled  wiUi  warm 

and  absorbing  material  (036).  The  constant  use  of  a 
division  board,  even  in  the  strongest  colonies,  renders  the 
handling  of  combs  much  easier.  All  Apiarists  kuow  that 
the  first  comb  is  the  hardest  to  remove.  By  removing  the 
board  first,  the  combs  are  at  once  free  and  can  be  easily 
taken  out. 

SAO.  This  board  ia  made  of  the  same  depth  as  the 
frames,  with  a  similar  top-bar.  Some  Apiarists  use  a  di- 
vinon-board  the  full  depth  of  the  hive,  but  in  moving  it, 
bees  are  cmahed  undv  it,  and  if  any  bees  happen  to  be  on 
tbe  ooUd«  of  it,  tbey  cannot  escape,  and  die  there.     On 


the  other  hand,  this  bee-passiige  is  not  objectioaable,  Blnc« 
heat,  having  a  tendenoy  to  rise,  does  not  escape  through  it. 
The  board  is  made  ooe-foarth  inch  shorter  than  the  inside 
of  the  hive,  and  a  strip  of  oil-olotb  or  enamel  cloth,  one  and 
a  half  inches  wide,  is  tacked  on,  to  fill  the  spaces  at  each 
end.  In  this  way,  the  board  fits  well  against  the  ends,  and 
is  never  glued  so  as  to  make  it  difflcnlt  to  remove.  A  small 
half-round  pioe-Btrip,  lud  agdnst  the  end  of  Uie  board, 
while  tacking  on  the  cloth,  and  pulled  out  afterwards,  helps 
to  tack  the  cloth  properly.  To  prevent  the  bees  from  tear- 
ing or  gnawing  the  edge  of  the  cIoHi,  some  Apiarists  nail  a 
small  strip  of  tie  over  it. 

351.  In  the  diagram  (fig.  68),  the  reader  will  notice  the 
strip  H,  used  to  widen  the  upper  surface  of  the  rabbeted 
end  of  the  hive.  This  wide  surface  is  very  convenient,  to 
make  the  cloth  and  straw-mat  fit  closely,  as  they  can  thus 
be  cut  a  little  louger. 

302.    The  oil-cloth  or  enamel-cloth,  first  applied  to  hive 
purpoaes  by  R.  Bickford,  is  used  over  the  brood-frames  in 
Spring.     It  fits  closely,  coaceatrates  the  beat,  and  can  be 
removed  without  jar  or 
effort.     When  the  sur- 
plus   arrangement,    or 
upper  story,  is  put  on, 
this    cloth  18  removed 
and  placed  at  the  top. 
(760)    All  Apiarists, 
^  "«  '■*'■  or  nearly  all,  who  have 

tried  the  oil-cloth  and 
honey-board  simult.Tncoiislj',  have  discarded  the  latter  for- 
ever, except  in  some  cases  of  comb-honey  production,  wheo 
a  skeleton  honey-board  (fig.  7G)  ia  used  between  the  stories. 
The  oil-cloth  is  sometimes  gnawed,  or  rather  palled  to 
pieces  by  the  bees  in  a  few  years,  but  its  cost  b  so  small, 
and  its  uxc  so  great,  that  it  is  worth  while  to  replace  it  as 
ofteo  aa  oeceesary. 

SSS-  The  ttfate^mat  is  one  of  the  moat  useful  and  aeces- 
utry  UDple^ients  of  the  bee-hive.  It  ie  far  superior  to  the 
wooden-mat  described  by  one  or  two  writers.  It  is  flexible 
and  porous,  wuni  in  Winter,  cool  io  Summer.  It  may  be 
made  of  rye  straw,  or  of  what  is  called  slough-grass,  a  tough 
and  coarsegraABgTOwingiD  marshy  places,  and  ahoundingon 
the  bottoms  of  the  MiBsisaippi  Valley.  The  mat  Bbown  in 
Bg.  69  Is  only  about  one  Inch  thick.  Mr.  C.  F.  Mutb  man- 
ofacturea  mats  much  thicker  and  atrongcr  ;  they  are  equal 
to  a  coshioD. 

In  fig.  77  we  present  to  our  readers  an  engraviiig  of  a 
frame,  for  makiDg  these  mats.  They  are  very  simple 
in  construction.  It  is  well,  in  making  tlicm,  to  use  strong 
twine,  aoaked  in  linseed-oil ;  for  the  moisture,  nhich  escapes 
from  the  bees  in  Winter,  would  sooo  rot  the  string. 

The  enamel-cloth  is  removed  before  Winter  (OSS),  and 
the  mat  placed  Immediately  over  the  frames.  A  good  mat 
will  iMt  «•  long  as  the  hive. 

BD&ilow  cover  (fig.  78),  which 

will  fit  over  either  the  first 

or  the  second  storj.     We 

prefer   the    half-storj    cap, 

which  can  be  readily  filled        "-^«^ 

with  absorbents  for  Winter,  and  is  ada 


355.  The  caps  must  fit  freely  so  as  t 
They  may  be  made  of  lighter  lumber  tl 
hive,  to  save  fatigue  to  the  Apiarist  in  h 
top  of  the  hive  must  be  water-tight, 
seams  should  be  avoided,  or  should  be  \ 
with    roof-cement.      Before  putting  tO) 
which  form  the  top  of  the  cap  of  our  hive 
both  sides  of  the  joints,  a  rounded  grooi 
an  inch  wide  and  one-fourth  of  an  inch 
rain-water  runs,  instead  of  leaking  insidi 
Oxford,  O.,  makes  the  covers  of  his  hii 
covering  them  with  strong  muslin,  tack 
nailed  to  the  edges,  and  thoroughly  pa 
Doolittle  of  Borodino,  N.  Y.,  and  Dr.  C. 
rengo,  111.,  both  amone:  the  letn^'^*^^  ^- 

#11 1     T\»*'*''-- 


dark  colors  should  be  used,  as  they  absorb  the  sun's  beat, 
nor  should  all  the  hives  be  of  the  same  tint  (508).  If  the 
Jc^ts  are  painted  when  they  are  put  together,  they  will  last 
much  longer.  Erery  old  Apiarist  well  knows  that  the  joints 
are  the  first  to  decay. 

357.  Bach  hive,  in  an  Apiary,  should  bear  a  number,  on 
the  back  of  the  brood  apartment ;  and  this  should  be  printed 
fai  black  characters,  large  enough  to  be  seen  at  a  distance 
In  small  Apiaries  bee-keepers  use  a  slate,  on  each  hive ;  but 
in  large  ones,  where  many  operations  are  performed,  it  is 
better  to  keep  a  record  of  the  condition  of  the  colonies, 
and  of  all  the  operations,  in  a  special  book. 

We  will  add,  that  a  hive  which  does  not  furnish  a  thor- 
ough control  over  every  comb  cannot  allow  of  the  manipu- 
lations which  the  bee-keeper's  necessities  demand.  Of  such 
hives,  the  best  are  those  which  best  unite  cheapness  and 
timplicUyj  with  protection  in  Winter,  and  ready  access  to  the 
spare  honey-boxes. 

358.  In  closing  this  chapter  on  hives,  we  cannot  refrain 
from  advising  the  beginners  in  bee-culture  to  be  very  cau- 
tious in  buying  patent  hives.  More  than  eight  hundred 
patents  on  bee-hives  and  implements  have  been  issued  in 
the  United  States  since  January,  1873.  Not  ten  of  these 
have  proved  to  be  of  any  use  to  bee-keepers.  Ttie  mention 
of  this  fact  will  suffice  to  show  the  small  value  of  these  790 
patents,  and  the  loss  incurred  by  those  who  have  bought 
them,  before  they  were  able  to  judge  of  their  merits. 

Matkbials  fob  Bee-hive8. 

359.  The  variety  of  opinions  respecting  the  best  mate- 
rials for  hives,  has  been  almost  as  great  as  on  the  subject 
of  their  proper  size  and  shape.     Columella^  and  Virgil  rec- 

*  Onhnmila,  about  th*  middle  of  the  flXBt  oenturj  of  the  ChzistiAD  Krs, 
WioU  twtlT*  booki  on  hntliondzj—'  '/>«  r«  nuUca.** 


ommend  the  hollowed  tnmk  of  the  cork  tree^  than  which  no 
material  would  be  more  admirable  if  it  could  onlj  be  dieapl^ 
procured.  Straw  hives  have  been  used  for  ages,  and  aie 
warm  in  Winter  and  cool  in  Summer.  The  difficulty  of 
making  them  take  and  retain  the  proper  shi^  for  improved 
bee-keeping,  is  an  objection  to  their  use.  Hives  made  of 
wood  are,  at  the  present  time,  fast  superseding  all  others. 
The  lighter  and  more  spongy  the  wood,  the  poorer  will  be  its 
power  of  conducting  heat,  and  the  warmer  the  hive  in 
Winter  and  the  cooler  in  Summer.  Cedar,  bass-wood, 
poplar,  tulip-tree,  and  especially  $oft  pine^  afford  excellent 
materials  for  bee-hives.  The  Apiarist  must  be  governed^ 
in  his  choice  of  lumber,  by  the  cheapness  with  which  any 
suitable  kind  can  be  obtained  in  his  own  immediate  vicin- 

Scholz,  a  German  Apiarist,  recommends  hives  made  of 
adobe — in  which  frames  or  slats  may  be  used — as  chei^ly 
constructed,  and  admirable  for  Summer  and> Winter.  Such 
structures,  however,  cannot  be  moved.  But  in  many  parts 
of  our  country,  where  both  lumber  and  saw-mills  are 
scarce,  and  where  people  are  accustomed  to  build  adobe 
houses,  they  might  prove  desirable.  The  material  is  plastic 
clay,  mixed  with  cut  straw,  waste  tow,  etc. 

360.  To  make  the  movable-frame  hives  to  the  best 
advantage,  the  lumber  should  be  cut  out  by  a  circular  saw, 
driven  by  steam,  water,  or  horse-power,  or  even  by  foot- 
power.  We  have  used  the  foot  and  hand  circular-saws 
made  bv  W.  F.  &  J.  Barnes,  for  vears,  and  could  not  do 
without  tliem  in  onr  shops.  In  buildings  where  such  saws 
are  iise<l,  the  frames  mav  be  made  from  the  small 
pieces  of  lumhcr,  seldom  of  any  use,  except  for  fuel,  and 
may  ho  ])a<ktMl  almost  solid  in  a  box,  or  in  a  hive  which 
will  afterwards  serve  for  a  pattern.  One  frame  in  such  a 
box,  properly  nailed  together,  will  serve  as  a  guide  for  the 
rest.     The  parts  of  the  hive  can  easily  and  cheaply  be  made 



by  an;  one  who  can  handle  toola,  bnt  cannot  be  profitably 
m&nufactured  to  be  sent  far,  unless  made  where  lumber 
is  cheap,  and  the  porta  closely  packed, — in  the  flat, — to 
be  put  fa^ethei  atter  reaching  their  deatioation. 

361 .  If  the  Apiarist  denres  minute  instructions,  on  how 
to  file  his  saws  and  keep  them  la  order,  select  bis  lumber, 
and  make  his  hires,  with  pleasure  and  profit,  let  htm  send 
to  A.  I.  Boot,  of  Medina,  Ohio,  for  his  "A.  B.  C,  of  Bee- 
Culture."  He  will  be  rep^d  a  hundred-fold,  by  the  many 
good  points  be  will  find  in  It. 

362.  Wfl  here  dto,  with  illustration,  his  explanatioo  of 
*'  why  boards  warp" : 


w\f.  n. 

**  Before  going  farther,  you  are  to  sort  the  boards  so  aa  to  have 
tbebeartrideof  the  lumber  come  on  the  outside  of  theblve.  If 
yon  look  at  the  end  of  each  board,  yon  can  see  bj  the  circles  of 
growth,  which  la  the  heart  side,  as  Is  sbown  In  tbc  cuts.  At  B, 
yon  see  a  board  cat  off  just  at  one  side  of  the  heart  of  the  tree ; 
at  C,  near  the  barb;  at  A,  the  heart  Is  In  the  centre  of  the  board. 
Yon  all  know,  almost  without  being  told,  that  boards  alvvajs 
warplikeC;  that  U,  the  heart  Bide  becomes  convex.  The  reason 
is  connected  with  the  shrinkage  of  boards  in  seasoning.  When 
a  log  lies  until  It  la  perfectly  seasoned.  It  orten  chec1<s  as  In  lig. 
3.  You  will  observe  that  the  wood  shortens  in  the  ilirection  of 
the  circles,  and  bat  very  little,  If  any,  alon^  the  lines  that  run 
from  the  bark  to  the  centre.  To  allow  this  ehrinl^age  In  one 
direction,  the  log  apllts  or  checks  In  the  direction  shown.  Hair 
to  go  back  to  our  boards,  you  will  see  that  B  shrlnlis  more  than 
A,  because  A  baa  the  heart  of  the  tree  lo  Its  centre ;  that  C  will 
atulnk.  In  seasoning,  much  more  on  the  bark  side,  than  oh  the 


heart  side ;  that  thU  cannot  Ml  to  bring  the  board  oat  of  a  level; 
and  that  the  heart  side  will  always  be  convex.  Ton  have  til 
seen  bee-hives,  probably,  with  the  comers  separated  and  gaping 
open,  while  the  middle  of  the  board  was  tight  np  in  place.  The 
reason  was  that  the  mechanic  had  pat  the  boards  on,  wrong  side 
oat.  If  the  heart  side  had  been  outward,  the  corners  of  the  hive 
would  have  curled  inwardly,  and  if  the  middle  had  been  nailed 
securely,  the  whole  hive  would  have  been  likely  to  have  close, 
tight  Joints,  even  if  exposed  to  the  sun,  wind,  and  rain.*'— (^* A. 
B.  C.  of  Bee-Culture,"  page  108.) 

303.  Double-walled  hives,  chaff  hives,  and  Winter  cov- 
ers, will  be  described  in  the  chapter  on  ^*  Wintering"  (619). 
The  upper-stories,  half-stories,  wide  frames,  sectioDB,  etc, 
for  comb,  or  extracted  honey,  will  be  discussed  in  the  chap- 
ter on  honey  producing  (716). 

Ventilation  of  the  Bbb-Hiys. 

364.  If  a  populous  colony  is  examined   on  a  warm  day, 

a  number  of  bees  may  be  seen  standing  upon  the  alighting- 
board,  with  their  heads  turned  towards  the  entrance  of  the 
hive,  their  abdomens  slightly  elevated,  and  their  wings  in 
such  rapid  motion,  that  they  are  almost  as  indistinct  as  the 
spokes  of  a  wheel,  in  swift  rotation  on  its  axis.     A  brisk 
current  of  air  may  be  felt  proceeding  from  the  hive ;  and  if 
a  small  piece  of  down  be  suspended  at  its  entrance,  by  a 
thread,  it  will  be  drawn  out  from  one  part,  and  drawn  in  at 
another.     Why  are  these  bees  so  deeply  absorbed  in  their 
fanning  occupation,  that  they  pay  no  attention  to  the  busy 
numbers  constantly  crowding  in  and  out  of  the  hive?    and 
what  is  the  meaning  of  this  double  current  of  air  ?  To  Huber, 
we  owe  the  satisfactory  explanation  of  these  curious  phe- 
nomena.   The  bees,  thus  singularly  plying  their  rapid  wings, 
are  ventilating  the  hive  ;  and  this  double  current  is  caused  by 
pure  air  rushing  in,  to  supply  the  place  of  the  foul  air  which 

A.  r,  ROOT  ("Noviik''), 
Author  of  "The  A.  B.  Co/  Bte  Culture;''  Editor  of  -Glea 
in  Bee  CaUurc" 

TUiwillertiaWDUaDed.iNigmei.  62,  01.  K.  f»,  14(i.  Ijo.  IBT,  ITS.  1 
MS,  Ǥ,  XT.,  II.',  311,  SIS,  SIB,  jgo,  31",  368,  170, 
122,  429,  Oi.  «B3,  49e. 




Is  forced  ont.  Bj  a  series  of  beantiful  experiments,  Huber 
ascertained  that  the  air  of  a  crowded  hive  is  almost  as  pure 
as  the  surrounding  atmosphere.  Now,  as  the  entrance  to 
such  a  hive  is  often  very  small,  the  air  within  cannot  be 
renewed,  without  resort  to  artificial  means.  If  a  lamp  is 
put  into  a  close  vessel,  with  only  one  small  orifice,  it  will 
soon  exhaust  the  oxygen,  and  cease  to  burn.  If  another 
small  orifice  is  made,  the  same  result  will  follow ;  but  if  a 
current  of  air  is  by  some  device  drawn  out  from  one  open- 
ing, an  equal  current  will  force  its  way  into  the  other,  and 
the  lamp  will  bum  until  the  oil  is  exhausted. 

^SS.  It  is  on  this  principle  of  maintaining  a  double  cur- 
rent by  artificicU  meanSj  that  bees  ventilate  their  crowded 
habitations.  A  file  of  ventilating  bees  stands  inside  and 
outside  of  the  hive,  each  with  head  turned  to  its  entrance, 
and  while,  by  the  rapid  fanning  of  their  *'  many  twinkling" 
wings,  a  brisk  current  of  air  is  blown  out  of  the  hive,  an 
equal  current  is  drawn  in.  As  this  important  office  demands 
unusual  physical  exertion,  the  exhausted  laborers  are,  from 
time  to  time,  relieved  by  fresh  detachments.  If  the  interior 
of  the  hive  permits  inspection,  many  ventilators  will  be 
found  scattered  through  it,  in  very  hot  weather,  all  busily 
engaged  in  their  laborious  employment.  If  its  entrance  is 
contracted,  speedy  accessions  will  be  made  to  their  num- 
bers, both  inside  and  outside  of  the  hive ;  and  if  it  is  closed 
entirely,  the  heat  and  impurity  quickly  increasing,  the 
whole  colony  will  attempt  to  renew  the  air  by  rapidly  vi- 
brating their  wings,  and  in  a  short  time,  if  unrelieved,  will 
die  of  suffocation. 

366.  Careful  .experiments  show  that  pure  air  is  neces- 
sary not  only  for  the  respiration  of  the  mature  bees,  but  for 
hatching  the  eggs,  and  developing  the  larvae  ;  a  fine  netting 
of  air-vessels  enveloping  the  eggs,  and  the  cells  of  the  larva 
being  closed  with  a  covering  filled  with  air-holes  (168). 

In  ^/Hnter,  if  bees  are  kept  in  a  dark  place,  whio^  it 


eaaooC  Ire  cnttrdLj  wtthoot  H ;  mad  if  thej  are 
cxBted  bj  mcmosplnsie  cbaagoKy  or  m  maj  wmj  dislnrbed,  a 
lood  buniBiiB^  OUT  be  beard  ia  tke  iaterior  of  tlieir  hires, 

MI7.  If  bees  are  greadj  diaUubed,  H  will  be  onsafe,  ea- 
pedaOj  ia  warn  weadier,  to  rnnfiae  tlwai,  oaleaa  they  ksie 
a  TCfj  free  admiaBioa  id  air ;  aad  ciea  Ihea,  anleas  it  ia  ad- 
■itted  abore,  aa  weQ  aa  below  tbe  maaa  of  bees,  the  Tenli- 
laiors  wmj  become  clogged  with  dead  beea,  and  the  oolooj 
perkh.  Bees  oadcr  ck»e  conftitrmeat  beeome  exccesiTnly 
heated,  sod  their  combs  are  often  melted ;  if  dampneaa  is 
added  to  the  injurioos  inflaenoe  of  bad  air,  thej  become 
diseased ;  and  large  numbers,  if  not  the  whole  colonj,  maj 
perish  from  disrrho^a.  Is  it  not  ander  precisely  such  cir> 
comstances  thsi:  cholera  and  dysentery  prove  most  fatal  to 
homan  beings?  the  filthy,  damp,  and  anTentilated  abodes 
of  the  abject  poor,  becoming  perfect  lazar-houses  to  their 
wretched  inmates. 

368.  We  have  sereral  times  examined  the  bees  of  new 
swarms  which  were  brought  to  our  Apiary,  so  closely  con- 
fined, that  they  had  died  of  suffocation.  In  each  instance, 
their  bodies  were  distended  with  a  vellow  and  noisome  sub- 
stance,  as  though  they  had  perished  from  diarrhoea.  A  few 
were  still  alive,  and  although  the  colony  had  been  shut  up 
only  a  few  hours,  the  boilies  of  both  the  living  and  the  dead 
were  filled  with  this  same  disgusting  fluid,  instead  of  the 
honey  they  had  when  they  swarmed. 

In  a  rn»dical  point  of  view,  these  facts  are  highly  inter- 
esting; shuwin,;  as  they  do,  under  what  circumstances,  and 
how  epeedily,  diseases  may  be  produced  resembling  dysen- 
tery or  cholera. 

300.  In  very  hot  weather,  if  thin  hives  are  exposed  to 


the  sun's  direct  rays,  the  bees  are  excessively  annoyed  by 
the  intense  beat,  and  have  recourse  to  the  most  powerful 
ventilation,  not  merely  to  keep  the  air  of  the  hive  pure,  but 
to  lower  its  temperature. 

Bees,  in  such  weather,  often  leave,  almost  in  a  body,  the 
interior  of  the  hive,  and  cluster  on  the  outside,  not  merely 
to  escape  the  close  heat  within,  but  to  guard  their  combs 
against  the  danger  of  being  melted. 

870.  Few  novices  have  an  adequate  idea  of  the  danger 
to  heavily  laden  combs  from  heat,  especially  if  the  cluster 
of  bees,  outside,  happens  to  obstruct  the  entrance,  by  hang- 
ing in  front  of  it.  In  the  Summer  of  1877,  we  have  seen 
whole  rowd  of  hives,  which  were  exposed  to  the  sun's  rays, 
in  a  large  Apiary,  ^'  melt  down"  almost  simultaneously, — 
causing  a  loss  of  hundreds  of  dollars, — for  lack  of  sufficient 
ventilation,  owing  to  the  clustering  of  the  bees  in  front  of 
the  entrance. 

871.  After  one  comb  brefCks  down,  the  leaking  honey 
spreads  over  the  bottom  board,  runs  out  of  the  entrance, 
daubs  the  bees,  and  prevents  further  ventilation ;  then  the 
rest  of  the  combs  fall  pell-mell  on  one  another,  crushing  the 
brood,  the  queen,  and  the  remaining  bees.  It  is  utter  de- 

872.  In  very  hot  weather,  the  bees  are  specially  careful 
not  to  cluster  on  new  combs  containing  sealed  honey,  which, 
from  not  being  lined  with  cocoons,  and  from  the  extra 
amount  of  wax  used  for  their  covers,  melt  more  readily  than 
the  breeding-cells. 

Apiarists  have  noticed  that  bees  often  leave  their  honey- 
cells  almost  bare,  as  soon  as  they  are  sealed  ;  but  it  seems 
to  have  escaped  their  observation,  that  this  is  absolutely 
necessary  in  very  hot  weather.  In  cool  weather,  they  may 
frequently  be  found  clustered  among  the  sealed  honey-combs, 
because  there  is  then  no  danger  of  their  melting. 

Few  things  are  so  well  fitted  to  impress  the  mind  with 

deviM  bf 

of  the  great  hum  d 
n  bee,  to  be  mat, 
BO  ebL^Sj  lo  decade,  froa  ma  dibonte  uiiItsu  of  the  ohem- 
leal  fCMmtiTiiM  iiti  ai  the  atBoophere,  how  large  a  propoftiaa 
of  osjgca  s  eaacsatiil  to  the  a^iport  of  Mf e,  aodhowrapidfy 
the  pioeeas  of  fasea^hzag  eoaverti  it  iato  a  deadly  poifoa. 
It  eaaaot,  £ke  Ljetag,  dfuti  ■!«  that  God,  bjaettiDgte 
aad  the  ivgetable  vorid,  the  one  artr  againet  te 
\  ham  prorrided  that  Ibe  alsM^rfiere  duJl,  through  all 
be  aa  pure  aa  vhea  it  fint  eaiae  fnm  Hia  creaHiig 
hand.  Bat  ^ia2z»  upon  as !  that  with  all  our  boaated  intel- 
tigenoe,  most  of  X2S  hre  aa  thoagfa  pare  air  waa  of  little  or 
DO  importaace ;  while  the  bee  rentilates  with  a  philoaopbieal 
predaon  \h%x  sh'^uld  put  to  the  blush  oar  criminal  negied 
373.  It  is  Slid  that  Tentilation  cazmot,  in  our  case,  be  had 
without  cost.  Can  it  then  be  had  for  nothing,  by  the  indos- 
triou£  bees  ?  Those  ranks  of  bees,  so  indef atigablj  pljing 
their  busj  wing?.  &re  not  engaged  in  idle  amusement;  nor 
might  thev.  as  >c>me  shallow  utilitarian  may  imagine,  be 
better  employed  in  gathering  honey,  or  superintending  some 
other  der  artment  in  the  economy  of  the  hire.  At  great  ex- 
pense of  time  and  labor,  they  are  supplying  the  rest  of  the 
colony  with  the  pure  air  so  conduciTe  to  their  health  and 
prosperity.  What  a  difference  between  them  and  some 
human  l»eings.  who,  **  if  they  lived  in  a  glass  bottle,  would 
insist  on  keeping  the  cork  in!  ** 

Impure  air.  one  would  think,  is  bad  enough;  but  all  its 
inherent  vileness  is  stimulated  to  still  greater  activity  by  air- 
tight, or  rather  lunfj-tiqlu  stoves,  which  can  economize  fuel 
only  by  squandering  health  and  endangering  life.  Not  only 
our  private  houses,  but  all  our  places  of  pablic  assemblage, 
are  either  unimproved  with  any  means  of  Tentilatioa,  or  to 


•  great  extent,  supplied  with  those  so  deficient,  that  thej 


'*Keep  the  word  of  promise  to  our  ear, 

To  break  it  to  our  hope." 

Men  may,  to  a  certain  extent,  resist  the  injurious  influences 
of  fool  air ;  as  their  employments  usually  compel  them  to  live 
more  out  of  doors :  but  alas,  alas !  for  the  poor  women !  In 
the  Tery  land  where  they  are  treated  with  such  merited  de- 
ference and  respect,  often  no  provision  is  made  to  furnish 
them  with  that  first  element  of  health,  cheerfulness,  and 
beaaty»  heaven's  pure,  fresh  air. 

Obskbtiho  Hiyks. 

374.  For  nearly  a  century,  hives  have  been  in  use  con- 
taining only  one  comb,  inclosed  on  both  sides  by  glass. 
These  hives  are  darkened  by  shutters,  and,  when  opened,  the 
queen  is  as  much  exposed  to  observation  as  the  other  bees. 
Mr.  Langstroth  has  discovered  that,  with  proper  precau- 
tions, colonies  can  be  made  to  work  in  obserying-bives,  even 
when  exposed  continually  to  the  full  light  of  day ;  so  that 
observations  may  be  made  at  all  times,  without  interrupting 
by  any  mdden  admission  of  light,  the  ordinary  operations 
of  the  bees.  In  such  hives,  many  intelligent  persons  from 
various  States  in  the  Union  have  seen  the  queen-bee  depos- 
iting her  eggs  in  the  cells,  while  surrounded  by  an  affection- 
ate circle  of  her  devoted  children.  They  have  also  witnessed 
with  astonishment  and  delight,  all  the  mysterious  steps  in 
the  process  of  raising  queens  from  eggs,  which  with  the 
ordinary  development  would  have  produced  only  the  com- 
mon bees.  Often  for  more  than  three  months,  there  has 
not  been  a  day  in  our  Apiary,  in  which  some  colonies  were 
not  engaged  in  rearing  new  queens  to  supply  the  place  of 
thoeo  taken  from  them ;  and  we  have  had  the  pleasure  of 


exhibiting  these  facts  to  bee-keepers,  who  neyer  before  felt 
willing  to  credit  them. 

375.  An  Apiarist  may  use  the  box  hives  a  whole 
life-time,  and,  anless  he  gains  his  information  from  other 
sources,  may  yet  remain  ignorant  of  some  of  the  most  im- 
portant principles  in  the  physiology  of  the  honey-bee; 
while  any  intelligent  cultivator  may,  with  an  observing-hive 
and  the  use  of  movable-frames,  in  a  single  season,  verifj 
for  himself  the  discoveries  which  have  been  made  only  by 
the  accumulated  toil  of  many  observers,  for  more  than  two 
thousand  years. 

**An  opportunity  of  beholding  the  proceedings  of  the  queen,  la 
hives  of  the  old  form,  is  so  very  rarely  afforded,  that  many  Apia* 
rists  have  passed  their  lives  without  enjoying  it ;  and  R^anmur 
himself,  even  with  the  assistance  of  a  glass-hive,  acknowledges 
that  it  was  many  years  before  he  had  that  pleasure." — (Bevan.) 

Swammerdam,  who  wrote  his  wonderful  treatise  on  bees, 
before  the  invention  of  observing-hives,  was  obliged  to  tear 
hives  to  pieces  in  making  his  investigations  I  When  we  see 
what  important  results  these  great  geniuses  obtained,  with 
means  so  imperfect,  if  compared  with  the  facilities  which 
the  veriest  tyro  now  possesses,  it  ought  to  teach  us  a  be- 
cominor  lesson  of  humility. 

The  sentiments  of  the  following  extract  from  Swammer- 
dam, ought  to  be  engraven  upon  the  hearts  of  all  engaged 
in  investigating  the  works  of  God: 

*'  I  would  not  have  any  one  think  that  I  say  this  from  a  love  of 

fault-finding" — he  had  been  criticising  some  incorrect  drawings 
and  descriptions — *' my  sole  design  is  to  have  the  true  face  and 
disjiosituui  of  Xature  exposed  to  sight.  I  wish  that  others  may 
pass  the  like  censure,  when  due,  on  my  works;  fori  doubt  not 
that  I  have  made  many  mistakes,  althoagh  1  can,fh>m  the  heart, 
say,  that  I  have  not.  in  this  treatise  designed  to  mislead." 

370.  This  hive  is  a  simplified  form,  but  Mr.  D.  F.  Sav- 
ji^e  suggests  a  still  more  simple  one,  by  making  the  top  to 


r  as  not  to  conceal  uiy  of  the  bees,  and  leaviDg  off 
the  ahattera  entirely,  to  replace  them  with  a  dark  cloth 
thrown  over  the  hive.  But  this  cloth  can  be  used  only  when 
the  hive  la  eatabliahed  Inside  the  house.  Its  nuun  advan- 
tages are  to  do  away  with  the  noise  and  jar  of  opening 
tits  shatters. 

*-ig.  to. 
■,  aUiidt  B,CC,  moTBbla  glui  tfune!  K,  moulding  nnilci  irhlch  th* 
topOftbeabnttecfiUpa,  to  darken  tbs  Mn,  It  nenlFd;  F,  movable  top, 
kddlnplaaby  book*.    Tba  oombot  brood  aad  beei  la  put  u,  bj  remoT' 
lasUw  top  andooealda. 

377.  A  parlor  observiDg-bive  of  thia  form  may  be  con- 
Tcoiently  placed  in  any  room  in  the  liouse;  tlie  aligbtiog- 
board  being  outside,  and  the  whole  arrangement  such  that 
the  bees  may  be  inspected  at  all  hours,  day,  or  night,  tvith- 
oat  the  slightest  risk  of  their  stinging.  Two  such  hives 
may  be  placed  before  one  window,  and  put  up  or  taken 
downia  afew  minutes,  without  cutting  ordetacing  the  wood* 
work  of  the  house. 

An  obseirlng-hiTe  will  prove  an  unftuling  source  of  pleaa> 
ore  and  inatniotion ;  and  those  who  live  in  crowded  dtiea, 

to  the  penanoe 

asao  '*eiid]efli 

of  the  agile  gatheren 

tejond   ^^the  smokj 

to  their  city  homes 

*hliiduiig  unaeen," 

pleasant  marmarings 

IpBg  forgoltm  joja,  when 

soothing  music, 

m  the  old  hooiestead-garden, 

MD-sideB,  to  gather 

dov-sweet  breath," 

^ioswctiic  af  1^  pnckm  perfMua  of  their  forest  home? 

**  Tr  2De  ixȣre  dnr,  caageaial  to  ay  heart, 
t>z»f  n&HY^  ch&nc  thaa  aH  tke  gloas  of  art ; 
STCimz>fc«ss  ::r&.  vbere  natore  hai  its  play, 
Tii  ^*zl  s^i:•z*lSr  «zid  owns  their  first-bom  6 way; 
l.-jrii-y  iif?T  '^:"-:c  o'er  tiie  racant  mind, 
Tr  f:iT:-f*i..  znirx-es5ed.  onoonfined, 
B«  il-f  Ir^iir  pc^3p,  the  midnight  masquerade, 
^^-li  kll  :l€  fr*it5  of  wmaton  wealth  array 'd, 
1-  lif  ?-f.  frr  iT-ftre  hxlf  their  wish  obtain, 
Ti*  :c-.>:=:ie  rlfi^Tire  sickens  into  pain  ; 
Asi  *>ji  wtLit  fashion's  brightest  arts  decoy. 
The  he&rs  aU;r;istiAg  aaks,  if  this  be  joy." 





The  Honet-bbb  Capable  of'  Blino  Tamed. 

878.  If  the  bee  had  not  such  a  formidable  weapon  both 
of  offense  and  defense,  many  who  now  fear  it  might  easily 
be  induced  to  enter  upon  its  cultivation.  As  the  present 
system  of  management  takes  the  greatest  possible  Uberties 
with  this  insect,  it  is  important  to  show  how  all  neceasary 
operations  may  be  performed  without  serious  risk  of  excit- 
ing its  anger. 

Many  persons  are  unable  to  suppress  their  astonishment, 
when  they  see  an  Apiarist,  with  the  help  of  a  little  smoke, 
opening  hive  after  hive,  removing  the  combs  covered  with 
bees,  and  shaking  them  off  in  front  of  the  hives ;  forming 
new  swarms,  exhibiting  the  queen,  transferring  the  bees 
with  all  their  stores  to  another  hive ;  and  in  short,  dealing 
with  them  as  if  they  were  as  harmless  as  flies.  We  have 
sometimes  been  asked,  whether,  the  hives  we  were  opening 
had  not  been  subjected  to  a  long  course  of  training ;  when 
they  contained  swarms  which  had  been  brought  only  the  day 
before  to  our  Apiary. 

We  shall,  in  this  chapter,  show  that  any  one  favorably 
dtaated  may  enjoy  the  pleasure  and  profit  of  a  pursuit 
which  has  been  appropriately  styled,  **  the  poetry  of  rural 
economy,*'  without  being  made  too  familiar  with  a  sharp 
little  weapon,  which  speedily  converts  all  the  poetry  into 
•orry  prose. 

It  most  be  manifest  to  every  reflecting  mind,  that  the 
Creator  intended  the  bee.  as  trulv  as  the  horse  or  the  cow, 


te  tlie  oomf  ort  of  mmn.  In  the  early  ages  of  Uie  world, 
and  indeed  antO  quite  modem  timet,  honey  was  almost  the 
only  natoral  sweet;  and  the  promise  of  ^'a  limd  flowing 
with  milk  and  honey"  had  once  a  significance  which  it  ii 
difficult  for  OS  folly  to  realize.  The  honey-bee,  therefore, 
was  created  not  merely  to  store  np  its  delicioos  nectar  for 
its  own  use,  bat  with  certain  propensities,  without  which 
man  coold  no  more  subject  it  to  his  control,  than  he  could 
make  a  useful  beast  of  burden  of  a  lion  or  a  tiger. 

379.  One  of  the  peculiarities  which  constitutes  the  foun> 
dation  of  the  present  system  of  management,  and  indeed  of 
the  possibility  of  domesticating  at  aU  so  irascible  an  insect, 
has  never  to  our  knowledge  been  clearly  stated  as  a  great 
and  controlliDg  principle  by  any  one  before  Mr.  Laugstroth. 
It  may  be  thus  expressed: 

A  honey-bee  when  heavily  laden  with  honey  never  volunteen 
cm  attack,  but  acts  solely  on  the  defensive,^ 

This  law  of  the  honeyed  tribe  is  so  uniyersal,  that  a  stone 
might  as  soon  be  expected  to  rise  into  the  air,  without  any 
propelling  power,  as  a  bee  well  filled  with  honey  to  offer  to 
sting,  unless  crushed  or  injured  by  some  direct  assault. 
The  man  who  first  attempted  to  hive  a  swarm  (428)  of 
bees,  must  have  been  agreeably  surprised  at  the  ease  with 
which  he  was  able  to  accomplish  the  feat ;  for  it  is  wisely 
ordered  that  bees,  when  intending  to  swarm,- should  fill  their 
honey-bags  to  their  utmost  capacity.  They  are  thus  so 
peaceful  that  they  can  easily  be  secured  by  man,  besides 
having  materials  for  commencing  operations  immediately  in 
their  new  habitation,  and  being  in  no  danger  of  starving,  if 
several  stormy  days  should  follow  their  emigration. 

380.  While  swarming,  bees  issue  from  their  hives  in  the 
most  peaceable  mood  ima^nable ;  and  unless  abused  allow 
themselves  to  be  treated  with  the  greatest  familiarity.    The 

•  Thla  tUtexnent  has  been  contradicted  by  a  high  anUioxltj,  b«t  we  penlst  la 
ftArmlnf  It.  and  wUl  addnee  iereral  proofs  in  durerent 


hiding  of  them  might  always  be  conducted  without  risk,  il 
there  were  not,  occoiionaUy^  some  improyident  or  unfortu- 
nate ones,  who,  coming  forth  without  a  sufficient  amount  of 
the  soothing  supply,  are  filled  instead  with  the  bitterest 
hate  against  any  one  daring  to  meddle  with  them.  Such 
thriftless  radicals  are  always  to  be  dreaded,  for  they  must 
▼ent  their  spleen  on  something,  even  though  they  perish  in 
the  act.    (84.) 

If  a  whole  colony,  on  sallying  forth,  possessed  such  a 
ferocious  spirit,  no  one  could  hive  them  unless  clad  in  a 
coat  of  mail,  bee-proof;  and  not  even  then,  until  all  the 
windows  of  his  house  were  closed,  his  domestic  animals  be- 
stowed in  some  place  of  safety,  and  sentinels  posted  at  suit- 
able stations,  to  warn  all  comers  to  keep  at  a  safe  distance. 
In  short,  if  the  propensity  to  be  exceedingly  good-natured 
after  a  hearty  meal,  had  not  been  given  to  the  bee,  it  could 
never  have  been  domesticated,  and  our  honey  would  still  be 
procured  from  the  clefts  of  rocks  or  the  hollows  of  trees. 
Probably  the  good  nature  resulting  from  a  hearty  meal  is 
not  the  only  cause  of  the  above  fact.  There  is  another 
physiological  fact  connected  with  it  (85).  When  her 
stomach  is  empty,  a  bee  can  curve  her  abdomen  easily  to 
■ting.  If  her  honey-sack  is  full,  the  rings  of  the  abdomen 
are  distended,  and  she  finds  more  difficulty  in  taking  the 
proper  position  for  stinging. 

881.  A  second  peculiarity,  in  the  nature  of  bees,  gives 
an  almost  unlimited  control  over  them,  and  may  be  ex- 
pressed as  follows : 

J5ee9,  when  frightened^  usually  begin  to  fill  themselvea  with 
honey  from  their  combe. 

If  the  Apiarist  only  succeeds  in  frightening  bis  little  sub- 
jects, he  can  make  them  as  peaceable  as  though  they  were 
incapable  of  stinging.  By  the  use  of  a  little  smoke,  the 
largest  and  most  fiery  colony  may  be  brought  into  complete 
subjection.     As  soon  as  the  smoke  is  blown  among  them. 


they  retreat  from  before  it,  raising  s  anbdaed  or  terrUad 
note ;  and,  Beendng  to  imagine  that  tlieir  honey  la  to  be 
taken  from  them,  the;  cram  their  honej-baga  to  their  atmott 
capacity.  They  act  eitbet  u  if  aware  that  only  what  ttiay 
can  lodge  in  this  inside  pocket  is  safe,  or,  aa  if  expecting  to 
be  driven  away  from  their  stores,  they  ue  determined  to 
start  with  a  fall  supply  of  provisions  for  the  way.  The 
same  result  may  be  obtained  by  shutting  them  up  in  their 
hive  and  drumming  upon  it  for  a  short  time,  bat  this  latter 
process  is  only  sacccsstul  with  some  races  of  beea  easily 
frightened,  like  the  black  bees  (55D). 

383.  The  bellows-smokers,  in  present  use,  for  smokiag 
bees  and  controlling  them,  are  as  far  superior  to  the  old 
method  of  blowing  smoke  on  them  with  the  mouth  from  a 


piece  of  punk  or  rotten  wood,  or  a  bunch  of  rags,  as  the 
movable-frame  hive  is  superior  to  the  box  bive  of  old.  The 
writer  of  this,  who  kept  bees  in  large  numbers  in  sever^ 
Apiaries  before  the  introduction  of  the  practical  bellows- 
smoker,  has  many  a  time  felt  dizzy  from  the  fatigue  of  blow- 
ing smoke  on  the  bees. 

Bellows- smokers  were  used  in  Europe  long  ago,  but  they 
were   not  practical,  as  they  could   not  be   used  with  one 


Qoiiiby,  one  of  tfie  ▼eterans  of  progressive  Apicaltare, 
loTeiited  the  first  bellows-smoker  that  had  the  bellows  on 
the  aide  of  the  fire-box,  that  could  stand  up  and  draw  like  a 
ebimnej,  and  that  ooold  practicallj  be  held  with  one  hand. 
Binghain  afterwards  greatly  improyed  on  this  smoker. 
SHiioe  then,  others  have  made  different  styles,  all  based  on 
Qidnby'a  or  on  Bingham's  ideas. 

The  Improved  Qoinby-Bingham  smokers  have  been 
imitated  all  over  the  world,  especially  in  England  and 
Ftanoe,  and  we  are  sorry  to  say,  some  of  these  imitations 
have  been  sold  as  personal  inventions,  without  any  credit 
being  given  to  the  real  inventors. 

A  bee-smoker  is  indispensable  to  any  Apiarist,  and  ifhonld 
be  properly  filled,  when  nsed,  with  dry  wood,  lighted  at  the 
bottom  by  a  few  hot  coals.  With  a  good  smoker  any  kind 
'  of  wood  may  be  used.  When  the  bees  are  located  in  an  or- 
chard, dead  limbs  of  apple-trees,  are  handiest  and  will 
make  good  smoke.  Shavings,  leaves,  rags,  can  also  be  used, 
^  if  no  wood  is  at  hand.  By  setting  the  smoker  upright,  when 
not  held  in  tiie  hand,  so  as  to  create  a  good  draft,  and  refilling 
it  from  time  to  time,  a  good  smoke  can  be  kept  np  from 
mondng  till  ni^^t,  if  necessary. 

S9S.  Seme  Apiarists  of  England  have  tried  several 
HqoidB,  for  mbbing  on  the  hands,  to  pacify  the  bees. 
Moat  of  these  liquids  are  hydro-carbonous  fluids,  or  volatile 
oils  of  plants,  such  as  wintergreen,  turpentine,  bergamot, 
dorea,  tiiyme,  etc  Mr.  Orimshaw,  after  divers  trials,  in- 
vented a  compound  of  several  of  these  oils,  to  which  he 
seems  to  have  added  ether  and  chloroform,  if  our  sense  of 
smell  does  not  mislead  us.    He  calls  it  Apifuge. 

Several  Apiarists  praise  this  drug,  while  others  say  that 
their  bees  did  not  mind  it,  and  sting  them  as  usual ;  and 
some  complain  of  blisters  on  their  hands  after  its  use. 
iBriU$k  BuJawmal.) 

Mr.  Cowan  presented  us  with  a  vial  of  Apifuge,  but. 


fttter  bTing,  we  cannot  see  maoh  idTuiUge  to  be  derived 
from  its  nse. 
384.  Ml.  Baynor  advlsea  the  use  of  a  oaiboUsed  aheet, 

to  frighten  beea : 

"  Hftkn  a  solntiOQ  of  8  M.  oarboUo  aeld  In  a  qnut  of  water, 
and  preierve  for  om.  Hix  11  os.  of  this  aolution  with  1)  oa.  of 
gl^oerlne;  pnt  the  miitore  inaqoartof  water.ihake  wall  bofbn 
lulng ;  steep  In  the  miitare  a  pteoe  of  oalico,  or  oheesa  oloth, 
■nffloientlr  large  to  ooTer  the  top  of  the  hive,  wring  oat  dr^  aod 
spread  over  the  hive  as  sood  as  Uie  qnllt  Is  lemoTed. 

**  YoQ  mar  n*e  the  same  to  drlTe  the  bees  out  of  the  ieoHoas. 
Keep  the  bottles  weU  corked  fbr  fntiu*  nse."— ^Sev.  O.  Baynor, 
hi  the  BrititK  BM^ountaL) 

The  same  liquid  may  be  forced  among  the  beea  through 
an  atomizer.  As  it  evaporates  it  leaves  no  bad  smell  behind. 

38A.  A  neighbor  of  ours,  who  is  a  magnetist,  told  om 
foreman-Apiarist  that  bees  could  be  pacified  by  aimply  lay- 


Ing  ooe'B  huida  above  the  combs  while  the  cloth  is  cm«- 
tall;  removed.  We  h&ve  sean  bees  withdraw  from  the 
tnmes  inside  the  tuve,  under  this  lajiag  on  of  hands ;  but 
we  are  not  sure  ttiat  such  magnetiam,  if  there  be  magnetiem 
in  it,  ia  sufficient  to  prevent  the  bees  from  stinging. 

388.  A  bee>veil,  although  objectionable  to  some  bee- 
keepers, who  prefer  to  handle  their  bees  barefaced,  is  really 
a  necesnty  in  a  large  Apiary.  Timid  persons  feel  safer  in 
using  it,  and  even  the  boldest  bee-keepers  recognize  the 
necesrity  of  wearing  one,  when  colonies  become  aroused  by 
accident.  The  best  veils  are  eewed  to  the  oiiter  edge  of  th& 
rim  of  a  straw-hat ;  with  a  rubber  at  their  loner  extremity, 
to  fasten  around  the  neck.  The  veil  can  be  slipped  on  and 
oH  in  a  twinkling,  if  necessity  requires ;  when  not  in  use,  it 
Is  simply  folded  into  the  crown  of  the  hat,  where  it  is 
always  at  band. 

We  keep  a  num- 
ber of  these  veil  hats 
In  our  bee-house, 
for  the  accommo- 
dation of  visitors, 
who  wish  to  look 
through  the  wou- 
ilers  of  the  bee-hive, 
without  fear  of 

Some  veils  are 
made  removable , 
with  a  rubber  at 
each  end;  the  upper 
one  being  slippeil 
over  the  crown  of 
the  hat.  This  veil 
can  he  taken  oft  at 
will,  and  carried  in 
the  pocket. 

In  his  "Success  In  Bce-Culturc, "  Mr.  lleddoii  stiyn:  "A 
bee-veil  should  never  be  any  color  but  black,  a»  all  other 
shades  are  more  or  less  difficult  to  see  through  clearly,"  and 


we  fully  agree  with  him.     White  Teils  are   moet  espedalfy 
objectionable.     Green  is  the  best  color  after  black. 

387.  The  hands  may  be  protected  by  indi»-rabb€i 
gloves,  such  as  are  now  in  common  use.  1  hese  gloves,  irbSk 
impenetrable  to  the  sting  of  a  bee,  do  not  materially  inte^ 
fere  with  the  operations  of  the  Apiarist.  As  soon,  however, 
as  he  acquires  confidence  and  skill,  he  will  much  prefer 
to  use  nothing  but  the  bee-hat,  even  at  the  expense  of  as 
occasional  sting  on  his  hands. 

An  English  Apiarist  advises  persons  using  gloves  lo  eol 
the  tips  of  the  fingers  so  as  to  handle  the  frames  moft 
dexterously,  and  to  wash  their  fingers  with  some  kind  of 

Stings  on  the  hands  usually  cause  but  little  suffering  or 
swelling,  while  stings  on  the  face  are  quite  painful ;  and  tht 
^otesque  appearance  which  the  swelling  often  gives  to  tht 
human  face,  makes  it  much  more  desirable  to  protect  the 
head  than  the  hands. 

If  the  hands  are  wet  with  honey,  they  will  seldom  be 

388.  All  woolen  clothes  are  more  objectionable  to  beet 
than  linen  or  cotton,  for  wool  resembles  the  hair  of  ani- 
mals, being  made  of  it,  while  linen  or  cotton  resembles  the 
twigs  and  leaves  of  plants,  being  made  of  vegetable  fibre. 
Butler  says: 

*^  They  use  their  stings  against  such  things  as  have  outwardly 
some  offensive  excrement,  such  as  hair  or  feathers,  the  touch 
whereof  provoketh  them  to  sting.  If  they  alight  upon  the  hair 
of  the  head  or  beard,  they  will  sting  if  they  can  reach  the  skin. 
When  they  are  angry  their  aim  is  most  commonly  at  the  face, 
but  the  bare  hand  that  is  not  hairy,  they  will  seldom  sting, 
onless  they  be  much  offended.*' — (''Feminine  Monarehy,**  1608.) 

389.  In  handling  bees,  it  is  not  always  necessary  to 
compel  them  to  fill  themselves  with  honey.  With  the  quiet 
Italians  (551),   a  few  puffs  of  smoke,  at  the  entranoe, 


when  opening  the  hhre,  and  occasionally  on  the  combs,  if 
they  show  any  disposition  to  anger,  are  quite  sufficient  to 
keep  them  down.  Some  of  our  best  Apiarists  often  open 
their  hires  and  handle  the  bees  without  smoke.  It  takes 
practice,  patience  and  firmness. 

Whfle  the  timid,  if  unprotected,  are  ahnost  sure  to  be 
•tong,  there  is  something  in  the  fearless  movements  of  a 
akiUful  operator,  that  seems  to  render  a  colony  submissive 

890.  8<»ie  raoea,  however,  like  the  Cyprian  (559), 
cannot  be  controlled  without  a  clond  of  smoke,  but  they 
promptly  retreat  before  the  overpowering  argument  of  a 
good  smoker. 

SBl.  Bees  can  be  handled  at  all  times;  but  they  are 
quietest  In  the  middle  of  the  day.  At  such  a  time,  the  old 
bees,  which  are  the  crossest  in  the  colony,  are  out  in  the 
field.  In  cold,  cloudy,  or  stormy  weather,  they  are  most  irri- 
table. especiaUy  if  there  is  a  scarcity  of  honey,  as  the  lurking 
robbers  (604)  excite  the  bees.  Old  bees  that  come  home 
loaded,  are  not  cross,  while  those  going  out  empty y  are  easily 
angered.  During  a  plentiful  honey  flow,  when  the  hives 
are  crowded  for  room,  the  bees  are  nearly  all  full  of  honey, 
and  the  colonies  can  then  be  handled  without  smoke  (379). 

By  oar  methods  yon  can  superintend  a  large  Apiary, 
performing  every  operation  necessary  for  pleasure  or  profit, 
without  as  much  risk  of  being  stung,  as  must  frequently  be 
loeorred  in  attempting  to  manage  a  single  hive  in  the  old 

d92.  Let  all  your  motions  about  your  hives  be  gentle  and 

slow;  never  crush  or  injure  the   bees;  acquaint  yourself 

folly  with  the  principles  of  management  detailed  in  this 

treatise,  and  you  will  find  that  you  have  little  more  reason 

to  dread  the  sUng  of  a  bee,  than  the  horns  of  a  favorite 

00W9  or  the  b  yoor  faithful  horse. 



Cotton,  quoting  from  Butler,  who,  in  these  Femarks,  fol- 
lows mainly  Columella,  says: 

898.  **  Listen  to  the  words  of  an  old  writer :  —  *  If  then  wlH 
haye  the  fayoor  of  thy  bees,  that  they  sting  thee  not,  thon  mnsl 
avoid  such  things  as  offend  them :  thou  must  not  be  unchaste  or 
uncleanly;  for  impurity  and  sluttiness  (themselves  being  most 
chaste  and  neat)  they  utterly  abhor;  thou  must  not  come  among 
them  smelling  of  sweat,  or  having  a  stinking  breath,  caused 
either  through  eating  of  leeks,  onions,  garlick,  and  the  like,  or 
by  any  other  means,  the  noisomeness  whereof  is  corrected  by  a 
eup  of  beer;  thou  must  not  be  given  to  surfeiting  or  dmnkoi- 
ness;  thou  must  not  come  puffing  or  blowing  unto  them,  neither 
hastily  stir  among  them,  nor  resolutely  defend  thyself  when  they 
seem  to  threaten  thee;  but  softly  moving  thy  hand  before. thy 
fiice,  gently  put  them  by ;  and  lastly,  thou  must  be  no  stranger 
unto  them.  In  a  word,  thou  must  be  chaste,  cleanly,  sweet, 
sober,  quiet,  and  familiar;  so  will  they  love  thee,  and  know  thee 
from  all  others.  When  nothing  hath  angered  them,  one  may 
safely  walk  along  by  them ;  but  if  he  stand  still  before  them  in 
the  heat  of  the  day,  it  is  a  marvel  but  one  or  other  spying  him, 
will  have  a  cast  at  him.** 

** Above  all,  never  blow t  on  them;  they  will  try  to  sting  di- 
rectly, if  you  do. 

^^  If  you  want  to  catch  any  of  the  bees,  make  a  bold  sweep  at 
them  with  your  hand ;  and  if  you  catch  them  without  pressing 
them,  they  will  not  sting.  I  have  so  caught  three  or  four  at  a 
time.  If  you  want  to  do  anything  to  a  single  bee,  catch  him  *as 
if  you  loved  him,'  between  your  finger  and  thumb,  where  the  tail 
joins  on  to  the  body,  and  he  cannot  hurt  you.*' 

When  gorged  with  honey,  they  may  betaken  up  by  hand- 
fuls,  and  suffered  to  run  over  the  face,  and  may  even  have 
their  glossy  backs  gently  smoothed  as  they  rest  on  our  per- 
sons ;  and  all  the  feats  of  the  celebrated  Wildman  may  be 

*  Many  porsonB  Imagiue  themBolTefl  to  b«  qnlte  safe.  If  they  stand  at  a  eoo- 
ildorable  dit^tance  from  the  hives;  whereas,  crosB  beea  deUght  to  attack  tboaa 
whose  more  distant  position  makes  them  a  snrer  mark  to  their  lonir*al|rhted 
vision,  than  persons  who  are  close  to  their  hirea. 

t  While  bees  resent  the  \carm  breath  exhaled  ilowly  flrom  the  Innca,  we  haT« 
aaoertalned,  that  they  wlU  mo  ttom  a  blast  of  oold  air  blown  upon  them  by 
the  month  of  the  operator,  almost  as  quickly  as  ftrom  amoka.  Befbve  employ- 
iBf  amoke  lix.  Lancatroth  often  uaed  a  pair  of  beUowa. 


safely  imitated  bj  experts,  who,  by  securing  the  queen,  can 
make  the  bees  hang  in  iarge  festoons  from  their  chin,  with- 
out incurring  any  risk  of  being  taken  by  the  beard. 

^  Snch  was  the  spell,  which  ronnd  a  Wildman^s  arm, 
TwinM  in  dark  wreaths  the  fascinated  swarm ; 
Bright  o*er  his  breast  the  glittering  legions  led, 
Or  with  a  living  garland  bound  his  head. 
His  dextrous  hand,  with  firm  yet  hurtless  hold, 
Could  seize  the  chief,  kpown  by  her  scales  of  gold. 
Prune  'mid  the  wondering  train  her  filmy  wing, 
Or  o'er  her  folds  the  silken  fetter  fiing." 

t.  The  ignorance  of  most  bee-keepers  of  the  almost  un- 
limited control  which  may  be  peaceably  acquired  over  bees, 
koM  ever  been  regarded  by  the  author  of  this  treatise  as  the 
greatest  obsUicle  to  the  speedy  introduction  oj  movable-frame 
hives.  Such  ignorance  has  led  to  the  invention  of  costly 
and  complicated  hives,  all  the  ingenuity  and  expense  lav- 
ished apon  which,  are  known,  by  the  better  informed,  to  be 
as  unnecessary  as  a  costly  machine  for  lifting  up  bread  and 
butter,  and  gently  pushing  it  into  the  mouth  and  down  the 
tliroat  of  an  active  and  healthy  child. 

We  have  before  us  a  small  pamphlet,  published  in  Lon- 
don in  1851,  describing  the  construction  of  the  ^*Bar  and 
Frame  Hive  "  of  W.  A.  Munn,  Esq.  The  object  of  this  in- 
vention is  to  elevate  frames,  one  at  a  time,  into  a  case  with 
gioMS  sides^  so  that  they  may  be  examined  without  risk  of 
annoyance  from  the  bees.  Great  ingenuity  is  exhibited  by 
the  inventor  of  this  very  costly  and  very  complicated  hive, 
who  seems  to  imagine  that  smoke  ''*'  must  be  injurious  both 
to  the  bees  and  their  brood." 

305.  In  opening  a  hive,  little  danger  ma\'  be  feared 
from  the  bees  that  are  exposed  to  the  light,  unless  quick 
motions  are  made,  as  they  are  completely  bcwihiered  by 
their  sudden  exposure,  and  removal  from  the  hive. 

It  is  not  merely  the  sudden  admission  of  light,  but  its 
introdaction  from  an  unexpected  quarter,  that  for  the  time. 

196  HAXDLore  mmmm. 

the  hostilitj  of  the  bees.  Thej  appear,  for  a  few 
momenta,  almost  as  much  confooxided  as  a  man  would  be, 
if,  without  any  warning,  the  roof  and  ceiling  of  his  hooie 
should  suddenly  be  torn  from  over  his  head.  Before  they 
recover  from  their  amazement,  they  are  saluted  with  a  paff 
of  smoke,  which,  by  alarming  them  for  the  safety  of  their 
treasures,  induces  them  to  snatch  whatever  they  can.  In 
the  working  season,  the  bees  near  the  top  are  gorged  with 
honey;  and  those  coming  from  bdow  are  met  in  their 
threatening  ascent,  by  a  small  amount  of  harmless  smoke, 
which  excites  their  fears,  but  leaves  no  unpleasant  smell 
behind.  No  genuine  lover  of  bees  ought  ever  to  use  the  siek- 
ening  fumes  of  tobacco. 

806.  Heddon  says  ('^Success  in  Bee-Culture,"  page  18) : 
*'  I  know  of  but  one  instance  where  the  use  of  smoke  can  do 
harm,  and  that  is  in  smoking  the  guards  of  a  colony  that  is  in 
danger  of  being  robbed."  (664.)  To  this  important  state- 
ment, we  would  add,  that  too  much  smoke  to  a  colony 
already  subdued,  will  drive  them  from  their  combs,  and 
often  cause  them  to  get  in  the  way  of  the  Apiarist. 

But  the  greatest  care  should  be  taken  to  repress  by 
smoke,  the  firet  manifestations  of  anger ;  for,  as  bees  com- 
municate their  sensations  to  each  other  with  almost  magic 
celerity,  while  a  whole  colony  will  quickly  catch  the  pleased 
or  subdued  notes  uttered  by  a  few,  it  will  often  be  roused 
to  fury  by  the  angry  note  of  a  single  bee.  When  once  they 
are  thoroughly  excited,  it  will  be  found  very  difficult  to 
subdue  them,  and  the  unfortunate  operator,  if  inexperi- 
enced, will  often  abandon  the  attempt  in  despair. 

It  cannot  be  too  deeply  impressed  upon*  the  beginner, 
that  nothing  irritates  bees  more  than  breathing  upon  them, 
or  jarring  their  combs.  Every  motion  should  be  deliberate, 
and  no  attempt  whatever  made  to  strike  at  them.  If  in- 
clined to  be  cross,  they  will  often  resent  even  a  quick 

RBMOTINa   FRAMS8.  1^7 

pointing  at  them  with  the  finger,  by  darting  upon  it,  and 
leaving  their  stings  behind. 

307.  The  first  thing  to  be  done,  after  having  opened  a 
hive  and  removed  the  cloth  (852),  is  to  remove  the  divis- 
ion-board (340)  from  the  inside  of  the  hive — to  give  room 
for  handling  the  frames, — ^with  the  help  of  a  common  wood 
chisel.  Then  the  frames  which  have  been  glued  (236) 
fast  to  the  rabbets  by  the  bees,  mnst  be  very  gently  pried 
loose ;  this  may  be  done  without  any  serious  jar,  and  with- 
out wounding  or  enraging  a  single  bee.  They  may  be  all 
loosened  for  removal  in  less  than  a  single  minute. 

If  there  is  no  division-board  (349)  in  the  hive,  the  Api- 
arist should  gently  push  the  third  frame  from  cither  end  of 
the  hive,  a  little  nearer  to  the  fourth  frame ;  and  then  the 
•econd  as  near  as  he  can  to  the  third,  to  get  ample  room  to 
lift  out  the  end  one,  without  crushing  its  comb,  or  injuring 
any  of  the  bees.  To  remove  it,  he  should  take  hold  of  its 
two  shoulders  which  rest  upon  the  rabbets,  and  carefully 
lift  it,  so  as  to  crush  no  bees  by  letting  it  touch  the  sides  of 
the  hive,  or  the  next  frame.  If  it  is  desired  to  remove  any 
particular  frame,  room  must  be  gained  by  moving,  in  the 
same  way,  the  adjoining  ones  on  each  side.  As  bees  usu- 
ally build  their  combs  slightly  waving,  it  will  be  found 
impossible  to  remove  a  frame  safely,  without  making  room 
for  it  in  this  way.  If  the  combs  are  built  on  foundation 
(674),  however,  they  will  be  much  easier  to  remove,  as 
they  are  then  perfectly  straight.  In  handling  heavy  frames 
in  hot  weather,  be  careful  not  to  incline  them  from  their 
perpendicular^  or  the  combs  will  be  liable  to  break  from  their 
own  weight,  and  fall  out  of  the  frames. 

If  more  combs  are  to  be  examined,  after  lifting  out  the 
onttide  frame,  set  it  carefully  on  end,  near  the  hive,  when 
llie  aeoond  one  may  be  easily  moved  towards  the  vacant 
wpmoe^  and  lifted  oat.  After  examination,  put  it  in  the  place 
oi  ihm  one  first  removed ;  in  the  same  way^  examine  tti% 

third,  and  put  it  in  the  place  of  the  eeoond,  and  M  proceed 
until  all  have  been  examined.  It  a  division- board  is  UMd, 
it  will  not  be  necesBary  to  Bet  any  of  the  frames  down  oul- 
Bide  of  the  hive,  aa  the  removal  of  this  board  will  leave  out 
Tacant  space  in  the  hive. 

If  the  frames,  as  the;  are  removed,  are  put  into  an  empt; 
hive,  or  a  comb-bucket,  the;  ma;  be  protected  from  Ibi 
ooM,  and  from  robber-bees. 

Pig.  n. 


The  inexperienced  operator,  who  sees  that  the  bees  hsvt 
built  small  pieces  of  comb,  or  bridges  (237),  betweeo 
the  outside  of  the  frames  and  the  sides  of  the  hive,  or 
slightly  fastened  together  some  parts  of  their  combs,  ma; 
imagine  that  the  framea  cannot  be  removed  at  all.  Such 
slight  attftchmeots,  however,  offer  no  practical  difficult;  to 
their  removal.*     The  great  point  to  be  gained,  ia  to  secure 

•  If  (sffldent  room  roT  itoTtn);  anrplns  honey  U  not  gl^tn  to  >  itroBg  oolenr, 

Inltaiiixli'liloBmnssilitmuirh  M  pngtibis,  It  will  flU  ths  unjUlfrt 
pl*CPi.    If  th«  hmt  build  crnnh  brtvc^n  the  topa  of  tb<  inmiB  and 

BSMomfe  FBJjfBS.  199 

a  dngle  oomb  on  each  frame ;  and  this  is  effected  by  the 
oae  of  the  triangular  comb-goides,  or  better,  by  comb-foun- 
dation (674). 

If  bees  were  disposed  to  fly  away  from  their  combs,  as 
soon  as  they  are  taken  out,  instead  of  adhering  to  them 
with  such  remarkable  tenacity,  it  would  be  far  more  difficult 
to  manage  them ;  but  even  if  their  combs,  when  removed, 
ire  all  arranged  in  a  continued  line,  the  bees,  and  most  es- 
pecially the  Italian  bees,  instead  of  leaving  them,  will 
stoutly  defend  them  against  the  thieving  propensities  of 
other  bees. 

308.  In  returning  the  frames,  care  must  be  taken  not  to 
crush  the  bees  between  them  and  the  rabbets  on  which  they 
rest ;  they  should  be  put  in  so  slowly ^  that  a  bee,  on  feeling 
the  slightest  pressure,  may  have  a  chance  to  creep  from  un- 
der them  before  it  is  hurt. 

The  frames  should  be  returned,  as  far  as  possible,  in  the 
same  position,  as  they  were  found,  with  the  brood  in  the 
forward  part  of  the  hive,  and  the  honey  in  the  back,  for 
bees  always  live  and  breed  in  front  of  their  stores,  to  more 
easily  defend  their  treasures  against  intruders. 

In  shutting  up  the  hive,  the  surplus  story,  if  any  is  there, 
should  be  carefully  slid  on,  so  that  any  bees  which  are  in 
the  way  may  be  pushed  ))cfore  it,  instead  of  being  crushed. 
A  beginner  will  find  it  to  his  advantage  to  practice — using 
an  empty  hive — the  directions  for  opening  and  shutting 
hives,  and  lifting  out  the  frames,  until  confident  that  he 
fuUy  nnderstands  them.  If  any  bees  are  where  they  would 
be  imprisoned  by  closing  the  upper  cover,  it  should  be 
propped  up  a  little,  until  they  have  flown  to  the  entrance  of 
the  hive,  or,  they  may  be  brushed  away  gently. 

II WMUkflo  off,  thaj  would  flna  It  lUU  faster,  to  that,  at  last,  it  would  bo 
voll  nisli  impoatlblo,  in  getting  it  off,  not  to  start  the  framea  so  aa  to  omah 
botwaatt  tlia  eomba. 

UlSituiAOsiiKirr  or  Bna. 

809.  When  s  colony  of  bees  ia  anskillfull;  dealt  with, 
they  will  "compass  about"  their  asBailant  with  aaTigt 
ferocity ;  and  woe  be  to  him,  if  they  can  creep  np  hii 
clothes,  OT  find  a  Bingle  anprotected  apot  on  hia  peraon. 

Not  the  slightGBt  attempt  should  be  made  to  act  on  the 
offensive;  for,  if  a  single  one  is  stmck  at,  others  will 
avenge  the  insult ;  and  if  resistance  is  continued,  hundreds, 
and  at  last,  thousands,  will  join  them.  The  assailed  part; 
ebould  quickly  retreat  to  the  protection  of  a  building,  or, 
if  none  is  near,  should  bide  in  a  clump  of  bushes,  and  li« 
perfeutly  still,  wilh  his  head  covered,  until  the  bees  leave 
him.  Wlicii  no  busbca  are  at  hand,  they  will  gunerally 
give  over  the  uttLick,  if  he  lies  still  on  the  grass.  Kith  hii 
face  to  the  ground.  A  practical  Apiarist,  sheltered  with  t 
veil  and  armed  ivitb  a  well  lighted  smoker,  will  not  retreat 
much  before  the  moat  ferocious  swarm  of  bees. 

Those  who  are  alarmed  if  a  bee  enters  the  house,  or  ap- 
proaches them  in  the  garden  or  fields,  are  ignorant  of  the 
Important  fact,  that  a  bee,  at  a  distance  from  ita  hiv€,  never 
volunteers  an  attack.  Even  if  assaulted,  they  seek  only  to 
escape,  and  never  sting,  unless  they  are  hurt. 

If  they  were  as  easily  provoked  away  from  home,  aawheo 
called  to  defend  those  sacred  precincts,  a  tithe  of  the  merry 
gambols,  in  which  our  domestic  animals  indulge,  would 
speedily  bring  about  them  a  swarm  of  infuriated  enemiei  i 
we  should  be  no  longer  safe  in  our  quiet  rambles  among 
the  green  fields ;  and  no  jocund  mower  could  whet  or  swing 
his  peaceful  scytbe,  uuless  clad  in  a  dress  impervious  t« 
their  stings.  The  bee,  instead  of  being  the  friend  of  man, 
would,  like  savage  wild  beasta,  provoke  hia  utmoet  efforts 
for  its  extermination. 

Let  oone,   however,  take  encouragemeat  from  Um  OOfr 

mSMAVAeKMSXT  or  BBB8.  201 

between  the  conduct  of  bees  at  home  and  abroad,  to 
Te  all  their  pleasant  ways  for  other  places  than  the 
»tic  roof ;  for,  towards  the  members  of  its  own  family 
lee  is  all  kindness  and  devotion ;  and  while,  among 
in  beings,  a  mother  is  often  treated  by  her  own  children 
disrespect  or  neglect,  among  bees  she  is  always  waited 
I  with  reverence  and  affection. 

N>.  Hnber  has  demonstrated,  that  bees  have  an  ex- 
Lngly  acute  sense  of  smell,  and  that  unpleasant  odors 
dy  excite  their  anger.^  Long  before  his  time,  Butler 
"Their  smelling  is  excellent,  whereby,  when  they  fly 
into  the  air,  they  will  quickly  perceive  anything  under 
i  that  they  like,  even  though  it  be  covered."  They 
,  therefore,  a  special  dislike  to  those  whose  habits  are 
neat,t  and  who  bear  about  them  a  perfume  not  in  the 


**  Sabean  odors 

From  the  spicy  shores  of  Araby  the  blest.'* 

horse,  when  assailed  by  them,  is  often  killed ;  as,  in- 
i  of  running  away,  like  most  other  animals,  it  will 
ge  and  kick  until  it  falls  overpowered.  The  Apiary 
Id  be  fenced  in,  to  prevent  horses  and  cattle  from 
eting  the  hives.  We  have  known  of  a  horse,  which 
»ening  to  be  loose  in  a  bee-yard,  was  attacked  by  a  few 
.  In  trying  to  defend  himself  against  them  by  kicking 
rolling  he  upset  one  hive  and  then  another,  till  tens  of 
sands  of  bees  assailed  him,  and  the  poor  animal  was 

rung  perftimes,  bowerer  pleasaot  to  tu,  are  disagreeable  to  bees;  and 
»tls  obterrea,  that  they  wUl  sting  those  scented  with  them.  We  have 
B  pcxBona  Ignorant  of  this  fliet  to  be  aevcrely  treated  by  bees. 
MM  penooa,  howerer  cleanly,  are  aasaalted  by  bees  as  soon  as  they 
•ch  their  hlTsa.  It  la  related  of  a  distlngnlnhed  Apiarist  that,  after  a 
I  sttaek  of  hfWfS,  ha  waa  noTer  able  to  be  on  good  terms  with  his  beea. 
tbf&j  can  xoadUy  peroeiTa  the  sllghteat  differencea  in  amell,  is  apparent 
Um  ftet  that  any  number  of  beea,  fed  firom  a  common  Tetael,  will  be  gen- 
vavda  aMh  otb«,  while  they  wm  aaaaU  thi>  flrat  itranga  bee  that  aUghtt 

202  HAiffDLora  bum. 

•tang  to  death,  before  his  owner  could  come  to  the  rescue. 
We  were  informed  by  an  eye-witness,  that  although  the  car- 
cass remained  unburied  two  days,  neither  dogs,  crows, 
buzzards,  nor  any  of  the  usual  scavengers  of  decaying  flesh, 
attempted  to  feed  upon  it,  so  great  was  the  amount  of  poison 
(70)  instilled  into  it  by  the  revengeful  bees. 

401.  The  sting  of  a  bee  (78)  upon  some  persons,  pro- 
duces very  painful,  and  even  dangerous  effects.  We  have 
often  noticed  that,  while  those  whose  systems  are  not  sen- 
sitive to  the  venom,  are  rarely  molested  by  bees,  they  seem 
to  take  a  malicious  pleasure  in  stinging  those  upon  whom 
their  poison  produces  the  most  virulent  effect.  Something 
in  the  secretions  of  such  persons  may  both  provoke  the 
attack  and  render  its  consequences  more  severe. 

The  smell  of  their  own  poison  (87)  produces  a  very  irri- 
tating effect  upon  bees.  A  small  portion  of  it  offered  to  them 
on  a  stick,  will  excite  their  anger. 

*'  If  you  are  stung,"  says  old  Butler,  **  or  any  one  in  the  com- 
pany—yea, though  a  bee  hath  stricken  but  your  clothes,  espe- 
cially In  hot  weather— you  were  best  be  packing  as  fast  as  you 
can,  for  the  other  bees,  smelling  the  rank  flavor  of  the  poison, 
will  come  about  you  as  thick  as  hail." 

Remedies  for  the  Stino  or  ▲  Bee. 

402.  If  only  a  few  of  the  host  of  cures,  so  zealously 
advocated,  could  be  made  effectual,  there  would  be  little 
reason  to  dread  being  stung. 

The  first  thing  to  be  done  after  being  stung,  is  to  pull — 
or  rather  push — the  sting  out  of  the  wound  as  quickly  om 
possible.  When  torn  from  the  bee,  the  poison- bag,  and  all 
the  muscles  which  control  the  sting,  accompany  it;  and  it 
penetrates  deeper  and  deeper  into  the  flesh,  injecting  con- 
tinually more  and  more  poison  into  the  wound.  If  extracted 
at  once,  it  will  very  rarely  produce  any  serious  oonsequen* 

BBMXDISS  FOB  THS  fTUIG  Or  ▲  MEM.  203 

;  bat,  in  extracting  it,  it  should  not  be  taken  between 
the  flngen.  In  so  doing,  most  of  the  poison  will  be  pressed 
into  the  wound.  It  must  be  rubbed  or  scraped  off  by  a 
quick  motion  of  the  finger-nail,  so  as  to  prevent  any  more 
of  the  poison  of  the  sack  from  getting  into  the  flesh.  After 
the  sting  is  removed,  the  utmost  care  should  be  taken  not 
to  irritate  the  wound  by  the  tHightest  rubbing.  However 
intense  the  smarting,  and  the  disposition  to  apply  friction 
to  the  wound,  it  should  never  be  doney  for  the  moment  that 
the  blood  is  put  into  violent  circulation,  the  poison  is 
quickly  diffused  over  a  large  part  of  the  system,  and  severe 
pain  and  swelling  may  ensue.  On  the  same  principle,  by 
severe  friction,  the  bite  of  a  mosquito,  even  after  the  lapse 
of  several  days,  may  be  made  to  swell  again.  As  most  of 
the  popular  remedies  are  rvbbed  tn,  they  are  worse  than 

When  the  operator  is  perspiring  abundantly,  the  stings 
are  less  painful,  as  some  of  the  poison  exudes  with  the 

If  the  mouth  is  applied  to  the  wound,  unpleasant  conse- 
quences may  follow ;  for,  while  the  poison  of  snakes,  affect- 
ing only  the  circulating  system,  may  be  swallowed  with 
impunity,  the  poison  of  the  bee  acts  with  great  power  on 
the  organs  of  digestion.  Distressing  headaches  are  often 
produced  by  it,  as  any  one,  who  has  been  stung.  Or  has 
tasted  the  poison,  very  well  knows. 

403.  In  our  own  experience,  we  have  found  cold  water  to 
be  the  best  remedy  for  a  bee-sting.  The  poison  is  quickly 
dissolved  in  it ;  and  the  coldness  of  the  water  has  also  a 
powerful  tendency  to  check  inflammation. 

The  leaves  of  plantain,  crashed  and  applied  to  the 
wound,  are  a  very  good  substitute,  when  water  cannot  at 
onoe  be  procured.  Bevan  recommends  the  use  of  spirits  of 
hartshorn,  and  says  that,  in  cases  of  severe  stinging,  its 
tntttmal  use  is  also  beneficial.     In  very  serious  oases,  the 


ammonia  may  be  taken,  in  qnantittea  of  firom  ftf%  lo  twenfy 
drops, — ^for  an  adult,  less  for  a  diild, — in  hot  tea,  with  be»> 
efidal  results.  It  oanses  an  inor«Med  persplratioiit  and 
neutralizes  the  effects  of  the  poison.  (*K7oaimientair« 
Thirapeutiques,'*  Gubler,  Paris,  1874.) 

404.  It  may  be  some  comfort  to  norlcea  to  know  tlist 
the  poison  will  produce  less  and  less  efltel  apon  their 
Bystem.  Old  bee-keepers,  like  IDthridates,  appear  afanost 
to  thrlTc  upon  poison  itself.  When  we  first  became  inter- 
ested  in  bees,  a  sting  was  quite  a  formidable  thing,  the  pain 
being  often  Tery  intense,  and  the  wound  swelling  so  ss 
sometimes  to  obstruct  our  sight  At  present,  the  pain  is 
usually  slight,  and,  if  the  sting  is  quickly  extracted,  no 
unpleasant  consequences  ensue,  even  if  no  remedies  are 
used.  Huish  speaks  of  seeing  the  bald  head  of  Bcmner,  a 
celebrated  practical  Apiarist,  coTcred  with  stings,  which 
seemed  to  produce  upon  him  no  unpleasant  effects.  The 
BcT.  Mr.  Eleine  advises  beginners  to  allow  themselTCS  to 
be  stung  frequently,  assuring  them  that,  in  two  seasons, 
their  system  will  become  accustomed  to  the  poison  I 

An  old  English  Apiarist  advises  a  person  who  has  been 
stung,  to  catch  another  bee  as  speedily  as  possible,  and 
make  it  sting  on  the  same  spot.  Even  an  enthusiastic  dis- 
dple  of  Huber  might  hesitate  to  venture  on  such  a  aingnlfLT 
homoeopathic  remedy ;  but,  as  this  Apiarist  had  stated, 
what  we  had  verified  in  our  own  experience,  that  the  oftener 
a  person  is  stung  the  less  he  suffers  from  the  venom,  the 
writer  determined  to  make  trial  of  his  prescription.  Allow- 
ing a  sting  to  remain  until  it  had  discharged  all  of  its  poison, 
he  compelled  another  bee  to  insert  its  sting,  as  nearly  as  pos- 
sible, in  the  same  spot.  He  used  no  remedies  of  any  kind, 
and  had  the  satisfaction,  in  his  zeal  for  new  discoveries,  of 
suffering  more  from  the  pain  and  swelling  than  for  years 

That  the  bee-keeper  becomes  inoculated  with  the  poison 

BUM  AM  KZAim  Or  DSFKHBX.  205 

of  the  bee,  and  usuallj  becomes  proof  against  it,  is  no 
more  to  be  doubted  than  the  fact  that  yaccination  is  a 
preservatiTe  against  small-pox.  The  recent  discoyeries  of 
Pasteor,  for  the  core  of  hydrophobia,  are  another  oTidence 
ai  llie  efficiency  of  inoculation. 

Bbbs  as  Mbaks  or  Dbfsnss. 

40ft«  **A  smaU  corsair,  equipped  with  forty  or  fifty  men,  and 
haTlng  on  board  some  bees,  purposely  taken  from  a  neighboring 
island,  and  confined  in  earthen  hives  (3*75),  was  pursued  by  a 
Toridsh  galley.  As  the  latter  boarded  her,  the  sailors  threw  the 
hives  fh>m  the  masts  down  into  the  galley.  The  earthen  hives 
broke  into  fragments  and  the  bees  dispersed  all  over  the  boat. 
The  Turks  who  had  looked  on  the  small  corsair  with  contempt, 
as  an  easy  prey,  did  not  expect  so  singular  an  attack.  Finding 
themselves  defenseless  against  the  stings,  they  were  so  fright- 
ened, that  the  men  of  the  corsair,  who  had  provided  themselves 
with  masks  and  gloves,  took  possession  of  the  galley,  almost 
without  resistance." 

^«Amurat,  Emperor  of  Turkey,  having  besieged  Alba,  and 
made  a  breach  in  the  walls,  found  the  breach  defended  by  bees, 
whose  hives  had  been  brought  on  the  ruins.  The  Janissaries, 
the  bravest  militia  of  the  Ottoman  empire,  refused  to  clear  the 
obstacle.''— (Delia  Bocca,  17000 

206  NATURAL  swABMnva. 



400.  In  the  Spring,  as  soon  as  the  combs  of  ahiye, 
well  filled,  can  no  longer  accommodate  its  teeming  popula- 
tion, the  bees  prepare  for  emigration,  or  in  other  words,  for 
departing  ^ith  their  queen,  by  building  a  number  of  royal- 
cells  (104).  These  cells  are  begun  about  the  time  that 
the  drones  make  their  appearance  in  the  open  air ;  and  when 
the  young  queens  arrive  at  maturity,  the  males  are  usually 
very  numerous  (186). 

The  swarming  of  bees  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  sights 
in  the  whole  compass  of  rural  economy.  Although  those 
who  use  movable-comb  hives  prefer  the  artificial  multiplica- 
tion of  colonics,  it  being  more  profitable,  all  Apiarists 
delight  in  the  pleasing  excitement  of  natural  swarming. 

**  Up  mounts  the  chief,  and  to  the  cheated  eye 
Ten  thousand  shuttles  dart  along  the  sky; 
As  swift  through  aether  rise  the  rushing  swarms. 
Gay  dancing  to  the  beam  their  sun-bright  forms; 
And  each  thin  form,  still  lingering  on  the  sight, 
Trails,  as  it  shoots,  a  line  of  silver  light. 
High  poisM  on  buoyant  wing,  the  thoughtftil  queen. 
In  gaze  attentive,  views  the  varied  scene. 
And  soon  her  far-fetchM  ken  discerns  below 
The  light  laburnum  lift  her  pollshM  brow. 
Wave  her  green  leafy  ringlets  o'er  the  glade, 
And  sooin  to  beckon  to  her  friendly  shade. 
Swift  as  the  falcon's  sweep,  the  monarch  bends 
Her  flight  abrupt;  the  following  host  descends. 
Round  the  tine  twig,  like  clustered  grapes,  they  close 
In  thickening  wreaths,  and  court  a  short  repose.** 



OT.  Bees  sometimes  Kbandon  their  hives  very  early  in 
ing,  or  even  late  in  Summer  or  Fall  (264).  Although 
ibtting  the  i^tpemiaoce  of  natural  swarming,  tbey  leaye, 

e  the  popolation  is  bo  crowded  that  tbey  wish  to 
m  new  colonies,  but  because  it  is  either  so  small,  or  the 
*•  w  destitute  of  supplies,  that  tbey  are  driven  to  deeper- 


sdoa.  Seemmg  to  lunne  a  pie.jr,nUnigit  that  thej  nnisl 
perish  if  thej  ataj,  ingtead  of  siraitiiig  the  sore  approftdi 
of  fAmiae^  thej  saHj  oat  to  tee  if  tbej  cannot  better  thdr 
condition.     Sach  desertions  ahonld  not   be  mistaken  for 

natural  swarming. 

408.  The  time,  when  new  swarms  may  be  expected, 
depends,  of  coarse,  upon  the  dimate,  the  forwardness  of  the 
•eason,  and  the  strengtii  of  the  cc^onies.  In  oar  Northern 
and  Middle  States,  they  seldom  issae  before  the  latter  part 
of  May ;  and  Jane  may  there  be  considered  as  the  grest 
swarming  month.  In  BrownsTiUe,  Texas,  on  the  lower  Sio 
Grande,  bees  often  swarm  quite  early  in  March. 

Swarming  does  not  always  take  place  in  Spring,  although 
this  is  the  usual  time  for  it.  Swarms  are  likely  to  issue  in 
any  locality,  whenever  the  hive  is  crowded  for  room,  or 
nearly  so.  during  a  good  and  prolonged  honey-harvest.  In 
warm  latitudes,  it  lasts  for  several  months,  owing  to  a  con- 
tinuous flow  of  honey.  Wherever  there  are  two  distinct 
honey  crops  (705),  there  are  also  two  swarming  seasons, 
especially  along  the  low  lands  or  river  bottoms,  where 
Fall  pasturage  is  abundant.  Swarms,  hived  during  the  fore- 
part of  either  of  these  honey  seasons,  are  always  the  best; 
having  a  few  weeks  of  honey  crop  before  them,  they  have 
ample  time  to  build  comb  (198),  and  fill  it  with  honey  and 
brood ;  while  swarms  which  are  cast  during  the  latter  part 
>f  either  the  clover  or  the  Fall  harvest,  coming  as  they  do, 
Just  before  a  dearth  of  honey,  are  unable  to  build  comb  and 
raise  brood,  and  easily  perish,  if  left  to  themselves.  Thus, 
a  swarm  harvested  in  August,  in  this  latitude,  at  the  open- 
ing of  the  Fall  crop,  stands  better  chances  than  one  har- 
vested in  July,  at  the  close  of  the  clover  and  basswood 


FntST  OB  Prdcart  Swarm. 

409.  The  first  swarm  is  almost  inyariably  led  off  by  the 
old  queen,  unless  she  has  died  from  accident  or  disease, 
when  it  is  accompanied  by  one  of  the  young  ones  reared  to 
supply  her  loss.  There  are  no  signs  from  which  the  Apia- 
rist can  predict  the  certain  issue  of  a  first  swarm.  For 
years,  we  spent  much  time  in  the  vain  attempt  to  discover 
some  infoUlible  indications  of  first  swarming;  until  facts 
convinced  us  that  there  can  be  no  such  indications. 

41 0.  If  the  weather  is  unpleasant,  or  the  blossoms  yield 
an  insufficient  supply  of  honey,  bees  often  change  their 
minds,  and  refuse  to  swarm  at  all.  If,  in  the  swarming 
season,  but  few  bees  leave  a  strong  hive,  on  a  clear,  calm, 
and  warm  day,  when  other  colonies  are  busily  at  work,  we 
may  look  with  great  confidence  for  a  swarm,  unless  the 
weather  prove  suddenly  unfavorable. 

If  the  weather  is  very  sultry,  a  swarm  will  sometimes 
issue  as  early  as  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning ;  but  from 
ten,  A.  H.,  to  two,  p.  M.,  is  the  usual  time  ;  and  the  majority 
of  swarms  come  off  when  the  sun  is  within  an  hour  of  the 
meridian.  Occasionally,  a  swarm  ventures  out  as  late  as 
five,  p.  M. ;  but  an  old  queen  is  seldom  guilty  of  such  an 

411.  We  have  repeatedly  witnessed  in  our  observing- 
hiyes  (374)  the  whole  process  of  swarming.  On  the  day 
fixed  for  departure,  the  queen  is  very  restless,  and  instead 
of  depositing  her  eggs  in  the  cells,  roams  over  the  combs, 
and  communicates  her  agitation  to  the  whole  colony.  The 
emigrating  bees  usually  fill  themselves  with  honey,  just 
before  their  departure ;  but  in  one  instance,  we  saw  them 
lay  in  their  supplies  more  than  two  hours  before  they  left. 
A  short  time  before  the  swarm  rises,  a  few  bees  may  gener- 
ally be  seen  sporting  in  the  air,  with  their  heads  turned 


linrs  to  tts  Uv«;  md  tttj  oeeMfaMMllj  tyinand  Ml, 
M  thou^  JMiwiift  for  tibt  liwlMt  eieiil  to  take  fdaoa. 
At  Img^  a  TiolcBt  agitaUMi  eouMBCca  in  the  bire;  tfaa 
bcca  appear  afaaost  fraktieY  wMiliag  anNmd  in  drelea  ooa- 
ttanaJlf  cnlaigmg.  fike  dioae  Made  bj  a  stone  thrown  into 
atm  vafter,  vatO,  at  laat,  tiht  whole  Idre  ia  in  a  state  of  Um 
lAMUit.  and  the  hees^  nvhing  impetnooslj  to  tte 
poor  forth  in  one  ateadj  stream.  Notabeeloohi 
belund,  bot  caidi  poshes  strai^t  ahead,  as  though  flying 
*^ior  dear  life/*  or  ozged  on  bj  some  inTisiUe  power,  ia 
its  headlong  career- 

412.  Often»  the  qneen  does  not  come  ont  until  manj 
haTe  left ;  and  she  is  sometimes  so  hesTf ,  from  the  nombflr 
of  eggs  in  her  ovaries,  that  she  falls  to  the  ground,  inci^Mh 
ble  of  ri^ng  with  her  colony  into  the  air  (40).  The  beet 
soon  miss  her.  and  a  Terr  interesting  scene  may  now  be 
witnessed.  Diligent  search  is  at  once  made  for  their  lost 
mother ;  the  swarm  scattering  in  all  directions,  so  that  the 
leaves  of  the  adjoining  trees  and  bushes  are  often  covered 
almost  as  quickly  with  anxious  explorers,  as  with  drops  of 
rain  after  a  copious  shower.  If  she  cannot  be  found,  thej 
commonly  return  to  the  old  hive,  in  from  five  to  fifteen  min* 

413.  The  ringing  of  bells  and  beating  of  kettles  SQd 
frying-pans  to  cause  swarms  to  settle,  is  probably  not 
a  whit  more  efficacious,  than  the  hideous  noises  of  some 
savage  tribes,  who.  imagining  that  the  sun,  in  an  eclipse, 
has  been  swallowed  by  an  enormous  dragon,  resort  to  such 
means  to  compel  his  snakeship  to  disgorge  their  favorite 

Many  who  have  never  practiced  "  tanging,**  have  never 
had  a  swarm  leave  without  settling.  StiU,  as  one  of  the 
*^  country  sounds,"  and  as  a  relic  of  the  olden-times,  eveo 
the  most  matter-of-fact  bee-man  can  readily  excuse  the 
enthusiasm  of  that  pleasant  writer  in  the  Landam  Quarter^ 
BevieWf  who  discourses  as  follows  : 


^  Some  fine,  warm  morning  in  May  or  June,  the  whole  atmos- 
ere  seems  alive  with  thousands  of  bees,  whirling  and  buzzing, 
ming  and  repassing,  wheeling  about  in  rapid  circles,  like  a 
rap  of  maddened  bacchanals.  Out  runs  the  good  housewife, 
th  f5rying-pan  and  key — the  orthodox  instruments  for  nnging— 
1  neTer  ceases  her  rough  music,  till  the  bees  have  settled. 
is  custom,  as  old  as  the  birth  of  Jupiter,  is  one  of  the  most 
\mMlng  and  exciting  of  the  countryman's  life ;  and  there  is  an 
1  colored  print  of  bee-ringing  still  occasionally  met  with  on 
»  iralls  of  a  country-Inn,  that  has  charms  for  us,  and  makes  us 
ink  of  bright,  sunny  weather  in  the  dreariest  November  day. 
hether.  as  Aristotle  says,  it  affects  them  through  pleasure  or 
ir,  or  whether,  indeed,  they  hear  it  at  all,  is  still  as  uncertain  as 
at  philosopher  left  it ;  but  we  can  wish  no  better  luck  to  every 
e-master  that  neglects  the  tradition,  than  that  he  may  lose 
ery  swarm  for  which  he  omits  to  raise  this  time-honored  cou- 

^1^.  The  queen  sometimes  alights  first,  and  sometimes 
»:iis  the  cluster  after  it  has  begun  to  form.  The  bees  do 
[>t  usually  settle,  unless  she  is  with  them ;  and  when  they 
0,  and  then  disperse,  it  is  frequently  the  case  that,  after 
rst  rising  with  them,  she  has  fallen,  from  weakness,  into 
>me  spot  where  she  is  unnoticed  by  the  bees. 
Perceiving  a  hive  in  the  act  of  swarming,  the  writer  on 
wo  occasions,  contracted  the  entrance,  to  secure  the  queen 
hen  she  should  make  her  appeaiirance.  In  each  case,  at 
iast  one-third  of  the  bees  came  out  before  she  joined  them. 
iB  soon  as  the  swarm  ceased  searching  for  her,  and  were 
etnming  to  the  parent-hive,  he  placed  her,  with  her  wings 
lipped,  on  a  limb  of  a  small  evergreen  tree,  when  she 
rawled  to  the  very  top  of  the  limb,  as  if  for  the  express 
urpose  of  making  herself  as  conspicuous  as  possible.  The 
ew  t>ees,  that  first  noticed  her,  instead  of  alightin*^,  darted 
apidly  to  their  companions ;  in  a  few  seconds,  the  whole 
olonj  was  apprised  of  her  presence,  and  fiying  in  a  dense 
load,  began  quietly  to  cluster  around  her.  Bees,  when  on 
he  wing,  intercommunicate  with  such  surprising  rapidity, 
hat  telegraphic  signals  are  scarcely  more  instantaneous. 


^15.  Thftt  bees  iend  Mt  MPiili  to 
ftdmito  of  DO  sexloos  qnMtion  Swanas  ham 
directly  to  their  new  home.  In  aa  air-fiae  ffig^  fnaa  Al 
plflce  where  tliejr  clustered  alter  afig^itiag.  Nowttitfi^ 
tUion  of  flight  to  aa  nnkaown  home,  would  plainly  be  in* 
poarible,  if  some  of  their  number,  by  pievioaa  unilofsfina, 
were  not  competent  to  act  as  guides  to  tiie  leak.  The  sf^ 
of  bees  for  distant  ol^ects  is  so  wonderfolly  aeote,  Ihrti 
after  rising  to  a  sufficient  deration,  tliey  ean  aaSt  atlki 
distance  of  several  miles,  any  prominent  dtfaeia  ia  Iki 
▼idnity  of  their  intended  abode.    (18-14.) 

Whether  bees  send  oat  seoats  ft^^brt  or  afUr  snaiml^ 
may  admit  of  more  question,  bat  these  sconta  are  nsoil^ 
absent  for  an  hour  or  more,  after  the  alighting  of  the  swttn. 

It  is  probable  that  most  of  the  scouts  are  sent  daring  Ikl 
alighting ;  otherwise  how  could  they  know  where  the  swam 
alighted,  so  as  to  come  back  to  it? 

The  necessity  for  scouts  or  explorers  seems  to  be  an- 
questionable,  unless  we  admit  that  bees  have  the  facolty  of 
flying  in  an  ^^air  line^**  to  a  hollow  tree,  which  they  han 
never  seen,  and  which  may  be  the  only  one  among  thoa»> 
andH  where  they  can  find  a  suitable  abode. 

These  views  are  confirmed  by  the  repeated  instances  is 
which  a  few  bees  have  been  noticed  inquisitively  prjing 
into  a  hole  in  a  hollow  tree,  or  the  cornice  of  a  building,  and 
have,  before  long,  been  followed  by  a  whole  colony. 

About  fifty  yards  from  our  home  Apiary,  there  was  t 
largo  hollow  oak  tree,  which  we 'called  "The  Sqnirrd'i 
Oak,"  because  every  season  it  sheltered  a  family  of  these 
pretty  animals.  One  Summer  we  noticed  for  several  daji 
sonic  bees  flying,  in  and  out  of  a  hole,  in  one  of  its  largest 
limbs.  It  seemed  to  us  that  they  were  cleaning  the  hollow, 
and  we  supposed  that  a  swarm  had  taken  possession  of  it 
A  change  in  the  weather  having  taken  place,  the  swarming 
preparations  were  discontinued,  and  we  never  again  notioed 

afUaiABT  SWARM.  218 

bees  around  the  limb.  The  tree  was  cut  down  the  follow- 
Winter,  and  no  trace  of  comb  was  found  in  the  hollow. 
)roTed  conclusively,  that  the  bees  we  had  seen,  were 
its  in  search  of  a  lodging. 

:1C  The  swarm  sometimes  remains  until  the  next  day, 
sre  bees  have  clustered  in  leaving  the  hive,  and  instances 
not  unfrequent  of  a  more  protracted  delay. 
f  the  weather  is  hot  when  they  first  cluster,  and  the  sun 
les  directly  upon  them,  they  will  often  leave  before  they 
e  found  a  suitable  habitation.  Sometimes  the  queen  of 
^^ting  bees,  being  heavy  with  eggs,  and  unaccus- 
led  to  fly,  is  compelled  to  alight,  before  she  can  reach 
Ir  intended  home.  Queens,  under  such  circumstances, 
occasionally  unwilling  to  take  wing  again,  and  the  poor 
s  sometimes  attempt  to  lay  the  foundations  of  their  col- 
^  on  fence-rails,  hay-stacks,  or  other  unsuitable  places. 
ir.  Wagner  once  knew  a  swarm  of  bees  to  lodge  under 
lowermost  limb  of  an  isolated  oak-tree,  in  a  corn-field. 
iras  not  discovered  until  the  corn  was  harvested,  in  Sep- 
iber.  Those  who  found  it,  mistook  it  for  a  recent  swarm, 
I  in  brushing  it  down  to  hive  it,  broke  off  three  pieces  ot 
nb,  each  about  eight  inches  square.  Mr.  Henry  M.  Zol- 
coffer,  of  Philadelphia,  informed  us  that  be  knew  a  swarm 
■etUe  on  a  willow-tree  in  that  city,  in  a  lot  owned  by  the 
nnsylyania  Hospital;  it  remained  there  for  some  time, 
1  the  boys  pelted  it  with  stones,  to  get  possession  of  its 
nb  and  honey. 

[f  the  Apiary  is  located  in  the  woods,  and  the  bees  are 
3wed  to  swarm,  they  may  settle  on  high  trees,  and  the 
^-master,  unless  some  special  precautions  are  used,  will 
e  much  time  in  hiving  his  swarms. 

il7.  Having  noticed  that  swarming  bees  will  almost 
rays  alight  wherever  they  see  others  clustered,  we 
md  that  they  can  be  determined  to  some  selected  spot 
an  old  blmokhatfOreven  a  mullen-stalk,  which,  whencoU 


ored  black,  cmn  hsrdlj  oialied,  aft  m  dfatwumi,  tas 

a  dnateriiig  awarm.    A  1  woolan  atockiiig  or  piaet  cl 

doth,  iaatened  to  a  ahadj  lia  or  to  a  pole,  in  plida  rij^ 
of  the  hives,  and  where  the  ea  can  be  moat  convenfaBftl^ 
hiyed,  would  answer  aa  od  a  Hupoae.  Swarma  are  aol 
only  attracted  by  the  bee-uke  cokr  of  anch  ol^ecCa,  but  ait 
more  readily  induced  to  alight  upon  them,  if  they  fdniA 
fomething  to  which  they  can  eaaOy  ding,  the  better  to  sap* 
port  their  grape-like  cluatera. 

Still  better  than  the  above,  a  frame  of  dry  comb,  aa  darit 
as  possible,  will  often  attract  the  beea  and  caoae  tiiem  ta 
cluster.  None  of  these  devices  however  are  infdiible ;  heaet 
the  advisability  of  locating  an  Apiary  among  low  trees  or 
bushes,  or  in  an  orchard,  if  possible. 

When  no  trees  or  bushes  are  to  be  found,  and  no  settfing    1 
place  has  been  provided,  they  will  settle  wherever  the  queea 
may  happen  to  alight,  on  a  grape-vine,  on  weeds,  on  the 
ground,  on  the  corner  of  a  building,  etc. 

418.  It  will  inspire  the  inexperienced  Apiarist  with  mors 
confidence,  to  remember  that  almost  all  the  bees  in  a  swarm, 
are  in  a  very  peaceable  mood,  having  filled  themselves  with 
honey  before  leaving  the  parent-stock  (380).  Yet  then 
are,  in  nearly  every  swarm,  a  few  bees  that  have  dther 
joined  from  a  neighboring  hive,  or  have  not  filled  their 
honey-sack  completely  before  leaving.  These  beea  are  Habla 
to  get  SLurrry,  when  the  swarm  is  harvested.  So,  if  the  A|^ 
arist  is  timid,  or  suffers  severely  from  the  sting  of  a  bee,  hs 
should,  by  all  moans,  furnish  himself  with  the  protection  of 
a  bcc-drcss  (380).  The  use  of  a  amoker  (882),  ia  also 
advisable,  both  in  preventing  the  bees  from  stinging,  and  in 
helping  to  drive  them  into  the  hive;  but  itmuat  not  boused 
plentifully,  as  it  might  cause  the  bees  to  abacond,  or  to 
return  to  the  clustering  spot. 

419.  A  new  swarm  should  be  hived  a$  warn  OB  Uk€b6t»  ham 
quietly  clustered  around  their  queen;  atthongii  there  ia  ao 


necessity  for  the  headlong  haste  practiced  by  some,  which 
increases  their  liability  to  be  stung.  Those  who  show  so 
little  self-possession,  must  not  be  surprised,  if  they  are  stung 
by  the  bees  of  other  hives ;  which,  instead  of  being  gorged 
with  honey,  are  on  the  alert,  and  very  naturally  mistake  the 
object  of  such  excited  demonstrations.  The  fact  that  the 
bees  have  clustered,  makes  it  almost  certain,  that,  unless 
the  weather  is  very  hot,  or  they  are  exposed  to  the  burning 
heat  of  the  sun,  they  vrUl  not  leave. for  at  least  one  or  two 
hours.  All  convenient  dispatch,  however,  should  be  used  in 
hiving  a  swarm,  lest  the  scouts  have  time  to  return, — which 
will  entice  them  to  go,— -or  lest  other  colonies  issue,  and 
attempt  to  add  themselves  to  it. 

420.  Should  you  give  the  scouts  time  to  return,  you  would 
first  see  a  few  bees  flying  around  the  cluster.  Slowly  their 
number  would  increase,  till  the  whole  swarm  took  wing,  and 
it  would  be  almost  useless  to  try  to  stop  it,  or  to  follow  it. 
When  a  swarm  thus  takes  flight,  it  knows  no  bounds. 
Hedges,  fences,  woods,  walls,  ditches,  rivers,  are  barriers 
only  to  the  breathless  and  disappointed  owner.  The  only 
thing  that  we  ever  have  known  to  stop  a  departing  swarm 
is  throwing  water  among  them.  Flashing  the  sun's  rays  on 
them  by  the  use  of  a  looking-glass  is  advised  by  some.  We 
tried  it,  but  did  not  succeed  in  a  single  instance. 

421.  As  a  matter  of  course,  we  suppose  that  the  Apia- 
rist has  an  empty  hive  in  readiness,  clean  and  cool.  Bees, 
when  they  swarm,  being  unnaturally  heated,  often  refuse  to 
enter  hives  that  have  been  standing  in  the  sun,  or  at  best 
are  slow  in  taking  possession  of  them.  The  temperature  of 
the  parent-stock,  at  the  moment  of  swarming,  rises  very 
suddenly,  and  many  bees  are  often  so  drenched  with  per- 
spiration, that  they  cannot  take  wing  to  join  the  emigrating 
colony.  To  attempt  to  make  swarming  bees  enter  a  heated 
hive  in  a  blazing  sun,  is,  therefore,  as  irrational  as  it  would 
be  to  force  a  panting  crowd  of  human  beings  into  the  suflo' 

Aparr.  the  bccB  W71 

^  m^ftr  wmm  ^iMMd  im^B 

ao.  voold  have  b««a  oaodt  better  fcr  as  tlwa  tba  ftitil 
Kmo^Eseai :  bat  fortb^  nflMtkn  hi>  ■bown  oa  that, « 

ifce  L-untra.-j.  it  w>[J,i  hai*  b«e«  »  (mittal  soarca  of  dl»- 
pous  smoag  D<l^iibonaj;  bce-ksepen ;  and  that  in  thia,  ■ 
in  M  mvir  other  things,  the  instiBcts  of  tbe  boaey>bee  hirs 
b«ea  devised  «ich  ipet.'tal  reference  to  the  velfu*  of  man. 

-  The  bee-keepen  of  Greece  med  to  attnct  tlie  iwfcruM  lata 
tbeLr  hlTes  t>j  nhbi^g  the  eatranee  and  tbe  inilde  of  their  empty 
hlTti  «;£h  bees-wu  uid  propoU*.  Bat  neh  praetiee  vaa  ofles 
the  eAUit;  o!  cttawm  beivccn  neighbon,  fbr  their  bees  did  agt 
inquire  iS.iat  th*  owc^Khip  of  tbe  hire  Mlected."— (Delia  Bofr 
ea.  i:».) 

But  whea  a  few  combs  oolj  are  given  to  a  swsnn,  as  tbe 
queeo  will  oot  follow  the  builders  (SS9),  too  much  drone 
comb  (224)  will  be  built.  Then,  in  hiring  a  swans,  the 
Apiarist  had  better  dispense  with  giring  any,  anlcsi  he  fllli 
the  bite  (234). 

Drone-combs  (224)  thould  never  be  put  ttp  te  /nmei,  ot 
the  bees  may  follow  the  pattern,  and  bnild  eomb  suited* 
only  for  breeding  a  horde  of  useless  consnnwrs. 

423.  Frsmea  eontainiog  worker  combs,  from  ocdcmlM 
that  have  died  in  the  prerioos  Winter  ai«  Tsry  good,  if  the 
comb  is  dry  and  clean.      Combs  of  boasy  will  do  if  tfcs 


swarm  is  hived  on  a  propitious  day,  otherwise  they  will  at- 
tract robbers  (004)  and  the  presence  of  the  latter  will 
prevent  the  swarm  from  entering  the  hive.  For  this  reason, 
combs  containing  honey  should  not  be  given  to  the  swarm 
until  the  following  evening. 

424.  In  the  absence  of  combs  or  comb-foundation, 
(674)  the  triangular  comb-guide  will  greatly  help  to  se- 
cure straight  combs,  in  the  frames,  but  it  cannot  be  depend- 
ed upon,  in  every  case.  Comb-foundation  in  full  sheets  is 
■o  far  superior,  and  is  now  in  such  general  use,  that  the 
triangular  comb-guide  (319)  is  discarded  by  most  Apiarists. 
By  the  use  of  comb-foundation,  crooked  combs, — the  bane 
of  the  Apiary — are  no  longer  found,  and  every  comb  hangs 
in  its  frame,  as  straight  as  a  board. 

425.  It  has  been  held,  of  late,  by  some  writers,  that 
the  use  of  empty  combs,  or  comb-foundation,  was  detri- 
mental, in  hiving  natural  swarms,  because  the  bees  filled  the 
combs  given  them,  with  honey,  and  left  but  little  room  for 
the  queen  to  lay.  This  actually  takes  place  in  extraordi- 
nary seasons  and  locations,  but  in  the  greater  number  of 
instances,  the  empty  combs  help  the  colony  greatl},  and, 
in  bad  seasons,  a  hive-full  of  empty  combs,  furnished  to  a 
•warm,  is  equivalent  to  saving  it  from  starvation,  since  the 
combs  of  a  hive  cost  the  bees  almost  as  much  honey  as  is 
necessary  for  them  to  winter  on  (223).  Should  they  fill 
the  combs  nearly  full  of  honey,  this  honey  will  be  partly 
used  up  during  the  dearth  which  usually  comes  after  the 
honey  harvest,  and  will  serve  in  rearing  brood  to 
strengthen  the  hive  before  Winter.    Better  be  safe  than  sorry. 

426.  It  is  very  important  that  the  frames  should  hang 
true  in  the  hive,  and  at  the  proper  distance  apart  (31 0). 
If  the  hive  has  to  be  removed,  they  should  be  previously 
fastened  in  their  places,  by  the  use  of  small  wire  nails  only 
partly  driven,  and  removed  later.  The  cloth  (352)  and 
mat  (858)  should  be  carefully  placed  over  th«  frames,  or 


the  Bwaim  would  build  and  nte  brood  In  Vbm  Vippm  ifavy, 
Intended  onlj  for  rarplos  bonej. 

427.  Wben  tbe  biye  la  tlnii  preparad  and  placed  ia  t 
convenient  poaition,  the  entrance  ahonld  be  opened  aa  vidi 
aa  possible.    If  it  has  a  movable-bottoni-board,  itahonldbe 
raiaed  from  it  in  front  (844),  and  the  entranoe-blocka  is- 
aerted  onder  ita  edgea,  ao  aa  to  kanre  a  laiger  paaaage  for 
the  swarm,  that  thebeeamaygetlnajiaoon  aapoaaible;aBd 
a  weU-atretched  sheet,  or  ooarae  doth,  ahonld  be  aecorefy 
faatened  to  the  alighting-board,  to  keqp  them  from  beeon- 
ing  separated,  or  soiled  bj  dirt;  for,  If  aeparated,  they  aia 
a  long  time  in  entering ;  and  a  bee  ooreied  with  dnat  or 
dirt  is  yerjr  apt  to  perish.    Bees  are  mnch  obatmded  ia 
their  travel,  by  any  comer ^  or  great  inequality  of  anrface; 
and  if  the  sheet  is  not  smoothly  stretched,  they  are  often  so 
confused,  that  it  takes  them  a  long  time  to  find  the  entrance 
to  the  hive. 

428.  If  the  bees  have  alighted  on  a  small  limb,  which 
can  be  cut  with  sharp  pruning-shears,  without  jarring  the 
swarm,  or  damaging  the  value  of  the  tree,  they  may  be  gently 
carried  on  it  to  the  hiving-sheet,  in  front  of  their  new  home. 
If  they  seem  at  all  reluctant  to  enter  it,  gently  scoop  up  a 
few  of  them  with  a  large  spoon,  or  a  leafy  twig,  or 
even  with  the  fingers  (72),  and  shake  them  close  to  ita  en- 
trance. As  they  go  in  with  fanning  wings,  they  will  raise 
a  peculiar  note,  which  communicates  to  their  companioDS 
the  joyful  news  that  they  have  found  a  home ;  and  in  s 
short  time,  the  whole  swarm  will  enter,  without  injury  to  s 
single  bee. 

Wlien  bees  are  once  shaken  down  on  the  aheet,  they  are 
quite  unwilling  to  take  wing  again ;  for,  being  loaded  with 
honey,  they  desire,  like  heavily-armed '  troopa,  to  march 
alowly  and  sedately  to  their  place  of  encampment. 

429.  When  they  alight  on  a  high  limb,  which  cannot  be 
reached,  or  when  the  limb  is  too  valuable  to  be  aaorifioed, 

IBM.  219 

the  awann  can  be  hired  by  using  a  light  box  or  swann-aack, 

^at  the  end  of  a  pole  of  proper  length. 
Thin  Bwarm  sack  (fig.  87)  is  made  of 
atrong  musUn,  about  two  feet  deep, 
fastened  arouod  a  wire  hoop,  about 
one  foot  in  diameter,  and  is  similar 
to  a  butterfly  net.  A  piece  of  braid, 
Mf-  "•  is  sewed  at  the  bottom,  inside  and 

IWABM-4A0K.  outside,    to    help    in    emptying    it. 

Wben  the  sack  is  placed  under  the  swarm,  the  bees  are  sud- 
denly shaken  into  it  by  a  single  tap  on  the  limb.  Hold  the 
sack  firmly,  aa  the  sudden  weight  will  draw  it  down  in  a 
most  unexpected  manner.  To  prevent  the  bees  from 
escaping,  hold  the  handle  perpendicularly,  as  this  will  close 
the  opening  of  the  bag  instantly. 

430.  In  bringing  it  to  the  hive,  and  turning  it  inside 
out,  by  holding  the  braid  with  the  fingers,  some  care  must 
be  exercised,  as  this  unceremonious  imprisoning  of  the  bees 
is  apt  to  cause  some  to  be  angry.  A  little  smoke  (382) 
shoold  be  used,  or  a  few  seconds  should  be  allowed  to 
elapse  before  they  are  gently  liberated  in  front  of  the  liivo. 
481.  The  sack  Is  preferable  to  a  box  or  n  basket,  as  the 
latter  do  not  close  readily,  and  a  number  of  the  bees  arc 
^>t  to  fly  back  to  tfae  clustering  spot,  before  they  are  emp- 
tied in  front  of  their  intended  abode. 

If  ttiia  happens,  the  process  of  hiving  must  be  repeated, 
onless  the  queen  has  been  secured,  wbeu  tliey  will  quiukly 
form  a  line  of  commnuication  with  those  on  the  sheet.  If 
the  queen  has  not  been  secured,  the  bees  will  either  refuse 
to  enter  the  hive,  or  will  speedily  come  out"  and  take  win^, 

•  It  USmliUki  toiDppow  UiM  ■  awum  irUl  not  enter  s  hlrr  nnlcgs  ths 
^DMD  !■  wttbtbem.  If  MDia  iturt  for  it,  tbe  ollicn  wiU  spgedily  foUow,  aU 
MBUlnS  M  take  It  tOT  fnsnted  that  tht  qnccn  IB  lOTiK'irbcn!  unoagtbem. 
Btvi  aftsr  thvj  bBsln  to  diajwrfw  In  Bi^Arch  of  bpr»  tboy  may  often  be  Indnced 
tntaton,  by  pomlDK  out  a  rrtth  lot  of  bws.  which,  bj  Bntering  tbs  biie  iritli 
kiataf  WtBgi,  ta*aa  th*  otban  to  b«Ll>Ta  tbat  tbs  qneaa  ka  oomini  at  l«al. 


to  j<Hn  her  agmin*  This  hjippens  oftenest  with  ftfter-cwams, 
whose  Toang  qoeens.  instead  of  ezhihiting  the  grmii^  al  aa 
did  matron,  are  ^t  to  be  friskiiig  in  the  air. 

When  the  swsrm  is  dnstered  so  high  that  the  sack  can- 
not be  raised  to  it  on  a  pole,  it  may  be  carried  up  to  the 
closter,  and  the  bee-keeper,  after  shaking  the  bees  into  it, 
may  gently  lower  it,  by  a  string,  to  an  assistant  below. 

432.  When  a  colony  alights  on  the  tronk  of  a  tree,  or 
on  anything  from  which  the  bees  cannot  easily  be  gathered 
in  a  basket,  or  in  the  sack,  fasten  a  leafy  boogh,  or  a  comb 
over  them,  and  with  a  little  smoke,  compel  them  to  ascend 
it.  If  the  place  is  inaccessible,  they  will  enter  a  well-shad- 
ed basket,  inverted,  and  elevated  jnst  mbove  the  clustered 
mass.  We  once  hived  a  neighbor's  swarm,  which  settled 
in  a  thicket,  on  the  iDaccessible  body  of  a  tree,  by  throw- 
ing water  upon  the  bees,  so  as  to  compel  them  gradually 
to  ascend  the  tree,  and  enter  an  elevated  box.  If  proper 
alighting  places  are  not  furnished,  the  trouble  of  hiving  a 
swarm  will  often  be  greater  than  its  value. 

433.  If  the  swarm  is  noticed,  when  it  begins  to  issue 
from  the  parent  hive,  the  practical  bee-keeper  often  har- 
vests it  without  trouble,  by  catching  the  queen  (lOO). 
Provided  with  a  queen  cage  (530),  he  watches  for  her  exit, 
and  as  she  comes  out,  he  seizes  her  and  places  her  in  the 
cage.  He  then  removes  the  old  hive,  and  places  the  new 
one,  ready  f«>r  the  swarm,  on  its  stand,  with  the  caged 
queen  on  the  platform.  The  swarm  may  alight,  but  aa 
soon  as  the  bees  notice  their  loss,  they  will  return,  and  will 
cluster  around  her;  and  the  hiving  of  the  swarm  takes  but 
a  few  minutes.  In  a  circumstance  of  this  kind,  it  is  well  to 
return  the  parent  colony  to  its  stand,  after  the  swarm  is 
hived,  for,  if  entirely  removed,  it  would  lose  all  the  bees 
that  were  in  the  field,  when  the  swarm  left,  and  would  be 
too  much  weakened. 

434.  To  prevent  primary   swarms  from  escaping,  some 


bee-keepers  clip  one  of  the  wings  of  their  queens  previoo* 
to  the  swarming  season.* 

As  an  old  queen  leaves  the  hive  only  with  a  new  swarm 
the  loss  of  her  wings  in  no  way  interferes  with  her  usefulness 
or  the  attachment  of  the  bees.  If,  in  spite  of  her  inability 
to  fly,  she  is  bent  on  emigrating,  though  she  has  a  ^^will," 
she  can  find  '^no  way,"  but  helplessly  falls  to  the  ground, 
instead  of  gaily  mounting  into  the  air.  If  the  bees  find 
her,  they  cluster  around  her,  and  may  be  easily  secured  by 
the  Apiarist ;  if  she  is  not  found,  they  return  to  the  parent- 
stock,  to  await  the  maturity  of  the  young  queens. 

This  method  will  do,  provided  the  Apiary  ground  is  bare, 
so  that  the  queen  rims  no  risk  of  getting  lost  in  the  grass. 
We  abandoned  it,  after  having  tried  it,  for  several  years, 
but  we  know  of  some  owners  of  large  Apiaries  who  are  suc- 
cessful with  it.  We  notice  that  Mr.  Heddon,  in  his  inter- 
esting work,  ''Success  in  Bee-Culture,"  is  of  our  opimon 
on  this  subject. 

435.  Where  a  great  many  colonies  are  kept,  several 
swarms  may  issue  at  the  same  time,  and  unite  in  a  single 

If  two  swarms  cluster  together,  they  may  be  advanta- 
geonsly  kept  together,  if  abundant  room  for  storing  surplus 
honey  can  be  given  them.  Large  quantities  of  honey  are 
generally  obtained  from  such  colonies,  if  they  issue  early, 
ind  the  season  is  favorable. 

''  When  more  than  two  swarms  have  clustered  together,  it  is 
better  to  divide  them.  Let  us  suppose  that  three  have  united. 
After  putting  three  hives  near  each  other,  so  as  to  form  a  trian- 
gle, the  sack  (439)  or  box,  in  which  the  bees  have  been  captured, 


*  TixgU  apeAki  of  clipping  the  wings  of  qnecna,  to  preyent  them  from  escap- 
ing with  a  Bwarm.  Kr.  Langstroth  bad  doviRod  a  way  of  doing  this,  so  as  to 
dntgnate  the  age  of  the  gueenM.-^Wlih  a  pair  of  scineors,  let  the  wings,  on  one 
ddt,  of  a  young  queen  be  eazefnUy  cut  off:  when  the  hivea  are  examined  next 
year,  let  one  of  her  two  lenudnlng  winge  be  removed,  and  the  laat  one  the 


It  shaken  <m  a  eloih  Just  between  the  tlixee.  IfmoeloftliebeM 
seem  to  go  into  the  uune  hivei  this  ehoold  be  xemoTed  a  IltUi 
tether.  Great  care  ahonld  be  ezeroiaed  to  And  the  qneenii  and 
to  dinet  one  towards  eaeh  hive.  Bnttf  onljone  qiieenisiesB, 
it  la  better  to  eage  (a86)  her  tU  the  greater  ]Mrt  of  tiie  tesi 
have  entered.  Then^  as  soon  as  the  bees  of  one  of  the  hifsi 
show  signs  of  nneasiness*  and  seem  readjr  to  Join  the  bees  In  the 
others^  release  the  qneen,  and  direct  her  towards  this  qoeentosi 
hiTb  and  aU  will  be  weU.»— (Hamet,  «*0oiir8  d*Apfeiilta%** 
Paris,  1808.) 

486.  If  two  queens  haye  entered  the  same  hiro,  tfaqr 
can  often  be  found  on  its  bottom-board,  eadi  In  a  baU 
(588)  of  angry  bees,  strangers  to  them.  Open  the  ball, 
and  give  one  of  the  queens  to  the  queenlesahivei  if  the  bees 
have  not  already  deserted  it.  When  queens  haye  been 
*'  balled"  by  mixed  swarms,  it  is  well  to  keep  them  caged, 
in  the  hive,  for  a  few  hours,  or  till  the  beea  have  quieted. 
The  quantity  of  bees  in  each  hive  can  be  equalized,  by 
shaking  a  few  from  the  strongest  in  front  of  the  weakest 

487.  Dr.  Scadamore,  an  English  physician,  who  has 
written  a  tract  on  the  Formation  of  Artificial  Swarma, 
says  that  he  once  knew  as  '^many  as  ten  swarms  go  forth  at 
once,  and  settle  and  mingle  together,  forming,  literally,  a 
monster  meeting."  There  are  instances  recorded  of  a  atiQ 
larger  number  having  clustered  together.  A  venerable 
clergyman  in  Western  Massachusetts,  told  ua  that  in  the 
Apiary  of  one  of  his  parishioners,  five  swarma  once  clna- 
tered  together.  As  he  had  no  hive  which  would  hold  them, 
they  were  put  into  a  large  box,  roughly  nailed  together. 
When  taken  ap  in  the  Fall,  it  was  evident  that  the  five 
swarms  had  lived  together  as  independent  colonies.  Four 
had  begun  their  work,  each  near  a  comer  of  the  box,  and 
the  fifth  in  the  middle ;  and  there  was  a  distinct  interval 
separating  the  works  of  the  different  colonies.  In  Cot- 
ton's *'  My  Bee  Book,'*  is  a  cut  Illustrating  a  simflar 


ration  of  two  colonies  in  one  hive.  By  hiving,  in  a  large 
box,  swarms  which  have  settled  together,  and  leaving  them 
undisturbed  till  the  following  morning,  they  would  some- 
times be  found  in  separate  clusters,  and  might  easily  be  put 
into  different  hives. 

If  the  Apiarist  fears  that  another  swarm  will  issue,  to 
unite  with  the  one  he  is  hiving,  he  may  cover  the  latter  from 
the  sight  of  other  swarms,  with  a  sheet. 

438.  If,  while  hiving  a  swarm,  he  wishes  to  secure  the 
queen,  the  bees  should  be  shaken  from  the  hiving-basket,  a 
foot  or  more  from  the  hive,  when  a  quick  eye  will  generally 
see  her  as  she  passes  over  the  sheet.  If  the  bees  are  reluc- 
tant to  go  in,  a  few  must  be  directed  to  the  entrance,  and 
eare  be  taken  to  brush  them  back,  when  they  press  forward 
in  such  dense  masses  that  the  queen  is  likely  to  enter  unob- 
served. An  experienced  eye  readily  detects  her  peculiar 
color  and  form  (lOO). 

It  Is  interesting  to  witness  how  speedily  a  queen  passes- 
into  the  hive,  as  soon  as  she  recognizes  the  joyful  note  (76> 
announcing  that  her  colony  has  found  a  home.  She  quickly 
follows  in  the  direction  of  the  moving  mass,  and  her  long 
legs  enable  her  easily  to  outstrip,  in  the  race  for  possession, 
all  who  attempt  to  follow  her.  Other  bees  linger  around 
the  entrance,  or  fly  into  the  air,  or  collect  in  listless  knots 
on  the  sheet ;  but  a  fertile  mother,  with  an  air  of  conscious 
importance,  marches  straight  forward,  and  looking  neither 
to  the  right  hand  nor  to  the  left,  glides  into  the  hive  with* 
the  same  dispatchful  haste  that  characterizes  a  bee  retura> 
Ing  fnlly  laden  from  the  nectar- bearing  fields. 

4dO.  Swarms  sometimes  come  off  when  no  suitable  hives 
are  in  readiness  to  receive  them.  In  such  an  emergency, 
hive  them  in  any  old  box,  cask,  or  measure,  and  place 
them,  with  suitable  protection  against  the  sun,  where  their 
new  hive  la  to  stand ;  when  this  is  ready,  they  may,  by  a 
quick.  Jerking  motloni  be  easily  shaken  out  before  it,  on  a 

22i  ■▲TinuL  twAXMnm* 

Penomi  nnacc  et,  may  tbink  tliat  we  i|Mtk 

About  '*  scooping  I  up,*'  d  "ihaUiig  tfam  out," 
almost  as  cool j  as  tboi  dirocttons  to  uiessuis  ss 

many  bushels  of  w        ;  ience  will  aooo  ooofiiios 

them,  that  the  ease  wi  which  tl  ey  may  be  managed  (7S) 
is  not  at  all  exaggerated. 

^40.  Bees  which  swann  early  In  the  day  will  geaecallj 
begin  to  range  the  fields  in  afew  boors  after  they  are  Uied, 
or  even  in  a  few  minutes,  if  they  have  empty  comb;  and 
the  fewest  bees  will  be  lost  when  the  hiye  is  removed  to  ill 
permanent  stand,  as  soon  as  the  bees  haye  entered  it.  If  II 
is  desirable,  for  any  reason,  to  remoTC  the  hiTC  before  sU 
the  bees  have  gone  in,  the  sheet,  on  which  the  bees  are 
iying,  may  be  so  folded  that  the  colony  can  be  easilj 
carried  to  their  new  stand,  where  the  beeu  may  enter  at 
their  leisure. 

While  the  hive  shoald  be  set  so  as  to  incline  slightly  frc»n 
rear  to  front  (328),  to  shed  the  rain,  there  ought  not  to  be 
the  least  pitch  from  aide  to  side^  or  it  will  prevent  the  frames 
from  hanging  plumb,  and  compel  the  bees  to  build  crooked 

441.  If  several  rainy  days,  or  a  dearth  of  honey,  should 
•occur  immediately  after  the  hiving  of  bees,  it  is  well  to 
feed  (000)  them  a  little  to  keep  them  from  starving,  till 
there  is  honey  iu  the  blossoms. 

442.  The  Apiarist  has  already  been  informed  of  the 
importance  of  securing  straight  worker  combs  for  his  hives 
<318).  To  a  stock-hive,  such  combs  are  like  cash  capital 
to  a  business  man ;  and  so  long  as  they  are  fit  for  use,  they 
should  never  be  destroyed. 

Mr.  S.  Wagner  had  a  colony  over  21  years  old,  whose 
young  bees  ap])cared  to  be  as  large  as  any  others  in  his 
Apiary.  Mr.  J.  F.  Racine,  an  old  settler  of  Wallen,  Indi- 
ana, lost  a  colony  in  the  Winter  of  1884-5  which  he  had 
had  ever  since  1855,  witliout  changing  the  combe.  He  con- 
sidered it  one  of  the  best  in  his  Apiary. 


Those  who  have  plenty  of  good  worker-comb,  will  an 
questionably  find  it  to  their  advantage  to  user  it  in  the  place 
of  comb-foundation  (674)  or  artificial  guides.  Those  who 
use  the  guides  (319),  should  examine  a  swarm  two  or 
three  days  after  it  is  hived,  when,  by  a  little  management, 
any  irregularities  in  their  combs  may  be  easily  corrected. 
Some  combs  may  need  a  little  compression,  to  bring  them 
into  their  proper  positions,  and  others  may  even  require  to 
be  cut  oat,  and  fastened  as^  guides  in  other  frames ;  but  no 
pains  should  be  spared  to  see  that  they  are  all  right,  before 
the  work  has  gone  so  far  as  to  make  it  laborious  to  remedy 
any  defects.  If  a  swarm  is  small,  it  ought  to  be  confined,  by 
a  movable  partition  (349),  to  such  a  space  in  the  hive  as 
it  can  occupy  with  comb^-as  well  for  its  encouragement,  as 
to  economize  its  animal  heat.  Varro,  who  flourished  before 
the  Christian  Era,  says  (Liber  III,  Cap.  xviii),  that  bees 
become  dispirited,  when  placed  in  hives  that  are  too  large. 


443.  We  have  already  stated  (157)  that  queens  die  of 
old  age,  when  about  four  years  old.  If  the  preparations  for 
queen  rearing  (489)  are  begun  duriug  the  swarming  sea- 
son, from  this  cause,  or  by  her  death  through  accident,  or 
because  she  has  been  removed  by  the  Apiarist,  it  very 
often  happens  that  bees  prevent  the  first  hatched  queen 
from  destroying  her  rivals  (112),  an<l  the  result  is  that  a 
swarm  leaves  the  hive  with  her.  These  T>riinarv  swarms  with 
young  queens,  are  cast  as  unexpectedly,  and  may  be  as 
strong  as  those  that  are  accompanied  by  the  old  queen. 
They  have  that  in  common  with  secondary  swarms,  that 
they  behave  like  them,  both  in  their  exit  and  afterwards. 

t26  UMXVnAh  fWiJOODM. 

Sboohdjjkt  oe  Am»-Svr 

444.  Halving  described  the  method  ecmmooij  pnrmed 
for  hiying  a  new  swarm,  we  return  to  the  parent-colo^j  fram 
which  they  emigrated. 

From  the  immense  number  which  have  abandoned  it,  «t 
should  naturaUy  infer  tliat  it  must  be  nearly  depopulated.  To 
those  who  limited  the  fertility  of  flie  queen  to  four  hundred 
eggs  "a  day,  the  rapid  replenishing  of  a  hive,  after  swaim^ 
ihg,  must  haye  been  inexplicable ;  but  to  those  who  hait 
seen  her  lay  from  one  to  four  thousand  eggs  a  day,  it  is  M 
mystery  at  all  (40).  Enough  bees  remain  to  cany  on  the 
domestic  operations  of  the  Uve ;  and  as  the  old  queen  de» 
parts  only  when  there  is  a  teeming  population,  and  when 
thousands  of  young  are  daily  hatching,  and  tens  of  thou- 
sands rapidly  maturing,  the  hive,  in  a  short  time,  is  almost  as 
populous  as  it  was  before  swarming. 

Those  who  suppose  that  the  new  colony  consists  wholly 
of  young  bees,  forced  to  emigrate  by  the  older  ones,  if  they 
closely  examine  a  new  swarm,  will  find  that  while  some 
have  the  ragged  wings  of  age,  others  are  so  young  as  to  be 
barely  ahle  to  fly. 

After  the  tumult  of  swarming  is  over,  not  a  bee  that  did 
not  participate  in  it,  attempts  to  join  the  new  colony,  and 
not  one  that  did,  seeks  to  return.  What  determines  some 
to  go,  and  others  to  stay,  we  have  no  certain  means  of 
knowing.  How  wonderful  must  be  the  impression  made 
upon  an  insect,  to  cause  it  in  a  few  minutes  so  completely 
to  lose  its  strong  affection  for  the  old  home,  that  when 
established  in  a  hive  only  a  few  feet  distant,  it  pays  not  the 
slightest  attention  to  its  former  abode  I 

445.  It  has  already  been  stated  that,  if  the  weather  is 
favorable,  the  old  queen  usually  leaves  near  the  time  that 
the  young  queens  are  sealed  over  to  be  changed    into 


njmphs.  In  about  a  week,  one  of  them  hatches ;  and  the 
question  mnst  be  decided  whether  or  not,  any  more  colo- 
nies shall  be  formed  that  season.  If  the  hive  is  well  filled 
with  bees,  and  the  season  is  in  all  respects  promising,  it  is 
generally  decided  in  the  afiArmatiye ;  although,  under  such 
circumstances,  some  very  strong  colonies  refuse  to  swarm 
more  than  once. 

If  the  bees  of  the  parent-colony  decide  to  prevent  the  first 
hatched  queen  from  killing  the  others,  a  strong  guard  is 
kept  oyer  their  cells,  and  as  often  as  she  approaches  them 
with  murderous  intent,  she  is  bitten,  or  given  to  understaud 
by  other  most  uncourticr-like  demonstrations,  that  even  a 
queen  cannot,  in  all  things,  do  just  as  she  pleases. 

440.  About  a  week  after  first  swarming,  should  the 
Apiarist  place  his  ear  against  the  hive,  in  the  morning  or 
evening,  when  the  bees  are  still,  if  the  queens  are  ^^pipincr/' 
he  will  readily  recognize  their  peculiar  sounds  (115).  The 
young  queens  are  all  mature,  at  the  latest,  in  sixteen  days 
from  the  departure  of  the  first  swarm,  even  if  it  left  as 
soon  as  the  royal  cells  were  begun. 

The  second  swarm  usually  issues  on  the  first  or  second 
day  after  piping  is  heard ;  though  the  bees  sometimes  delay 
coming  out  until  the  fifth  day,  in  consequence  of  an  unfa- 
vorable state  of  the  weather.  Occasionally,  the  weather  is 
io  very  unfavorable,  that  they  permit  the  oldest  queen 
to  kill  the  others,  and  refuse  to  swarm  again.  This  is  a 
rare  occurrence,  as  young  queens  are  not  so  particular 
about  the  weather  as  old  ones,  and  sometimes  venture  out, 
not  merely  when  it  is  cloudy,  but  when  rain  is  falling.  On 
this  account,  if  a  very  close  watch  is  not  kept,  they  are 
often  lost.  As  piping  ordinarily  commences  abi^iit  a  week 
after  first-swarming,  the  second  swarm  usually  issues  eight 
or  nine  days  after  the  first ;  although  it  has  been  known  to 
issue  as  early  as  the  third,  and  as  late  as  the  seventeenth ; 
bat  inch  cases  are  very  rare. 


447.  It  frequently  happens,  in  the  agitation  of 
ing,  that  the  usual  guard  over  the  queen-cells  is  withdrawii 
and  several  hatch  at  the  same  time,  and  accompany  the  oot» 
ony ;  in  which  case  the  bees  often  alight  in  two  or  mon 
separate  clusters.  In  our  observing-hives,  we  have  repeit^ 
edly  seen  young  queens  thrust  out  their  tongues  from  i 
hole  in  their  cell,  to  be  fed  by  the  bees.  If  allowed  to  iasni 
at  wiU,  they  are  pale  and  weak,  like  other  young  bees,  and 
for  some  time  unable  to  fly ;  but  if  confined  the  usual  tint, 
they  come  forth  fully  colored,  and  ready  for  all  emergiea- 
cies.  We  have  seen  them  issue  in  this  state,  while  tkB 
excitement  caused  by  removing  the  combs  from  a  hlTe,  iMi 
driven  the  guard  from  their  cells. 

The  foUowiug  remarkable  instance  came  under  our  obeo^ 
vation,  iu  Matainoras,  Mexico :  A  second  swarm  deserting 
its  abode  the  second  day  after  being  hived,  settled  upon  • 
tree.  On  examining  the  abandoned  hive,  Jive  young  queeni 
were  found  lying  dead  on  its  bottom-board.  The  swann 
was  returned,  and,  the  next  morning,  two  more  dead  queeni 
were  found.  As  the  colony  afterwards  prospered,  eight 
queens,  at  least,  must  have  left  the  parent-colony  in  adngls 
swarm ! 

Young  queens,  whose  ovaries  are  not  burdened  with  eg^ 
are  much  quicker  on  the  wing  than  old  ones,  and  frequently 
fly  much  farther  fiom  the  parent-stock  before  they  alight 

44:7  {bis).  The  bee-keepers  of  old,  who  were  not  ac- 
quainted witli  the  habits  of  bees,  noticing  that  primary- 
swarms  were  ni(»re  populous  than  after-swarms,  used  to 
brimstone  (270)  the  old  colony  which  bad  swarmed,  and 
its  after-swtirin,  considering  the  first  swarm  as  the  best  of 
the  three;  but  this  apparent  superiority  was  often  of  short 
duration,  for  the  first  swarm  is  nearly  always  accompanied 
by  the  old  queen.  W»-  know  better  now,  since  we  consider 
the  age  of  the  queen  as  one  of  the  qualities  of  a  colony. 

448.  After-swarms  are  much  more  prone  to  abscond  or 


RTe,  after  biviDg,  than  primuy-swarms.  It  is  probably 
wing  to  the  fact  that  the  jonng  queen  has  to  go  out  for 
a  bridal  trip  (121),  and  the  bees  aometimeB  leave  with 
IT.  A  comb  of  unsealed  brood  (106)  given  them  will 
mally  prevent  this  (100).  An  abscooding  swarm  often 
KTes  without  settling. 

4t40-  After  the  departure  of  the  second  swarm,  the  oldest 
nudniiig  queen  leaves  her  cell ;  and  it  another  swaim  ia 
I  come  forth,  piping  will  still  be  beard ;  and  so  before  the 
■oe  of  each  swarm  after  the  flret.  It  will  sometimes  be 
■ard  tor  a  short  time  after  the  issue  of  the  second  swarm, 
reii  when  the  bees  do  not  intend  to  i^warm  again.  The  third 
■rami  usually  leaves  the  hive  on  the  second  or  tliird  dtiy 
fter  the  second  awann,  and  the  others,  at  intervals  of 
bout  a  day.  We  once  had  five  swarms  from  one  stock, 
■  lass  than  two  weeks.  In  warm  latitudes,  more  than 
wloe  this  number  of  awarma  have  been  known  to  issue,  in 
■M  seaBOo,  from  a  single  stock. 

After-swarma,  or  casts — these  names  are  given  to  alt 
iwarma  after  the  first — aerioualy  reduce  the  strength  of  the 
larent-stock ;  since  by  the  time  they  issue,  uenrly  all  the 
>rood  left  by  the  old  queen  has  hatched,  and  no  mor<'  o'lga 
laa  be  laid  until  all  awarming  is  over.  If,  after  swarming, 
he  weather  suddenly  becomes  chilly,  and  the  hive  is  thin, 
IT  the  Apiarist  continues  the  ventilation  which  was  needed 
Mily  for  a  crowded  colony,  the  remaining  bees  being  uiiublc 
io  maintain  the  requisite  heat,  great  numbers  of  the  brood 
■ay.  perish. 


400.  The   prevention  of  natural  swarming,  in  the  pres- 
entatateof  bee-keeping,  is  an  important  item,  for  several 

latf  Bee-keeping  has  bo  spread  in  the  last  levr  y«uft,  \^mX 


many  bee-keepers  are  poaseaaors  of  aa  many  coloniw  m 
tbey  desire  to  keep.  Host  Apiarists,  especi&lly  fanneis, 
keep  bees  only  for  tbe  honey,  and  as  it  ia  imposuble  to 
produce  both  an  increase  of  stock,  and  a  large  yield  of 
honey  in  average  seasons,  they  prefer  tbe  production  of 
honey  to  that  of  swarms. 

2nd,  Another  objectioD  to  natural  swarming  arises  from 
the  disheartening  fact,  that  bees  are  liable  to  swarm  lO 
often,  as  to  destroy  the  value  of  both  the  parent-stock, 
and  its  after-awarms.  EzperieDced  bee-keepera  obTiate 
this  difficulty,  by  making  one  good  colony  out  of  two  second 
swarms,  and  returning  to  the  parent-stock  all  swarma  after 
the  second,  and  even  this  if  the  season  is  far  adraiiced. 
Such  operations  often  consume  more  time  than  they  art 

3d,  The  bees  may  be  located  in  a  town,  near  a  pub- 
lic thoroughfare  where  people  pass  constantly,  and  acd- 
dcuts  may  take  place;  or  perhaps  near  the  woods  when 
the  sn' arm  would  cluster  on  such  high  Lmbs  that  it  would 
be  dillicult  or  impossible  to  hive  them. 

4lk.  It  ia  very  troublesome  to  have  to  watch  the  beea  (or 
weiks,  or  to  liave  them  swarm  at  unexp>ected  or  unwelconie 
liiiif>,  wIhu  the  family  is  away,  or  at  dinner,  or  while  th« 
onmr  is  engaged  wiih  his  business,  for  many  bee-keepen 
arc  also  lanyers,  doi-lors  or  merchants,  occupied  in  daily 
labors,  wliii'li  rci]iiire  a  dcnnite  part  of  their  time.  The  far- 
mer may  be  iiitorniptcd  in  the  business  of  hay-making,  by 
till'  iry  tliat  liis  lict's  arc  swarming;  and  by  the  time  he  bw 
liivcd  tlioiii,  |i(Tba|is  a  slion-cr  comes  up,  and  his  hay  Is  io- 
jiinil  mure  tliati  the  swarm  is  worlh.  Thus  the  keeping  ot 
a  few  bees,  inslcud  of  beiti|;r  a.  source  of  profit,  may  prov* 
an  e\]>(.'risivo  luxury;  while  in  a  large  Apiary,  tbe  embv- 
rassrnents  are  uftou  soriiiiisly  increased.  If,  after  a  succea- 
eion  of  ilays  unfavorable  for  swarming,  the  weather  becoma 
plea^aut,  it  often  happens  that  several  awanns  rise  at  once. 


uid  cloBter  together ;  and  not  anfreqnently,  id  the  ooise  and 
eonfoMOD,  other  swutdb  fly  otf,  and  are  lost.  We  have 
seen  the  bee-master,  under  such  circumstaucea,  so  perplexed 
and  exhausted  as  to  be  almost  ready  to  wish  he  had  never 
•een  a  bee. 

4fil.  Hr.  J.  F.  Bacine,  of  Wallen,  Allen  Co.,  Indiana, 
had  505  natural  awarma  from  165  colonies  in  the  summer  of 
1883.  Sixtj-one  swarms  came  out  on  the  3d  of  July.  We 
will  let  him  tell  the  story  in  his  own  way : 

"  In  tbe  morning,  as  soon  as  the  watchword  had  been  given  for 
the  first  swann,  there  was  no  rest.  Primary,  eecoodary,  and 
aTter-Bwarms,  all  passed  under  the  same  limb  of  the  same  tree. 
The  bees  were  no  Moner  shaken  In  a  basket,  and  emptied  In  front 
of  a  hive,  than  there  was  another  closter  gathered,  In  the  same 
•pot.  Some  swarms  had  no  queen,  while  others  had  3,  4,  and 
even  S  of  them.  Some  were  young  queens,  some  were  old  queens. 
When  we  could  find  a  queen,  we  caged  her  (336)  to  preserve 
her  from  being  balled  (SSS).  The  sixtj-one  swarms  were  hived 
In  30  hlve«,  and  surplus  cases  were  given  them  at  oni:e.  A  man, 
who  had  come  with  6  htves  to  buy  swarms,  said  that  be  had 
■ever  teen  the  like,  neither  had  I,  althoagh  I  have  kept  bees  for 
S7  years.  And  the  best  of  It  Is,  I  did  not  want  any  swarma  at 
all  that  season. " 

402.  5th.  It  ii  admitted,  by  all  progressive  people,  that 
m*n  can  achieve  a  great  deal  by  artificial  selection  and  cul- 
tivation of  plants  and  animals.  The  same  3el(;ctign  id  ad- 
visable in  tbe  reproduction  of  the  honey-bee,  and  an  increase 
from  selected  colonies  or  selected  races,  cannot  always  be 
had  by  natural  swarming.  In  thiei.  artincial  swarniitig  is 
much  better,  and  gives  much  more  satisfactory  results  wlien 
ever  an  increase  is  desirable. 

453.  6(A.  Tbe  numerous  swarma  lost  every  year,  is  a 
strong  argument  against  natural  swarming. 

An  eminent  Apiarist  has  estimated,  lliat.  taking  into  ac- 
uouDt  all  who  keep  Isees,  one-fourth  of  tlie  best  swarms  ore 
lost  every  season.  While  some  bee-keepers  seldom  lose  a 
swarm,  the  majority  suffer  serious  losses  by  Maa  ft\it^V  q\ 

S8S  wixoMAL  nrAamm.  I 

tlwir  bees  to  the  iroods ;  mod  It  It  nazt  to  ibqtOMible,  itu 
for  the  moat  OKrefal,  to  pnrrent  ■ooh  oAottmnces,  if  thtii 
bees  are  ftUowed  to  swarm. 

Apiarists  will  then  reoognixe  that  it  Is  Teiy  imporiMit  to 
toDow  a  method,  which  will  nearljr,  It  not  altogether,  pra- 
Tent  Datnral  Bwarming.  Bnt  In  order  to  prevent  it,  «• 
must  know  the  oansea  of  it. 

454.  Natural  swanning,  so  far,  has  been  oontf dered  as  a 
Dfttural  ImpaUe  In  bees.  Tet,  It  oaa  be  prevented,  for  tt  ii 
always  oaused  by  oncasineBS,  as  we  will  show  la  the  aeit 
paragraph,  or  by  an  abnormal  conditim  of  the  oohmy  {40ff)- 
It  is  caused ; 

Ist.  In  the  majority  of  instances,  by  the  want  of  room  la 
the  comb.  By  want  of  room,  we  do  not  mean  want  ol 
empty  space  in  the  hive,  but  want  of  empty  comb  for  the 
queen  to  deposit  her  eggs  (97),  or  for  the  workers  to  de- 
posit their  honey.  So  long  as  bees  hare  an  abundance  of 
empty  space  below  their  main  hive,  they  very  seldom  swam ; 
but  if  it  is  on  the  sides  of  their  hive,  or  above  them,  they 
often  swarm  rather  than  take  possession  of  it. 

This  happens,  not  only  in  the  Southern  latitudes,  whers 
the  swarming  instinct  is  so  powerful,  bnt  even  in  onr  Nortit- 
ern  or  Middle  States.  This  fact  is  corroborated  by  Sim- 
mius,  whose  non-swarming  system  is  based  on  the  idea  of 
keeping  "  open  space  and  unfinished  combs  at  the  front,  w 
adjoining  the  entrance."  (Bottingdean,  England,  1886.) 
Persons  wLo  are  uoacquaioted  with  the  det^Is  of  bee-keep- 
ing have  no  idua  how  suddenly  the  honey  harvest  comes, 
and  bow  rapidly  the  combs  can  be  filled,  when  it  once  be- 
gins. Strong  colonies  which  were  almost  destitute,  Just  at 
the  opening  of  the  crop,  owing  to  the  Urge  amoont  of  brood 
they  were  raising,  have  been  known  to  harvest  twenty 
pounds,  and  more,  in  one  day.  When  bees  are  thus  gath- 
ering large  quantities  of  honey,  and  the  combs  are  beoom- 
Ing  crowded,  so  that  the  cells,  from  which  the  young  bees 


hatch,  are  filled  with  honey  as  fast  as  they  are  vacated,  they 
feel  the  necessity  of  emigrating,  especially  as  the  constant 
hatching  workers  add  daily  to  their  large  population.  The 
building  of  additional  combs,  by  a  part  of  the  bees,  is  some- 
times insufficient  to  keep  them  from  making  preparations 
for  swarming,  as  it  does  not  give  employment  to  all.  The 
reader  must  remember  that  in  a  good  colony,  at  this  season, 
there  are  between  60,000  and  120,000  bees,  according  to 
the  laying  capacity  of  the  queen  and  the  size  of*  the  breed- 
ing room.  There  is  also  an  additional  increase  over  mor- 
tality of  perhaps  2,000  bees  daily.  In  spite  of  the  admira- 
ble order  of  these  wonderful  little  insects,  there  cannot  help 
be  more  or  less  crowding,  unless  there  is  ample  room  in  the 

455.  If  some  of  the  bees  decide  that  they  are  too 
crowded,  queen-cells  are  raised  (104)  and  the  colony  gets 
what  Apiarists  call  the  *'  swarming  fever,**  It  is  a  very  ap- 
propriate name  indeed,  since  the  so-called  fever  is  cured 
only  by  swarming.  In  some  extraordinary  seasons,  after 
this  **  swarming  fever"  has  taken  possession  of  their  little 
brains,  no  amount  of  room  given,  even  by  dividing  (470) 
wiD  prevent  them  from  executing  their  purpose,  unless  the 
weather  and  the  honey  crop  become  unfavorable.  We  have 
repeatedly,  in  such  seasons,  divided  a  colony  into  several 
nuclei  (520)  without  avail,  each  nucleus  swarming  in  spite 
of  its  weakness. 

456.  2d.  The  heat  of  the  Summer  sun,  which  alone  would 
not  cause  them  to  swarm,  hastens  their  preparations,  when 
the  bees  are  disposed  to  emigrate. 

457.  3d.  The  hatching  of  a  great  number  of  drones 
(189)— due  to  an  excess  of  drone-comb  (224)  in  the  brood 
chamber,  in  which  the  queen  has  deposited  Qgg'i^ — is  also 
an  incitation  to  the  '^  swarming  fever."  These  big,  burly, 
noisy  fellows  help  to  make  the  already  crowded  comb  quite 
uncomfortable.    This  is  why  a  great  many  bee-keepers  of 




460.  Every  practical  bee-keeper  la  aware  of  the  lllloe^ 
tainty  of  natural  awarming  (406).  Under  no  dronmataB* 
cea,  can  it  be  confidently  relied  on.  While  aome  ooloniaa 
swarm  repeatedly,  othera,  apparently  aa  atrongin  nombeia, 
and  rich  in  stores,  refuse  to  swarm,  even  in  aeaaona  in  aU 
respects  highly  propitious.  Such  colonies,  on  examination, 
will  often  be  found  to  have  taken  no  steps  for  raiaing  young 
queens.  Besides,  it  frequently  happens  that,  when  aU  the 
preparations  have  been  made  for  swarming,  the  weather 
proves  so  inclement  that  the  young  queens  approach 
maturity  before  the  old  ones  can  leave,  and  are  all  destroyed. 
Under  such  circumstances,  swarming,  for  that  season,  is 
almost  certain  to  be  prevented.  The  young  queens  are  also 
sometimes  destro3*ed,  because  of  some  sudden,  and  perhaps 
only  temporary,  suspension  of  the  honey-harvest ;  for  bees 
seldom  colonize,  even  if  all  their  preparations  are  completed, 
unless  the  blossoms  are  yielding  an  abundant  aupply  of 

The  numerous  perplexities  pertaining  to  natural  swarm* 
ing,  have,  for  ages,  directed  the  attention  of  cultivatora  to 
the  importance  of  devising  some  more  reliable  method  for 
increasing  the  number  of  their  colonies. 

Dr.  Scudamore  quotes  Columella  as  giving  directions  for 
making  artificial  swarms.  Although  he  taught  how  to  fur- 
nish a  queen  to  a  destitute  colony,  and  how  to  transfer 
brood-comb,  with  maturing  bees,  from  a  strong  atock  to  a 
weak  one,  he  does  not  appear  to  have  formed  entirely  new 
colonies  by  any  artificial  process.    His  treatiae  <m  bee-keep- 


iDg  shows  not  only  that  he  was  well  acquainted  with  previ- 
ous writers  on  the  subject,  but  that  he  was  also  a  successful 
practical  Apiarist.  Its  precepts,  with  but  few  exceptions, 
are  truly  admirable,  and  prove  that  in  his  time  bee-keep- 
ing, with  the  masses,  must  have  been  far  in  advance  of  what 
it  was  fifty  years  ago. 

We  have  spoken  of  the  bar-hive,  (282)  as  at  least 
two  hundred  years  old.  From  **  A  Journey  into  Greece,  by 
George  Wheeler,  Esq.,"  made  in  1675-6,  it  appears  that  it 
was,  at  that  time,  in  common  use  there,  and,  probably, 
even  then  an  old  invention;  he  described  its  uses  in 
forming  artificial  swarms,  and  removing  spare  honey.  As 
the  new  swarms  were  made  by  dividing  the  combs  between 
two  hives,  and  no  mention  is  made  of  giving  the  queenless 
one  a  royal  cell,  those  old  observers  were  probably  acquain- 
ted with  the  fact  that  they  could  rear  one  from  the  worker- 
brood.  Huber  says : — **  Monticelli,  a  Neapolitan  Professor, 
claims  that  the  plan  of  artificial  swarming  was  borrowed 
from  Favignana,  and  that  the  practice  is  so  ancient  that 
even  the  Latin  names  are  preserved  by  the  inhabitants  in 
their  procedure." 

470.  Huber,  after  his  splendid  discoveries  in  the  physi- 
ology of  the  bee,  felt  the  need  of  some  way  of  multiplying 
colonies,  more  reliable  than  that  of  natural  swarming.  lie 
recommends  forming  artificial  swarms,  by  dividing  one  of. 
the  hives,  and  adding  six  empty  frames  to  each  half. 

*'  Dividing-hives,"  (278-279)  of  various  kinds,  have 
been  ased  in  this  country.  The  principle  seems  to  have  all 
the  elements  of  success;  but  it  was  ascertained,  that,  how- 
ever  modified,  such  hives  are  all  practically  worthless  for 
purposes  of  artificial  increase. 

It  is  one  of  the  laws  of  the  hive,  that  bees  which  have  na 
mature  queeriy  seldom  build  any  cells  except  such  a^  are  de- 
Btgned  merely  for  storing  honey ,  and  are  too  large  for  the 
rearing  of  workers  (228). 


471.  Messrs.  Langstroth  and  Dzierzon  were  the  first  ob- 
servers who  had  noticed  the  bearing  of  this  remarkable  fact 
on  artificial  increase.  It  may,  at  first,  seem  unaccountable 
that  bees  should  build  only  comb  unfit  for  breeding,  when 
their  young  queen  will  so  soon  require  worker-cells  for  her 
^gg^ ;  hut  it  must  be  borne  in  mind,  that  at  such  times  thej 
are  in  an  ^^  abnormal"  condition.  In  a  state  of  nature, 
they  seldom  swarm  until  their  hive  is  full  of  comb ;  or  11 
they  do,  their  numbers  are  so  reduced,  that  they  are  rarely 
able  to  resume  comb-building,  until  the  young  queen  has 

The  determination  of  bees  having  no  mature  queen,  to 
build  comb  designed  only  for  storing  honey,  and  unfit  for 
rearing  workers,  shows  very  clearly  the  folly  of  attempting 
to  multiply  colonies  by  dividing-hives,  unless  the  greater 
part  of  the  bees  are  given  to  the  queen,  and  the  greater  part 
of  the  combs  to  the  queenless  half. 

When  the  queenless  part  proceeds  to  supply  her  loss,  if  it 
has  bees  enough  to  build  new  comb,  it  will  build  such  as  is 
designed  onl}^  for  storing  honey.  The  next  year,  if  this 
hive  is  divided,  one-half  will  contain  nearly  all  the  brood, 
while  the  other,  having  most  of  its  combs  fit  only  for  ftoriDg 
henry,  or  raising  drones,  will  be  a  complete  failure. 

So  uniformly  do  bees  with  an  unhatched  queen  build 
coarse,  or  drone-comb,  that  often  a  glance  at  the  combs  of 
a  new  colony,  will  show  either  that  it  is  queenless,  or  that, 
having  been  so,  it  has  just  reared  a  new  queen  (229). 

472.  Some  Apiarists  have  attempted  to  multiply  their 
colonies,  by  removing,  when  thousands  of  its  inmates  are 
ranging  the  fields,  a  strong  stock  to  a  new  stand,  and  setting 
in  its  place  an  empty  hive,  with  a  frame  of  brood-comb,  suit- 
able for  raising  a  queen.  This  method  is  still  worse  than 
the  one  just  described.  One  half  of  the  dividing-hive  was 
filled  with  breeding  comb,  while  this  empty  hive  having  next 
to  none,  all  that  is  built  before  the  queen  hatches,   will  be 

THOMAS  W.  COWAN.  F.  G.  S     F    R    M    S 

Tbi*  writer  1*  m 


'  a  size  unsoitable  for  rearing  workers.  The  queenless 
ut  of  the  divided  hive  might  also  have  contained  a  young 
leen  almost  mature,  so  that  the  building  of  large  combs 
OJild  have  quickly  ceased ;  for  it  is  not  always  necessary  that 
queen  should  have  commenced  laying  eggs  to  induce  her 
Jcmy  to  build  worker-cells  ;  we  have  known  a  strong  swarm 
ith  a  virgin  queen,  to  build  beautiful  worker-comb,  before 
single  egg  was  deposited  in  the  cells. 
When  a  new  colony  is  formed  by  dividing  the  old  hive, 
16  queenless  part  has  thousands  of  cells  filled  with  brood 
id  eggs,  and  young  bees  will  be  hatching  for  at  least  three 
eeks  :  by  this  time,  the  young  queen  will  ordinarily  be 
kying  eggs,  so  that  there  will  be  an  interval  of  not  more 
lan  three  weeks,  during  which  the  colony  will  receive  no 
ccessions.  But  when  a  new  swarm  is  formed,  in  the  way 
bove  described,  not  an  egg  will  be  laid  for  nearly  three 
^eeks,  and  not  a  bee  hatched  for  nearly  six.  During  all 
tils  time,  the  colony  will  rapidly  decrease,*  and  by  the  time 
he  progeny  of  the  young  queen  begins  to  mature,  the  new 
ive  will  have  so  few  bees,  that  it  would  seldom  be  of  any 
alue,  even  if  its  combs  were  of  the  best  construction  ( 1 82. ) 

473.  One  strong  forced  swarm,  can  be  obtained  in  any 
tyle  of  hive,  including  box-hives,  by  the  driving  process 
574  to  577)  as  follows  :  When  it  is  time  to  form  artifi- 
!ial  colonies,  we  mean  a  few  days  before  swarming  time,  or 
m  soon  as  the  hives  are  about  full  of  bees, — drum  a  strong 
tock — which  call  A — so  as  to  secure  all  its  bees. 

They  may  be  driven  either  into  a  forcing  box,  or  into  the 
ipper  story  of  a  movable  frame  hive,  and  hived  like  a  new 
(warm,  when,  if  placed  on  their  old  stand,  they  will  work  as 
igorously  as  a  natural  swarm.    If  they  were  driven,  at  lirst, 

•Erery  obserring  bee-keeper  has  noticed  how  rapidly  even  a  large  Bwarm 
Umtniahea  io  Diimber,  for  the  first  three  weeks  after  it  has  been  hived.  So 
jPBSt  U  the  mortality  of  beea  daring  the  height  of  the  working-season,  thai 
ilUn,  in  leas  than  that  tlxna.  It  does  not  contain  one  half  its  otginal  number. 



into  a  hive  which  will  suit  the  Apiarist,  it  may  be   returned 
to  their  old  location,  without  disturbing  the  bees. 

If  any  bees  are  abroad  when  this  is  done,  they  will  join 
this  new  colony.  Remove  to  a  new  stand  in  the  Apiary  a 
second  strong  stock — ^which  call  B — and  put  A  in  its  place. 

Thousands  of  the  bees  that  belong  to  JB,  as  they  return 
from  the  fields,  will  enter  Ay  which  thus  secures  enough  to 
develop  the  brood,  and  rear  a  new  queen.  In  fact,  this 
colony  often  becomes  so  strong,  by  the  help  of  the  field 
workers  of  B,  as  well  as  through  its  own  constantly  hatching 
bees,  that  there  is  some  danger  of  its  casting  off  a  swarm 
when  the  first  young  queen  hatches,  unless  again  divided  at 
that  time. 

474.  It  is  quite  amusing  to  observe  the  actions  of  the 
bees  that  return  to  their  old  stand,  when  their  homes  have 
been  exchanged  as  above. 

If  the  strange  hive  is  like  their  own  in  size  and  outward 
appearance,  they  go  in  as  though  all  was  right,  but  soon 
rush  out  in  violent  agitation,  imagining  that  by  some  unac- 
countable mistake,  they  have  entered  the  wrong  place. 
Taking  wing  to  correct  their  blunder,  they  find,  to  their 
increasiui^  surprise,  that  the}'  had  directed  their  flight  to  the 
proper  spot  ;  again  they  enter,  and  again  they  tumble  out,  in 
bewildered  crowds,  until  at  length,  if  they  find  a  queen  or 
the  means  of  raising  one,  they  make  up  their  minds  that  if 
the  strange  hive  is  not  home,  it  looks  Uke  it,  stands  where  it 
oujjht  to  be,  and  is,  at  all  events,  the  only  home  they  are 
likely  to  get.  No  doubt  they  often  feel  that  a  very  hard 
bargain  has  been  imposed  upon  them,  but  they  are  generally 
wise  enous^h  to  make  the  best  of  it.  They  will  be  altogether 
too  much  disconcerted  to  quarrel  with  any  bees  that  were 
left  in  the  hive  when  it  was  forced,  and  these  on  their  part 
give  them  a  welcome  reception,  especially  if  they  come  io 
with  a  heavy  load. 

This  method  of  artificial  swarming  will  not  weaken  either 


le  mother-colonies.  If  B  had  been  first  forced,  and 
removed,  it  would  have  been  seriously  injured  ;  but  as 
tes  fewer  bees  than  if  it  had  swarmed,  and  retains  its 
1,  it  will  soon  become  almost  as  powerful  as  before  it 

e  Apiarist,  by  treating  a  natural  swarm  as  he  has  been 
ted  to  treat  a  forced  one,  can  secure  an  increase  of  one 
y  from  two  ;  and  of  all  the  methods  of  conducting  nat- 
iwarming,  in  regions  where  rapid  increase  is  not  prof!- 
,  this  is  the  best,  provided  the  colonies  do  not  stand  too 
together,  and  the  hives  used  in  the  process  are  some- 
similar  in  shape  and  color. 

r5.  Whenever  the  bee-keeper  learns  how  to  handle 
lovable-frames  safely  he  must  dispense  with  the  forcing- 
and  make  his  swarms  by  lifting  out  the  frames  from  the 
it-stock,  and  shaking  the  bees  from  them,  by  a  quick 
ig  motion,  upon  a  sheet,  directly  in  front  of  the  new 

the  hive  contains  much  fresh  honey,  which  is  usually 
thin,  the  bees  must  be  brushed  off,  for  shaking  them 
oald  also  shake  out  a  large  amount  of  nectar  (240). 
soon  as  a  comb  is  deprived  of  its  bees,  it  should  be 
ned  to  the  parent-stock.  If  one  or  two  combs  contain- 
rood,  eggs,  and  stores,  are  given  to  the  forced  swarm, 

I  be  much  encouraged,  and  will  need  no  feeding  (005) 
e  weather  should  be  unfavorable.  In  removing  the 
»,  the  bee-keeper  should  look  for  the  queen,  and' give 
omb  she  is  on,  to  the  forced  swarm,  without  shak- 
>ff   the  bees.     If  he   does  not  see  her  on    the  combs, 

II  seldom  after  a  little  practice,  fail  to  notice  her,  as 
i  shaken  on  the  sheet,  and  crawls  towards  the  new  hive. 
lueen  is  seldom  left  on  a  frame  after  it  has  been  shaken 
ftt  most  of  the  bees  fall  off  (439). 

6.  The  more  combs  with  brood  are  taken  from  A,  the 
hance  it  will  have  to  send  forth  a  natural  swarm  with 
■t  batched  queen. 


'  If  it  is  desirable  to  make  a  large  number  of  swanns,  and 
the  parent  colony  is  strong  in  hatching  bees,  only  a  few  ol 
the  combs  need  be  shaken  in  front  of  the  new  hive  conUiih 
ing  the  queen,  and  the  parent  colony,  with  the  adhering 
young  bees,  may  be  set  in  a  new  place. 

By  this  method,  one  swarm  is  made  from  each  of  the 
hives  set  apart  for  increase,  and  although  the  coloniei 
thus  divided  are  not  so  strong  as  when  one  swarm  is  made 
from  two  hives;  yet,  in  ordinary  localities  and  seasons, 
they  become  strong  enough  for  all  purposes,  long  before 
the  season  is  over,  especially  if  young  queens  are  introdaced 
(533)  in  the  colonies  made  queenless,  and  comb-foundjk 
tion  is  used  in  full  sheets  in  the  frames  (674:). 

477.  If  the  mother-colony  has  not  been  supplied  withi 
fertile  queen,  it  cannot  for  a  long  time  part  with  another 
swarm,  without  being  seriously  weakened. 

Secoud-swarming,  as  is  well  known,  often  very  much  in- 
jures the  parent-stock,  although  its  queens  are  rapidly  m»- 
luring;  but  the  forced  mother-stock  may  have  to  start  them 
almost  from  the  Qgg.  By  giving  it  a  fertile  (533)  queen, 
and  retaining  enough  adhering  bees  to  develop  the  brood, 
another  swarm  may  be  taken  away  in  ten  or  twelve  days  in 
a  good  season,  and  the  mother-stock  left  in  a  far  better  con- 
dition than  if  it  had  parted  with  two  natural  swarms.  In 
favorable  seasons  and  localities,  this  process  may  be  re- 
peated two  or  three  times,  at  intervals  of  ten  days,  and  if 
no  combs  arc  removed,  the  mother-stock  will  still  be  well 
supplied  with  brood  and  mature  bees.  Indeed,  the  judi- 
cious removal  of  bees,  at  proper*  intervals,  often  leaves  it, 
at  the  close  of  the  Summer,  better  supplied  than  non-swamo- 

*ir  a  8tnok  of  bo(>8,  ill  a  hive  of  moderate  aizo,  Ib  examined,  at  the  height  of 
the  hoiK  y-hnrvcHt,  nonrly  all  the  colla  will  often  be  found  faU  of  brood,  honej, 
or  ber-hnad  The  j^r*  at  laying  of  tlii'  qiiron  is  OTcr — not  as  aome  imagine,  be- 
caiHo  li»T  fiTtility  lia^  diTrcn-ed.  but  piiui>ly  for  want  of  room  for  more  brood. 
A  qiKMMi  in  Buch  a  colony,  or  in  a  hive  having  few  bcea,  often  appeaji  almoft 
aa  Blender  as  one  Btill  uiifrrtile;  but  if  she  has  plenty  of  bees  and  empty  oooib 
flTan  hex,  ber  proportiona  will  soon  become  Tery  much  «nlazs«d. 

ing  stocka  with  maturing  brood ;  the  latter  having — in  the 
expressive  language  of  an  old  writer — "  waxed  over  (at." 

We  have  bad  stocks  which,  after  parting  with  four  swanns 
In  the  way  above  described,  have  stored  their  hives  with  Pall 
boney,  besides  yielding  a  surplus  in  boxes. 

This  method  of  artificial  increase,  which  resembles  natural 
■  not  taking  away  the  combs  of  the  mother-stock, 
la  not  only  superior  to  it,  in  leaving  a  fertile  queen,  but  ob- 
viates almost  entirely  all  risk  of  after-swarming;  for  the 
forced  swatm,  containing  the  old  queen,  seldom  attempts  to 
■end  forth  a  new  colony,  and  the  parent  hive,  in  whiuli  the 
young  queen  is  placed,  is  too  destitute  of  field-workers  to 
Bwarm  soon.  The  young  queen  herself  is  eijually  content — 
except  in  very  warm  climates,  or  in  extraordinary  seasons 
— to  stay  where  she  is  put.  Even  if  the  old  queen  is  al- 
lowed to  remain  in  the  mother-stock,  she  will  sekli-ni  leave, 
if  BufBcicnt  room  is  given  for  storing  surplus  honey  ;  and  it 
makes  no  diDerence — as  tar  as  liability  of  swarming  is  con- 
cerned— where  the  young  one  is  put. 

478.  Artificial  increase  may  be  also  mnde.  hy  sin)[ily 
giving  several  frames  of  hatching  bees  to  a  iiuck'us  (GUO> 
containing  a  fertile  queen,  and  placing  the  colony  lUn^  built 
Dp  on  the  stand  of  a  strong  hive,  rcmovin>;  the  lattor  lo  a 
Dew  location. 

If,  from  some  caose,  the  parent-colony  could  not  be 
moved,  the  forced  swarm  might  be  made  to  ndlirrc  to  a  new 
location  as  follows:  Secure  their  queen,  whin  the  lni;i  :ire 
■baken  out  of  the  hive;  and  when  they  shon-  tliat  tlnv  miss 
her,  confine  them  to  their  hive,  until  tUiir  n^ituiion  h:is 
reached  its  height.  Then  open  the  liive,  uml  us  ttic  lircs 
begin  to  take  wing,  present  their  queen  to  tliern.  Winn 
they  have  clustered  around  her,  they  mag  be  treafd  like  it 
natural  awarm.  To  do  this  with  every  forced  swarm  would 
take  too  much  time ;  but  it  would  answer  well  when  the 
forced  swarm  is  to  be  moved,  a  short  distance. 

479.  If  no  qaMiu  luiT«  been  raiMd  pmiotulj  (814), 
by  nuking  »  fewforoedswunu,  fromBeleotoolonieB(518), 
nine  days  before  the  time  in  wbloh  the  mo«t  we  to  be  nidt, 

'  there  will  be  *a  abanduioe  of  sealed  qaeena,  almost  mature, 
ao  that  every  parent-stock  may  have  one.  If  the  fbT«ed 
Bwarms  were  made  a  abort  time  before  natural  twamdsi 
woold  hare  taken  place,  some  of  the  parent-coioniec  wiD 
oontain  a  number  of  maturing  qneens,  whiob  may  be  la- 
mored,  a  few  days  before  hatching,  and  given  to  aadi  u 
have  started  none.  But  it  is  far  better  to  rear  tbe  qaeess 
flrat,  as  they  can  be  bred  from  ohoioe  stook  (013). 

480.  A  nnclens  (520)  may  be  built  ap  after  ila  qneca 
has  commenced  laying,  by  helping  it  with  a  cemb  of  brood 
and  young  bees,  from  a  full  colony,  adding;,  at  proper 
iutervals,  a  third,  and  a  fourth,  until  they  are  strong  enoogb 
to  take  care  o(  themaelves.  This  mode  of  increase  is  labo- 
rious, and  requires  skill  and  judgment;  for,  the  bee-keepct 
should  be  very  careful  never  to  give  a  weak  colony  more 
brood  than  its  bees  can  cover,  remembering  that,  should 
the  temperature  become  colder,  the  brood  might  be  chiUed 
An  A  periah. 

As  a  number  of  nuclei  are  to  be  simultaneously  atrengtb- 
eued,  the  Apiarist  cannot  complete  his  artifldal  proeeswa 
by  a  eingle  operation,  and  must  always  be  on  hand,  m 
incur  the  risk  of  ending  the  season  with  a  number  of  star^ 
ing  colonies.  For  these  and  other  reasons,  we  much  prefci 
tilt;  otiicr  methods,  above  given,  dispensing  with  so  mnd> 
opening  of  hivca  and  handling  of  combs.  If,  however,  any 
of  tlie  new  colonies  are  weak  enough  to  need  it,  they  must 
be  helped  to  combs  from  stronger  ones. 

48 1 .  matever  method  of  artijieiai  fncreoM  i*  fmmwd  by 
the  Apiariit,  he  should  never  reduce  tke  atrmgth  of  Ail 
mother-stocka,  to  as  seriovslt/  to  cripple  the  reproductive  power 
of  their  queetu.  This  principle  should  be  to  him  aa  *^tbs 
4IW  of  tbe  Uedee  and  Persians,  whidi  altnethnot;"  for. 


while  a  queen,  with  an  abundance  of  worker-comb  and 
bees,  may,  in  a  single  season,  become  the  parent  of  a  num- 
ber of  prosperous  families,  if  her  colony,  at  the  beginning 
of  the  swarming  season,  is  divided  into  three  or  four  parts, 
not  one  of  them  will  ordinarily  acquire  stores  enough  to 
survive  the  Winter. 

The  practical  bee-keeper  should  remember  that  no  drone- 
comb  is  built  when  the  queen  is  with  the  builders  (229), 
and  that  the  less  increase  he  takes,  from  the  colonies  on 
which  he  relies  for  surplus-honey,  the  better. 

482.  With  the  movable-frame  hive,  and  the  improved 
system,  the  Apiarist,  by  raising  his  queens  or  queen-cells 
(514)  previously  {and  this  is  very  important)  can  take  the 
increase  that  he  wishes  to  make,  from  colonies  that  would 
have  produced  little^  if  any^  surplus^  and  preserve  his  best  col- 
onies for  honey  production.  Let  it  not  be  understood  by 
this,  that  we  advise  taking  the  increase  from  weak  colonies. 
In  every  Apiary,  there  are  some  colonies,  which,  though  of 
fair  strength,  do  not  become  populous  in  time  to  harvest 
more  than  their  supply.  Such  colonies  can  furnish  good 
swarms,  with  but  little  help,  owing  to  the  fact  that  the 
greater  number  of  their  bees  raised  during  the  harvest, 
instead  of  before  it,  are  too  young  to  go  to  the  field  (1C2). 

If  our  method  is  followed,  the  colonies,  which  have  been 
kept  for  honey  production,  can  furnish  help,  if  necessary, 
towards  the  end  of  the  season,  for  those  of  the  artiGcial 
swarms  that  need  it. 

To  the  prudent  Apiarist,  they  are  as  a  reserve  body  of 
select  troops  to  the  skillful  general,  a  timely  help,  in  an 

Remember  that  populous  colonies,  that  are  raising  queen- 
cells,  during  the  early  part  of  a  good  honey  harvest,  are 
strongly  inclined  to  swarm  when  the  young  queens  hatch. 

488.    The  coUmies  (hat  are  raising  young  queens^  eitfier 

wtB  tKpfliad  vdtt  htfmeg,  ant  kmm  «M4fft  ftuny  bMi  to 
JkHpOxfrned  «arai  a»d  to  lali  tan  ^  t,mtuino  nnaft- 
tapOdn?  10  *>  (8S8). 

OneartiScul  awaia  nada  it  Ob  opaniBgof  Om  himj 
hanrot,  when  tbe  Un  is  Ml  of  bnmd,  k  bcttar  Oh  too 
■warao  made  at  ita  doaa. 

Wbeo  new  vakxatM  ara  Bade  bj  parrhidng  qaacai 
(«01)wiUi&eesftya«jMHUl(lf9»),  ol^iped  <naisdii- 
tasce  (087),  tbey  afaonld  to  hind  oa  aa  maaj  aanbo  of 
brood,  taken  (ram  other  hma,  aa  ttoy  omd  vd  cow.  If 
full  fnuDcs  of  fonndatHm  (ST^)  an  added,  Cnm  Umm  to 
time,  strong  coloniea  may  to  built  ont  of  then,  qdtt 

If  the  colonies  are  gathering  mach  bonej,  when  artiliGial 
■warms  are  made,  but  little  smoke  (382)  will  to  needed 
in  the  operations.  The  freqaent  use  of  amoke  makeo  tite 
qaeeo  leave  the  combs,  for  greater  aecnrity.  Thia  often 
causes  great  delay  in  the  formation  of  artificial  swarms  bj 
removing  tbe  frames,  and  in  operations  where  it  is  deaiia- 
ble  to  catch  the  queeo,  or  to  examine  her  apon  tto  ocaab. 

484.  Artificial  operaiiona  of  all  kinds  an  taost  wteea^/kf 
when  bee-forage  ie  abundant;  when  it  is  scarce,  they  are 
quite  precarious,  even  if  the  colonies  are  well  sapplied  witli 

When  bees  are  not  busy  in  honey-gatfaering,  they  hare 
leisure  to  ascertain  the  condition  of  weak  ooloaiea,  irtiick 
are  almost  certain  to  be  robbed,  if  they  aie  incautioiul; 
opened.  When  forage  is  scarce,  the  Apiarist  who  does  not 
guard  agaiD:>t  robbing  (004)  will  seriously  impur  tbe  tsIim 
of  his  colonies,  and  entail  upon  himself  nnch  nseleai  and 
vexatious  labor.  Beware  of  denoratisiag  btn,  bg  t*mpti»g 
them  to  rob  one  another. 

48A.  During  a  good  honey  flow,  beet  from  difimnt  kitm 
may  be  mixed  toithovt  quarreiling,  owing  to  Utiir  more  peaoe^ 


ble  dispositioii,  when  full  of  honey,  hence  all  manipulations 
become  much  easier.  But  at  other  times,  great  caution  is 
requisite  not  only  in  giving  a  hive  a  strange  queen,  but  in 
all  attempts  to  mix  bees  belonging  to  different  colonies.  Bees 
having  a  fertile  queen  will  often  quarrel  with  those  having 
an  unimpregnated  one. 

Members  of  different  colonies  (30)  recognize  their  hive- 
oompanions  by  the  sense  of  smell,  and  if  there  should  be  a 
thousand  hives  in  the  Apiary,  any  one  will  readily  detect 
a  strange  bee ;  just  as  each  mother  in  a  large  flock  of  sheep 
is  able,  by  the  same  sense,  in  the  darkest  night,  to  distin- 
g^uish  her  own  lamb  from  all  the  others.  Colonies  might 
always  be  safely  mingled,  by  sprinkling  them  with  sugar- 
water,  scented  with  peppermint  or  any  other  strong  odor, 
which  would  make  them  all  smell  alike. 

Bees  also  recognize  strangers  by  their  actions^  even  when 
they  have  the  same  scent ;  for  a  frightened  bee  curls  herself 
up  with  a  cowed  look,  which  unmistakably  proclaims  that 
she  is  conscious  of  being  an  intruder.  If,  therefore,  the 
bees  of  one  colony  are  left  on  their  ovm  stand,  and  the  oth- 
ers are  suddenly  introduced,  m  a  time  of  scarcity,  the 
latter,  even  when  both  colonies  have  the  same  smell,  are 
often  so  frightened  that  they  are  discovered  to  be  strangers, 
and  are  instantly  killed.  If,  however,  both  colonies  are  re- 
moved to  a  new  stand,  and  shaken  out  together  on  a  sheet, 
they  will  peaceably  mingle,  when  scented  alike.  We  find 
substantially  the  same  thing  recommended,  in  1778,  by 
Thomas  Wildman  (page  230  of  the  3d  edition  of  his  valua- 
ble work  on  Bees),  who  says,  that  bees  will  ''  unite  while  in 
fear  and  distress,  without  fighting,  as  they  would  be  apt  to 
do,  if  strange  bees  were  added  to  a  hive  in  possession  of  its 

486.  The  forcing  of  a  swarm  ought  not  to  be  attempted 
when  the  weather  is  cool,  nor  after  dark.  Bees  are  always 
mach  more  irascible  when  their  hives  are  disturbed  after  it 

250  AsnnciAL  swakmino. 

is  dark,  and  as  they  cannot  see  where  to  fly,  they  will  alight 
on  the  person  of  the  bee-keeper,  who  is  almost  sure  to  be 
stung.  It  is  seldom  that  night  work  is  attempted  upon 
bees,  without  making  the  operator  repent  his  folly. 

4:87.  We  would  strongly  dissuade  any  but  the  most  ex- 
perienced Apiarists,  from  attempting,  at  the  forUiest,  to  do 
more  than  double  their  colonies  in  one  year.  It  woold  take 
another  book  to  furnish  directions  for  rapid  moltiplic*- 
tion,  sufficiently  full  and  explicit  for  the  inexperienced; 
and  even  then,  most  who  should  undertake  it,  would  be 
sure,  at  first,  to  fail.  With  ten  strong  colonies  of  bees,  in 
movable-comb  hives,  in  one  propitious  season,  we  could  so 
increase  them,  in  a  favorable  location,  as  to  have,  on  the 
approach  of  Winter,  one  hundred  good  colonies ;  but  we 
should  expect  to  purchase  queens,  foundation,  and  perhaps 
hundreds  of  pouruU  of  honey,  devoting  much  of  our  time 
to  their  management,  and  bringing  to  the  work  the  experi- 
ence of  many  years,  and  the  judgment  acquired  by  numer- 
ous lamentable  failures. 

In  one  season,  being  called  from  home  after  our  colonies 
had  been  greatl}'  multiplied,  the  honey  harvest  was  sud- 
denly cut  short  by  a  drought,  and  we  found,  on  our  return, 
that  most  of  our  stocks  were  ruined  by  starvation. 

The  time,  care,  skill,  and  food  required  in  our  uncertain 
climate  for  the  rapid  increase  of  colonies,  are  so  great,  that 
not  one  bee-keeper  in  a  hundred*  can  make  it  profitable; 
while  most  who  attempt  it,  will  be  almost  sure,  at  the  close 
of  the  season,  to  find  themselves  in  possession  of  colonies 
which  have  been  managed  to  death. 

A  certain  rather  than  sl  rapid  multiplication  of  colonics,  is 
most  needed.  A  single  colony,  doubling  every  year,  would, 
in    ten   years,    increase  to   1,024  colonies,   and  in   twenty 

•  Many  a  person  who  reads  this  will  probably  imagioe  tbftt  he  U  Um  one  In  • 
hundred . 

▼ARI0U8  METHODS.  251 

years  to  over  a  million!*  At  this  rate,  our  whole  country 
might,  in  a  few  years,  be  over-stocked  with  bees ;  and  even 
an  increase  of  one-third,  annually,  would  soon  give  us 

4:88.  All  the  methods  of  increase  above  given,  and  sev- 
eral others  of  less  importance,  were  described  by  Mr. 
Langstroth  years  ago.  He  never  hesitated  to  sacrifice  sev- 
eral colonies,  in  order  to  ascertain  a  single  fact ;  and  it 
would  require  a  large  volume,  to  detail  bis  various  experi- 
ments on  the  single  subject  of  artificial  swarming.  The 
practical  bee-keeper,  however,  should  never  lose  sight  of 
the  important  distinction  between  an  Apiary  managed  prin- 
cipally for  purposes  of  observation  and  discovery,  and  one 
conducted  exclusively  with  reference  to  pecuniary  profit. f 
Any  bee-keeper  can  easily  experiment  with  movable-frame 

•  Thb  IbUowing  ealenlatiOD  of  poiMibfe  profltfl.ftom  bee-culture,  taken  ftrom 
"SydaerlTi  TreatiBe  on  Bees,"  imblished  in  Englaad,  ia  1792,  is  a  perfect 
gun  of  its  kind : 

'  *  Suppose  a  swarm  of  bees  at  the  first  to  cost  lOs.  6d. ,  and  neither  them  nor 
the  swarms  to  be  taken,  but  to  do  well,  and  swarm  once  every  year"— bees 
mnst  benangfatj,  indeed,  if  they  dare  to  do  otherwise!—"  what  will  be  the 
prodaet  forfonrteen  yean,  and  wiiat  the  profit,  if  each  hive  is  sold  at  108.  6d.  ? 

F«ori.  HiJU,  Projits. 

X  s.  d 

I 1  0    0    0 

f t 1    1    0 

S 4 2    2    0 

4  8 4    4    0 

•• •• •    •    • 

14 8192  4300  16    0 

*'N.B.— Deduct  10a.  6d.,  what  the  first  hive  cost,  and  the  remainder  wiU 
be  clear  profit;  supposing  the  second  swarms  to  pay  for  hives,  labor,  etc." 
Hie  modesty  with  which  this  writer,  who  Bcems  to  have  had  as  mnch  faith  in 
his  been  as  in  the  doctrine  that  * '  figures  cannot  lie, "  closes  his  calculation  at 
the  end  of  fourteen  years,  is  truly  refreshing.  No  bee-k(>epcr,  on  such  a  royal 
road  to  wealth,  could  erer  find  it  in  his  heart  to  stop  under  twonty-onc  years, 
by  which  time,  probably,  he  would  be  willing  to  close  his  bee-business,  by 
selling  it  for  over  two  and  three-quarter  millions  of  dollars!  Tlie  attention 
of  all  renders  of  hnmbng  bee-hives,  is  respectfully  invited  to  this  antique 
•pedmen  of  the  art  of  pnAng. 

t  ProUBseorSieboldsays,  that  Berlepsch  told  him,  that  some  of  hia  hivei 
"'had  bean  very  mnch  pr^udioed  by  the  various  scientific  experiments. " 


hiyes ;  but  he  should  do  -it,  at  first,  only  on  a  small  seals, 
and  if  pecuniary  profit  is  bis  object,  should  follow  our  di- 
rections, until  he  is  9ure  that  he  has  discovered  others  whidi 
are  better.  These  cautions  are  given  to  prevent  serious 
losses  in  using  hives  which,  by  facilitating  all  manner  of 
experiments,  may  tempt  the  inexperienced  into  rash  and 
unprofitable  courses.  Beginners,  especially,  should  follow 
the  directions  here  given  as  closely  as  possible ;  for,  although 
they  may  doubtless  be  modified  and  imprt>ved,  it  can  only 
be  dpne  by  those  experienced  in  managing  bees. 

Let  us  not  be  understood  as  wishing  to  intimate  that  per- 
fection has  been  so  nearly  attained,  that  no  more  imp<Hrtant 
discovenes  remain  to  be  made.  On  the  oontrary,  we  be- 
lieve that  apiculture  is  a  growing  science.  Those  who 
have  time  and  means  should  experiment  on  a  large  scale 
with  the  movable-comb  hives ;  and  we  hope  that  every  intel- 
ligent bee-keeper  who  uses  them,  will  experiment,  at  least, 
on  a  small  scale.  In  this  way,  we  may  hope  that  those 
points  in  the  natural  history  of  the  bee  still  involved  in 
doubt,  will,  ere  long,  be  satisfactorily  explained. 

There  is  a  large  class  of  bee-keepers — ^not  '*  bee-masters" 
— who  desire  a  hive  which  will  give  them,  however  ignorant 
or  careless,  a  large  yield  of  honey  from  their  bees.  They 
are  easily  captivated  by  the  shallowest  devices,  and  spend 
their  money  and  destroy  their  bees,  to  fill  the  purses  of  un- 
principled men.  There  never  will  be  a  **  royal  road"  to 
profitable  bee-keeping.  Like  all  other  branches  of  rural 
economy,  it  demands  care  and  experience ;  and  those  who 
are  conscious  of  a  strong  disposition  to  procrastinate  and 
neglect,  will  do  well  te  let  bees  alone,  unless  they  hope,  by 
the  study  of  their  systematic  industry,  to  reform  evil  habits 
which  are  well  nigh  incurable. 



Queen  Rearing. 

4L89.  We  have  shown  (100)  that  when  a  colony  is  de- 
prived of  its  queen,  the  bees  soon  raise  another,  if  they 
have  worker  eggs  or  young  larvae. 

In  general,  they  select,  first,  some  of  the  oldest  among 
those  whose  milky  '^pap  "  has  not  yet  been  changed  for 
coarser  food  (107).  Such  a  selection  is  wise,  for  the  older 
the  larva  is,  the  sooner  the  colony  will  recover  a  queen. 

490.  But  some  Apiarists  fear  that  the  bees  will  secure 
poorer  queens,  if  they  use  larvae,  for  they  suppose  that  the 
food  given  to  these  during  the  first  three  days,  may  be  dif- 
ferent from  the  food  given  to  the  queen-larvae,  although  it 
looks  the  same,  and  for  this  reason,  they  prefer  to  raise 
their  queens,  from  the  egg. 

491.  A  learned  bee-keeper,  of  Switzerland,  Mr.  De 
Planta,  has  made  comparative  chemical  experiments,  on  the 
milky  food  which  is  first  given  to  the  larvoe  of  drones,  queens, 
and  workers,  and  has  ascertained  that  this  food  is  composed 
of  the  same  substances  for  ail,  albumen,  fat,  sugar,  and 
water,  and  that  the  only  difference  is  in  the  proportions  of 
these  substances.  Yet  he  concludes  that  these  variations 
are  but  accessory,  and  not  premeditated  by  the  bees. 

We  think  that  these  conclusions  are  right,  for  Mr.  De 
Planta,  to  get  a  sufficient  quantity  of  this  food,  had  to  take 
it  from  different  hives,  and  at  different  seasons  of  the  year ; 
and  as  this  milky  food  is  apparently  the  product  of  glands, 
(64),  as  is  the  milk  of  our  cows,  the  proportions  of  sub- 
stances in  the  "  milk  "  of  bees,  may  vary,  as  they  do  in  the 
milk  of  COWB,  which  contains  more  or  less  caseine,  fat,  sugar, 

254  QUEEN  REmillO. 

or  water,  according  to  the  race,  the  age,  and  the  food  eatea. 
492.  Other  bee-keepera  aappoae  that  the  newly-hatdied 
larysB,  intended  by  the  beea  to  be  raised  as  qaeeoa,  are  moia 
plentifully  fed  from  the  first,  than  woricer-larro.  Bat  we 
have  always  noticed,  that,  except  daring  a  acardtj,  the  lat- 
ter have  as  much  of  this  pap  as  they  can  eat,  daring  the 
first  three  days,  since  they  float  on  the  milky  food  (1116). 
The  wise  bee-keeper  can  ward  against  the  rearing  of  poor 
queens,  by  feeding  his  bees  abundantly,  if  necessary,  a  few 
days  in  advance,  and  daring  the  queen-breeding. 

403.  Lastly,  some  bee-keepers  think  that  bees  sometinieB 
use  larvflB  more  than  three  days  old,  and  which  oonseqoently, 
have  already  received  coarser  food.  One  of  our  leaders  la 
bee-culture,  Mr.  Doolittle,  writes  that  one  of  his  colonies 
must  have  used  a  larva  four  and  one-half  days  old,  since 
this  colony  hatched  a  queen  in  eight  and  one-half  days,  in- 
stead of  about  ten,  as  usually  (llO).  (Cook's  Guide,  pages 
70  and  72).  But  we  cannot  admit  that  tiie  nurses  were 
guilty  of  such  blunder,  especially  since  they  would  have  had 
the  trouble  of  replacing  with  better  food,  the  coarse  pap 
already  given.  Most  likely,  some  already  constructed 
queen-cell  had  passed  unnoticed.  Every  one  of  us,  old  bee- 
keepers, has  made  similar  errors.  (See  '^Deceptive  Queen- 
Cells  (519)." 

404.  The  worker-larvse  are  fed  with  milky  food  for  three 
days,  and  with  coarse  food  for  the  three  following  days. 
Not  only  does  this  coarse  food  change  their  organism,  but 
it  retards  their  growth,  since  the  queens  are  mature  in  six- 
teen days,  from  the  time  that  the  egg  is  laid  (107),  while 
the  workers  do  not  hatch  before  twenty-one  days,  on  aver- 
age. Thus  the  three  days  of  coarse  food  have  prolongea 
the  growth  five  days,  or  in  other  words,  each  day  of  coarse 
feeding  has  delayed  the  maturity  forty  hours.  Therefore, 
if  we  suppose  that  bees  could,  and  would  use,  larvae  four 
and  one-half  days  old,  queens  thus  produced  would  hatch 


two  and  one-half  days  later  than  those  raised  from  larvn 
three  days  old.  They  would  consequently  hatch  in  eleven 
and  one-half  days  instead  of  ten  as  usual. 

495.  If  some  Apiarists  have  noticed  that  their  best 
queens  were  reared  during  the  swarming  fever  (455),  it  is 
because  the  colonies  are  then  in  the  best  conditions  to  pro- 
duce healthy  queens.  They  have  pollen  and  honey  in 
abundance ;  as  they  are  numerous,  they  keep  the  combs  very 
warm ;  and,  in  addition,  they  have  a  large  number  of  young 
bees,  or  nurses,  to  take  care  of  the  larvae  (164.) 

496.  The  following  accidental  experiment  has  proved  to 
OB  that  most  of  the  ola  workers  are  unable  to  act  as  nurses. 
Tears  ago,  one  of  our  neighbors  moved  three  colonies  of 
bees  about  half  a  mile,  in  the  Summer,  without  taking: 
proper  precautions ;  we  were  informed  the  next  day,  that 
quite  a  number  of  the  olde^  bees  had  returned,  and  had 
dostered  under  an  old  table.  We  brought  a  hive  there, 
with  a  comb  containing  eggs  and  young  larvse.  They  took: 
possession  of  it,  but  neglected  to  raise  a  queen,  and  soon 
dwindled  away. 

497.  By  placing  the  colonies,  intended  to  raise  queens, 
in  the  same  condition  as  to  food,  heat,  and  nursing,  as  dur- 
ing the  swarming  fever  (455),  we  will  raise  as  good 
queens  as  are  then  raised.  If,  to  these  conditions,  we  add 
the  selection  of  brood,  from  our  best  queens  (315),  we 
will  greatly  improve  the  quality  of  our  stock. 

For  over  twenty  years,  we  have  used  all  the  precautions 
described  above,  and,  although  our  queens  have  never  been 
reared  from  the  egg,  they  are  very  prolillc  and  long-lived. 
Using  hives  with  ten  or  eleven  large  Quinby-frames  (340), 
we  are  enabled  to  ascertain,  beyond  doubt,  the  prolificness 
of  our  queens.  Our  preventing  swarming  (459)  enables 
us  also  to  reckon  their  longevity. 

498.  The  interposition  of  the  Apiarist,  in  queen-rearing, 
may  be  necessary : 

>66  QuuDi  BBAsme. 

I9U  To  BQpplj  the  loss  of  a  queen  in  a  odony  thathai 
not  the  means  of  raising  another  (109). 

2d.  To  breed  a  superior  raoe  of  bees  (MK>),  or  frnprofi 
the  present  stock  (815). 

3d.  To  provide  for  the  artifloial  increase  of  cdoniea 

We  win  study  the  rearing  of  queens,  in  view  of  thsN 
requirements ;  but  as  each  queen-breeder  lus  his  pet  method, 
we  will  give  only  the  main  outlines,  leaTing  our  readers  to 
their  own  choice,  according  to  their  Judgment  and  drcnai* 



Loss  OF  THE  Qunnr. 

490.  That  the  Queen-Bee  is  often  lost,  and  that  her  col- 
ony will  be  ruined  unless  such  a  calamity  is  seasonably 
remedied,  ought  to  be  familiar  facts  to  every  bee-keeper. 

Queens  sometimes  die  of  disease,  or  old  age,  when  there 
Is  no  brood  to  supply  their  loss.  Few,  however,  perish 
under  such  circumstances ;  for,  either  the  bees  build  royal 
cells,  aware  of  their  approaching  end,  or  they  die  so  sud- 
denly as  to  leave  young  brood  behind  them.  Queens  are 
not  only  much  longer-lived  (157)  than  the  workers,  but 
are  usually  the  last  to  perish  in  any  fatal  casualty.  As 
many  die  of  old  age,  if  their  death  does  not  occur 
under  favorable  circumstances,  it  would  cause,  yearly,  the 
loss  of  a  very  large  number  of  colonies.  As  they  sel- 
dom die  when  their  strength  is  not  severely  taxed  in  breed- 
ing, drones  are  usually  on  hand  to  impregnate  their 

500.  Young  queens  are  sometimes  bom  with  wings  so 
imperfect  that  they  cannot  fl}^ ;  and  they  are  often  so  injured 
in  their  contests  with  each  other,  or  by  the  rude  treatment 
the}*  receive  when  driven  from  the  royal-cells,  that  they 
cannot  leave  the  hive  for  impregnation  (128). 


501.  We  have  yet,  however,  to  describe  under  what 
circumstances  the  majority  of  hives  become  queenless. 
More  queens y  whose  loss  cannot  be  supplied  by  the  bees,  per" 
ish  when  they  leave  the  hive  to  meet  the  drones,  than  in  aU 
other  ways.  After  the  departure  of  the  first  swarm,  the 
mother-stock  and  all  the  after-swarms  have  young  queens 
which  must  leave  the  hive  for  impregnation ;  their  larger 
size  and  slower  flight  make  them  a  more  tempting  prey  to 
birds,  while  others  are  dashed,  by  sudden  gusts  of  wind, 
against  some  hard  object,  or  blown  into  the  water:  for, 
with  all  their  queenly  dignity,  they  are  not  exempt  from 
mishaps  common  to  the  humblest  of  their  race. 

502.  In  spite  of  their  caution'  to  mark  the  position  and 
appearance  of  their  habitation,  the  young  queens  frequently 
make  a  fatal  mistaJce,  and  are  destroyed,  when  attempting  to 
enter  the  wrong  hive. 

This  accounts  for  the  fact  that  ignorant  bee-keepers,  with 
forlorn  and  rickety  hives,  no  two  of  which  look  just  alike, 
are  sometimes  more  successful  than  those  whose  hives  are 
of  the  best  construction.  The  former — unless  their  hives 
are  excessively  crowded — lose  but  few  queens,  while  the 
latter  lose  them  in  almost  exact  proportion  to  the  taste  and 
skill  which  induced  them  to  make  their  hives  of  uniform 
size,  shape  and  color  (356). 

503.  We  first  learned  the  full  extent  of  the  danger  of 
crowded  Apiaries,  in  the  Summer  of  1854.  To  protect  our 
hives  against  extremes  of  heat  and  cold,  they  were  ranged, 
side  by  side,  over  a  trench,  so  that,  through  ventilators  in 
their  bottom-boards,  they  might  receive,  in  Suninier,  a 
cooler,  and  in  Winter,  a  much  warmer  air,  than  the  exter- 
nal atmosphere.  By  this  arrangement — which  failed  en- 
tirely to  answer  its  design — many  of  our  colonics  became 
queenless,  and  we  soon  ascertained  under  what  circumstan* 
ces  young  queens  are  ordinarily  lost. 

From  the  great  uniformity  of  the  hives  in  size,  shape, 

Ca  bm  sure  of 

m  hoed  in  a  iCmige  city,  and  oo  risiig  in  Uie  BMifviaf , 
dMwId  find  the  streecs  filled  with  baikfings  preciselj  fike  it, 
he  woald  be  ^le  Co  recnm  to  his  proper  place,  onlj  bj  pre- 
tIoqsIj  ucertAinlng  i:^  namber.  or  bj  oocmting  the  houaet 
between  it  and  ihe  t^^mer.  Such  a  nombering  facalty, 
however.  w%a  not  given  to  the  qaeen-bee :  for  who,  in  ft 
ctate  of  nature,  ever  saw  a  dozen  or  more  hollow  trees  or 
other  places  frei:[uea:eti  by  bees,  standing  close  together, 
precisely  alike  in  size,  shape,  and  color,  with  their  entran- 
ces all  {ti':\nz  the  3an;e  w^v,  and  at  exactlT  the  same  heisht 
from  the  ground? 

On  describing  to  a  friend  our  observations  on  the  loss  of 
queens,  he  told  us  that  in  the  management  of  his  hens,  he 
had  fallen  into  a  somewhat  similar  mistake.  To  economize 
room,  and  to  give  easier  access  to  his  setting  hens,  he  had 
partitioned  a  long  box  into  a  dozen  or  more  separate  apart- 
ments. The  hens,  in  returning  to  their  nests,  were  deceived 
by  the  similarity  of  the  entrances,  so  that  often  one  box 
contained  two  or  three  unamiable  aspirants  for  the  honors 
of  maternity,  while  others  were  entirely  forsaken.  Many 
eggs  were  broken,  more  were  addled,  and  hardly  enough 
hatched  to  establish  one  mother  as  the  happy  mistress  of  a 
flourishing  family.     Had  he  left  his  hens  to  their  own  in- 

LOSS    OF    THE    QUEEN.  259 

Btincts,  they  would  have  scattered  their  nests,   and  glad- 
dened his  eyes  with  a  numerous  offspring. 

Every  bee-keeper,  whose  hives  are  so  arranged  that  the 
young  queens  are  liable  to  make  mistakes,  must  count  upon 
heavy  losses.  If.he  puts  a  number  of  hives,  under  circum- 
stances similar  to  those  described,  upon  a  bench,  or  the 
shelves  of  a  bee-house,  he  can  never  keep  their  number 
good  without  constant  renewal. 

505.  The  bees  are  sometimes  so  excessively  agitated 
when  their  queen  leaves  for  impregnation  (120),  that  they 
exhibit  all  the  appearance  of  swarming.  They  seem  to 
have  an  instinctive  perception  of  the  dangers  which  await 
her,  and  we  have  known  them  to  gather  around  her  and 
confine  her,  as  though  they  could  not  bear  to  have  her 
leave.  If  a  queen  is  lost  on  her  wedding  excursion,  the 
bees  of  an  old  colony  will  graduall}'  decline ;  those  of  an 
after-swarm,  will  either  unite  with  another  hive,  or  dwindle 
away  (182). 

506.  It  would  be  interesting,  could  we  learn  how  bees 
become  informed  of  the  loss  of  their  queen.  When  she  is 
taken  from  them  under  circumstances  that  excite  the  whole 
colony,  we  can  easily  see  how  they  find  it  out ;  for,  as  a 
tender  mother,  in  time  of  danger,  is  all  anxiety  for  her 
helpless  children,  so  bees,  when  alarmed,  always  seek  first 
to  assure  themselves  of  the  safety  of  their  queen.  If,  how- 
ever, the  queen  is  very  carefully  removed,  several  hours 
may  elapse  before  they  realize  their  loss.  How  do  they 
first  become  aware  of  it?  Perhaps  some  dutiful  bee,  anxious 
to  embrace  her  mother,  makes  diligent  search  for  her 
through  the  hive.  The  intelligence  that  she  cannot  he 
found  being  noised  abroad,  the  whole  family  is  speedily 
alarmed.  At  such  times,  instead  of  calmly  conversing,  by 
touching  each  other's  antenn:e,  they  may  be  seen  violently 
striking  them  together,  and  by  the  most  impassioned  dem- 
ODBtratlons  manifesting  their  agony  and  despair  (181). 

S«0  QOI 

We  once  removed  the  qaeco  of  ■  biibII  mIooj,  the  bMJ 
of  which  took  wing  uid  filled  the  bIt,  In 
Although  she  was  retunied  in  k  few  mioDtca,  ro] 
were  found  two  days  Uter.     The  queen  was  ai 
the  cells  tmten&nted.     Wu  this  woric  begun  hj 
did  not  believe  the  otberai  when  usured  th&t  ih* 
or  from  the  apprehension  that  she  might  be  remored  a^^T 

807.  As  soon  as  the  bees  bepn  to  fly  btisUf  in  A* 
Spring,  a  colony  which  does  not  indostrionsly  gatlwr  poDoi, 
*or  accept  of  flour  (887),  is  almost  certain  to  hare  at 
queen,  or  one  that  is  not  fertile — nnleee  it  is  on  the  era  rf 
periahiug  from  starration. 

A  colony  is  sore  to  be  queenless,  if,  after  taking  fk 
flrst  Spring'fltgbt,  the  h*>*'=,  hy  riamir?,  in  rw.  ci!".Giriaf 
manner  in  and  out  nf  r.i'  "  i .  ■  -1  .^■.;  ^li-i'  -■■':■■  ..■■.;■  -iliuulj 
has  befallen  them.  1  liose  Luac  come  irom  the  Deids,  instead 
of  entering  the  hive  with  that  dispatchful  haste  bo  cbaraetsi> 
istic  of  a  bee  returning,  well  loaded,  to  a  prosperous  home, 
usually  linger  about  the  entrance  with  an  idle  and  dissst 
isfied  appearance,  and  the  colony  is  restless,  late  in  the  day, 
when  others  are  quiet.  Their  home,  like  that  of  a  maa 
who  is  cursed  in  bis  domestic  relations,  is  a  melancbidy 
place,  and  they  enter  it  only  with  reluctant  and  alow-noi^ 
ing  steps. 

SOS.  And  here,  if  permitted  to  address  a  word  of  friendly 
advice,  we  would  say  to  every  wife — Do  all  that  you  can  to 
make  your  husband's  borne  a  place  of  attraction.  Whei 
absent  from  it,  let  bis  heart  glow  at  the  thought  of  return 
ing  to  its  dear  enjoyments;  as  he  approaches  it,  let  hii 
countenance  involuntarily  assume  a  more  cheerful  ezpre^ 

•"Ui.  Randolph  FHi^.  nr  Philadelphia,  hid  a  eolany  Wbkk  ha  WHMtl*- 
Had  wan  queen  leas,  u  the  bcndld  notcarrrlD  poUaateMdqri-  IpotaqaaM 
Into  Ihe  hiTe.  he  holiljug  ■  vatcb  Inbiihand,  udlDlKV'' 
the  Kai  IntrodDced.  a  be«  waa  Men  to  enter  with  pollao  « 
obaarred  the  eotrasca  tor  lona  tlma,  and  law  maor  him  i 

LOSS   OF   THE  QUEBN.  261 

don,  while  his  joy-quickened  steps  proclaim  that  he  feels  that 
there  is  no  plisice  like  the  cheerful  home  where  his  chosen 
wife  and  companion  presides  as  its  happy  and  honored 
Queen.*  If  your  home  is  not  full  of  dear  delights,  try  all 
the  yirtue  of  winning  words  and  smiles,  and  the  cheerful 
discharge  of  household  duties,  and  exhaust  the  utmost  pos- 
sible efScacy  of  love,  and  faith,  and  prayer,  before  those 
words  of  fearful  agony, 

"  Anywhere,  anywhere 
Oatof  the  world!"/ 

extorted  from  your  despairing  lips,  as  you  realize  that 
there  is  no  home  for  you,  until  you  have  passed  into  that 
habitation  not  fashioned  by  human  hands,  or  inhabited  by 
human  hearts. 

509.  The  neglect  of  a  colony  to  expel  drones  (192), 
when  they  are  destroyed  in  other  hives,  is  always  a  suspi- 
doas  sign,  and  generally  an  indication  either  that  it  has  no 
queen,  or  else  a  drone-laying  one  (134),  or  drone-laying 
workers  (176).  A  colony,  in  these  circumstances,  will  not 
eren  destroy  the  drones  of  other  hives,  which  may  come  to 
it,  until  a  healthy  queen  has  been  raised  in  the  hive,  and  is 
fertilized  (120),  and  la3dng  worker-eggs. 

510.  In  opening  a  queenless  hive,  the  plaintive  hum  of 
the  bees  (76),  the  hstjess  and  intermittent  vibrating  of 
their  wings,  and  the  total  lack  of  eggs,  or  young  worker 
hrood,  tell  their  condition. 

A  comb,  with  hatching  bees,t  should  be  given  to  it  from 

•*  *  The  tenth  and  last  gpeeiet  of  women  were  made  out  of  a  bee ;  and  happy 
li  the  man  who  geta  such  a  one  for  his  wifB .  She  is  full  of  virtue  and  pradence, 
■■d  la  tha  beat  wifB  that  Jupiter  oan  bestow.  "—Spkctatoh,  Xo.  2m, 

t  That  daaa  of  bee-keepers  who  suppose  that  all  such  operations  arc  the 
'*Baw  fkngled"  inrentlona  of  modem  times,  wiU  be  snrprisod  to  Icaru  that  Col- 
■meUa,  ISOOyeaza  ago,  recommended  strengthening  feeble  colonics,  by  cutting 
•at  eoMba  tnm  atvoafv  ooea,  eontaining  workers  * '  Jut  gnawing  out  of  their 


a  Btronger  oolony,  together  with  mnoUwr  eonb,  at  egp  tii 
Urvs,  from  the  best  oolonj  in  the  Xplaxy ;  sad  the  noBbK 
of  iti  oombt  ■honld  be  rednoed  to  aoit  ttn  die'  of  the  do*- 

A  better  way  yet  to  nipply  the  loae,  is  to  pve  the  eoloo; 
»  qaeen-oell  (104)  or  »  yooag  qoeea  raiaed  in  the  ou 
to  be  now  defcribed. 

511.  WewiUM«(a«0)tliatioiiMnuMaof  beeaanM- 
perior  to  others.  Ereo  is  the  same  Apiary,  aome  ooloiifai 
are  better  than  otbera,  in  proliflooees,  honey-gathering,  e» 
durance,  gentleness,  etc.  It  is  very  important  to  tmprore 
the  Apiary  by  rearing  queens  from  the  beet  breeds,  for  Bm 
Increase  of  colonies,  aa  well  as  to  replace  the  inferior  ones. 

To  this  end,  the  bee-keeper  should  select  two  or  more  ol 
the  best  colonies  in  his  Apiary,  one  for  the  productioo  ol 
drones,  the  others  for  the  production  of  queens.  ItaUaa 
(561 )  bees  are  uaiversally  preferred  ;  and  as  they  are  now 
almost  as  easily  found  as  common  bees,  and  are  very  cheap, 
we  advise  the  novice  to  begin  with  at  least  two  queem  of 
this  race. 

A  slight  mixture  of  Cyprian  or  Syrian  (559)  blood  b 
good,  provided  the  issue  be  gentle  and  peaceable.  Hybrid* 
of  common  bees  and  Italians  are  generally  Inferior,  both  in 
quahty  and  disposition. 

612.  In  selecting  a  colony  for  drone  production,  the 
color  and  aize  of  the  drones  should  not  be  conaidered  so 
miK'h,  as  the  prolilicness  of  its  queen,  and  the  qualities  tA 
its  workers,  unless  you  wish  to  breed  for  beauty,  in  prefer- 
ence to  honey- production. 

Place  two  droDe-comb8(224)  in  the  center  of  thebrood- 
chamber  of  this  colony,  as  soon  h  it  liae  leooperated  troa 


its  winter  losses.  If  the  colony  is  kept  well  supplied  with 
honey,  enough  drones  will  be  raised  to  impregnate  all  the 
queens  in  the  neighborhood ;  otherwise,  they  might  destroy 
these  early  drones  after  having  raised  them. 

If  our  directions  on  the  removal  of  drone-comb  (675) 
are  followed,  but  few  drones  will  be  raised  outside  of  those 
colonies  speciaUy  intended  for  drone-breeding.  As  soon 
as  they  begin  to  hatch,  we  may  make  preparations  for 
queen-rearing,  the  best  time  being  at  the  opening  of  fruit- 
blossoms.  Some  queen-breeders  begin  earlier,  but  early 
breeding  gives  much  trouble  and  little  pay,  and  our  advice 
to  Northern  Apiarists,  who  want  early  queens,  is  to  buy 
them  from  some  rehable  Southern  Apiarist,  as  they  can  be 
raised  earlier  in  the  South,  much  more  cheaply  than  in  the 

518.  In  an  Apiary  composed  of  several  colonies,  there 
are  always  some  comparatively  weak  ones,  either  because 
their  qneens  are  old,  or  because  they  are  not  prolific.  Such 
queens  are  of  very  little  value,  and  should  be  replaced. 
Select  one  of  these  colonies — not  the  poorest,  unless  it  is 
populous  enough  to  raise  good  queens.  Kill  its  queen,  and 
exchange  its  brood-combs,  after  having  brushed  the  bees 
off,  for  a  less  number  of  combs,  containing  eggs  and  larvae, 
from  your  best  queen.  It  may  be  well  to  feed  the  colonies 
containing  the  select  queens  beforehand,  so  as  to  incite  the 
laying  of  eggs  (154)  and  nursing  of  the  brood. 

514  If  you  desire  to  raise  queens  from  eggs,  (490),  or 
larvae  Just  hatching,  prepare  for  it,  by  giving  your  select 
colony  some  frames  of  dry  comb,  or  comb  foundation, 
(674)  a  few  days  ahead,  for  the  queen  to  lay  in.  In  this 
case,  only  those  combs  that  contain  eggs  should  be  given  to 
the  queenless  colony.  It  is  always  better  to  give  but  a 
small  number  of  brood-combs  to  the  colony  intended  for 
queen-raising,  and  to  reduce  its  space  with  the  division* 
board  (349) ;  as  they  can  best  keep  it  warm,  in  this  man- 
oer,  aad  raise  bettor  queens. 

515.  Tbe  Ixrgcat  nsmba-  of  qna^-eelb  {104)  can  b« 
obutoed  br  ccuin^  bole*  inlo  Ike  eonte  nuder  the  cdb 
cwuining  joosg  lame  or  ciggs,  and  feeding  the  bed 
plcDtifuIl7.  Some  Apixrists  bold  that,  bj  lesTing  then 
witlKKit  broo^  of  any  kiitd  for  a  few  boon,  tfaej  wiQ  raiM 
more  cells  afterwards. 

516.  Nine  dajs  after  tbe  fannahh^  of  the  brood  to  tbt 
qoecnka*  coloor,  count  tbe  number  of  qoeea-cens  raised, 
remeraberiog  that  one  has  to  be  left  to  tbe  edonj  that 
raised  them.  On  tbe  same  day,  make  swarms,  (475) « 
mndei,  (522)  or  destroy  worthkas  queens 
(150)  which  you  desire  to  replace  next 

517.  The  next  day,  with  a  aharp  pen- 
kDiff;,  E:arefully  remove  a  piece  of  comb, 
au  iricfi  <ii  more  sq'iare,  that  contains  a 
queen-cell  (Fig.  ^^),  and  id  one  of  the 
XiKfA  cornbg  of  the  hive  to  which  this  cell 
is  to  tie  given,  cut  a  place  just  Urge  ^^  ^^ 
enoiigli  !.o  receive  and  hold  it  in  a  natural  Qi'Bu--caLi. 
position.    (Fig.  00.)                                                 BioiovaD. 

K:iil]  ■|ii':'iiliS'  .'■toik  can  thus  be  supplied  with  a  queen. 

I.  Dnwaledeell  A.  Iiuat- 
cdwU.  C.  UnanUbsdoaU 
D,  I>M«ptl*«  call  Jwt  ta 

be  eoMMty  that 
rms,   (475)  « 



ready  to  batch,  from  the  beet  breeding  mother. 

Unless  very  great  oare  ia  used  in  traDsterring  a  loyal  cell, 
its  inmates  will  be  destroyed,  as  ber  body,  until  she  is  nearly 
mature,  is  so  exceedingly  Bott,  that  a  slight  compression  of 
her  cell — especially  near  the  base,  where  there  is  no  cocoon— 
generally  proyes  fatal.  For  this  reason,  it  is  best  to  defer 
removing  them,  until  they  are  within  three  or  four  days  of 
hatching.  A  queen-cell,  nearly  mature,  may  be  known  by 
ita  baring  the  wax  removed  from  the  lid,  by  the  bees,  so  as 
to  give  it  a  brown  appearance. 

018.  If  the  weather  is  warm,  and  the  hive,  to  which  a 
qn«en-O0ll  is  given,  is  very  populous,  the  cell  may  be  iutro- 
dnoed  by  simply  inserting  it  in  its  natural  position  between 
two  oombfl  of  brood.  Jt  ia  very  important  to  have  the  queen- 
mB  1m  or  ntar  the  brood,  or  the  bees  might  neglect  it. 

Satnetlmes,  the  bees  so  crowd  their  roj-al  cells  together 
(fig,  91)  that  it  la  difficult  to  remove  one  without  fatally 

injuring  another,  as,  when  a  cell  is  cut  into,  tlic  destruction 
and  removal  of  the  larva  usu^illy  fol'ows.  Mr.  Alley,  by 
hts  method,  giten  further  on  (528),  fuunil  a  remedy  for 
this.  If  many  queens  are  to  be  raised,  it  ia  well  to  b:ive  a 
■0W  supply  of  cells  started  every  week  or  even  ottener. 

90),  vUA,  ihfaoa^  kn  appar-  | 
•Bt,  Toold  <£s^pout  Ute  ^id  in  I 

S20.  When  qoeens  an  raised   | 
tim«   for  aitificisi    in-    j 
or  far  sale,  it 
it  more  pro&tnbk  to  use  wmdei  in-    ! 
Stead  of  full  colonies  to  batch  these    . 
queens.     The  word  nuclei  (plural 
of  nudeta),  from  the  Latin  nuelau 
a  nut,  a  kernel,  was  first  apptied 
bj  Ur.  Langstroth  to  diminutiTe    [5 
colonies  of  bees.     This   term   is 
cersally  adopted  on  both 

531.  When  we  were  raising 
queens  for  sale,  we  had  contrived  g 
a  divisible  frame  (Gg.  93)  to  make 
tbese  nuclei  of  combs  taken  from 
full  colonies.  Our  combs  could  be  thaa  separated  in  twO| 
and  used  in  smaller  hives,  and  in  the  Fall,  these  same  combt 
were  returned  to  the  full  colonies.     Two  nBoll  fmnei  an 



more  advantageoaa  than  one  luge  frame,  as  the;  giT« 
more  compactaesB  to  the  cluster.  Besides,  these  small 
colonies  can  be  built  up  easily  afterwaids  by  coupling  tlie 
frames,  and  uniting  the  combs  of  S  or  4  nuclei  into  one 
large  hive. 

It  is  not  necessary  to  have  many  of  these  frames  in  an  Api- 
ary, as  ■  few  are  sufficient  to  make  a  number  of  nuclei,  if 
they  are  placed  in  the  centre  of  full  colonics  early  in  Spring. 

<Fig.  as.) 

Two  frames  thus  made  from  one  standard  Langstroth 
tnme  measure  about  8)  by  8)  inches  each,  a  very  conven- 
ient size  tor  nucleus  frames. 

In  the  Pall,  a  number  of  nuclei  may  be  united,  in  a  full 
sized  hire,  on  tbetr  own  combs,  by  this  method. 

522.  To  make  a  nucleus,  take  from  a  culony,  as  late  in 
the  afternoon  as  there  is  light  enough  to  do  it,  a  coinK  con- 
taining worker-egga,  anil  bees  just  gnawing  out  of  their  ti^lls, 
and  put  it,  with  the  mature  bees  that  are  on  it,  into  an 
empty  hive.  If  there  are  not  bees  enoujfh  adhering  to  it, 
to  tirevent  the  brood  frum  being  chilled  during  the  night, 
more  must  be  shaken  into  llie  hive  from  other  comhs.  If 
tbe  transfer  is  made  so  late  in  the  day  that  the  bees  are  not 
disposed  to  I6aTC  the  hive,  enough  may  have  hatched,  by 


morning,  to  sapplf  the  jimom  of  fhom  iMA  will  nton  lo 

the  parent  stodc. 

S^S.  In  ereiy  esse,  when  a  swann  has  kit  Iti  hhe  for 

another  qnarter,  each  bee,  as  die  aalHea  out,  lllea  with  hor 

head  turned  towarda  it,  that  by  marling  the  aazromidiBg 

objeeta,  &he  may  find  her  way  baek.    If,  howerer,  the  bev 

did  not  emigrate  of  their  otonyVea  loA,  moat  of  them  appeal^ 

ing  to  forget,  or  not  knowing,  that  tMr  loeatton  haa  been 

changed,  retom  to  their  familiar  spot;  tor  it  would  aacn 


**A  ^beeiemofed'agalttitherwlll. 

It  of  the  lame  opinion  MSL^ 

Should  the  Apiarist,  ignorant  of  thia  fact,  place  the  an- 
clens  on  a  new  stand  without  providing  it  with  a  aoffident 
number  of  young  bees,  it  would  lose  so  many  of  the  bees 
which  ought  to  be  retained  in  it,  that  most  of  Its  unsealed 
brood  would  perish  from  neglect. 

If  the  comb  used  in  forcing  such  a  f»iic2€i»  was  removed 
at  a  time  of  day  when  the  bees  would  be  likely  to  return  to 
the  parent  stock,  they  should  be  confined  to  the  hiye,  until 
it  is  too  late  for  them  to  leave ;  and  if  the  number  of  bees,  just 
emerging  from  their  cells,  is  not  large,  the  entrance  to  the 
hive  should  be  closed,  until  about  an  hour  before  sunset  of 
the  next  day  but  one.  The  hive  containing  this  small  col- 
ony, should  be  properly  ventiated,  and  shaded — ^if  thin — 
from  the  intense  heat  of  the  sun ;  it  should  always  be  well 
supplied  with  honey.  The  space  unoccupied  in  the  hive 
should  be  separated  from  the  nucleus  by  a  division  board 

524.  Beginners  must  remember  that  it  is  better  to  have 
these  sina'.l  nuclei  strong  with  bees;  but,  in  giving  them 
young  bees,  care  should  be  taken  not  to  give  them  the  queen. 
If  a  nuL-leus  is  made  at  mid-day,  nearly  all  the  beea  given 
to  it  ¥rill  be  young  bees,  as  the  old  beea  are  then  in  the 


The  best  maimer  to  add  young  bees  from  strange  colo- 
nies to  weak  nuclei,  is  to  shake  or  brush  them,  on  the  apron 
board  in  front  of  the  entrance,  as  is  done  in  swarm- 
ing (428). 

525.  Hives,  or  nuclei  in  which  queen-cells  are  to  be  in- 
troduced, should  be  aware  of  their  queenless  condition  be- 
fore a  queen-cell  is  given  them.  Hence  the  necessity  of 
preparing  them  24  hours  previous. 

526.  A  vigilant  eye  should  be  kept  upon  every  colony 
that  has  not  an  impregnated  queen ;  and  when  its  queen  is 
about  a  week  old  it  should  be  examined,  and  if  she  has  be- 
come fertile,  she  will  usually  be  found  supplying  one  of  the 
central  combs  with  eggs.  If  neither  queen  nor  eggs  can  be 
found,  and  there  are  no  certain  indications  that  she  is  lost, 
the  hive  should  be  examined  a  few  days  later,  for  some 
queens  are  longer  in  becoming  impregnated  than  others, 
and  it  is  often  difficult  to  find  an  unimpregnated  one,  on  ac- 
count of  her  adroit  way  of  hiding  among  the  bees. 

As  soon  as  the  young  queen  lays,  she  may  be  introduced 
to  a  queenless  colony,  or  sold,  and  if  queen-cells  arc  kept 
on  hand,  another  one  can  be  given  to  the  nucleus  the  next 
day.  Thus,  nuclei  may  be  made  to  raise  two  queens  or 
more  in  a  month. 

527.  If  the  queens  are  to  be  multiplied  rapidly,  the 
nnc'lei  must  never  be  allowed  to  become  too  much  re*luced 
in  numbers,  or  to  be  destitute  of  brood  or  honey.  With 
these  precautions,  the  oftener  their  queen  is  taken  from 
them,  the  more  intent  they  will  usually  become  iu  supplying 
her  loss. 

There  is  one  trait  in  the  character  of  bees  which  is  wor- 
thy of  profound  respect.  Such  is  their  indomitable  energy 
and  perseverance,  that  under  circumstances  apparently 
hopeless,  they  labor  to  the  utmost  to  retrieve  their  losses, 
and  sustain  the  sinking  State.  So  long  as  they  have  a 
qneen,  or  any  prospect  of  raising  one,  they  struggle  vigor- 



ously  against  impending  rain,  and  never  give  np  until  their 
condition  is  absolutely  desperate.  We  once  knew  a  colooy 
of  bees  not  large  enough  to  cover  a  piece  of  comb  four  inches 
square,  to  attempt  to  raise  a  queen.  For  two  whole  weeks, 
they  adhered  to  their  forlorn  hope ;  until  at  last,  when  they 
had  dwindled  to  less  than  one-half  their  original  number, 
their  new  queen  emerged,  but  with  wings  so  imperfect  that 
she  could  not  fly.  Crippled  as  she  was,  they  treated  her 
with  almost  as  much  respect  as  though  she  were  fertile.  In 


Fig.  925.  (From  AUey.) 

the  course  of  a  week  more,  scarce  a  dozen  workers  remained 
in  the  hive,  and  a  few  days  later,  the  queen  was  gone,  and 
only  a  few  disconsolate  wretches  were  left  on  the  comb. 

528.  Mr.  Alley,  who  raises  queens  by  the  thousand,  has 
publislied  his  nK'lhod  of  queen-rearing.  His  queens  are  all 
raised  in  very  small  nuclei  which  he  calls  miniature  hives. 
From  a  light-colored  worker-comb  filled  with  hatching  eggs, 
he  cuts  strips  with  a  sharp  knife,  as  in  fig.  926. 

**Aft<'r  thocomhhas  been  cut  up,  lay  the  pieces  flat  upon  aboard 
or1.:il)U'.  :iiul  cut  the  cells  on  one  side  down  to  within  one  fourth 
ol"  un  inch  of  the  foundation  or  septum,  as  seen  in  fig.  93^which 
n'presrnis  tlic  <-oml)  ready  to  place  in  position  for  cell  build- 
ing.    WiiiU"  cntrafTi'd   in    tills  work,  keep  a  lighted  lamp  near 


FiK'.  UU.   (From  Alley.) 

at  hand,  with   which   to  heat  the  knife,  or  the  cells  will  be 
b.idly  januned     »      ♦      ♦     *► 



The  strips  of  comb  being  ready,  ire  simply  destroy  each  alter- 
nate larva  or  egg,  (flg.  9'2b.  In  order  to  do  tbU,  take  the  strlos 
carefully  In  the  left  hand,  and  Insert  the  end  of  acommon  lucifer 
match  into  eaub  alteraute  cell,  pressing  U  gently  on  the  bottom 
of  the  cell,  and  then  twirling  it  rapidly  between  the  thumb  and 
flngen.  ThUglvesplenty  of  room  for  large  cells  to  be  built  with- 
ont  Interfering  with  those  adjoining,  and  permits  of  thetr  being 
•eparated  without  Injury  to  neighboring  cells." — "  Bee-lieepera' 
Handy  Book,"  Wenbam,  1895. 

This  strip,  Mr.  Alley  fast^iis  under  &  trimmed  comb  cut 
slightly  conTflx,  by  dipping  the  cells,  wbioh  have  been  left 
full  length,  into  »  miztore  of  two  parts  roain  aad  one  ot 

bees-wax,  taking  care  not  to  ovcr-licat  tliis  nii:ttiirc,  as  the 
be&t  might  destroy  the  eggs  (fig  94).  The  comb  tijus  pre- 
pared ia  given  to  a  prepared  colony,  which  has  been  queen- 

S7S  quEEm  bbabivo. 

Ies0  and  without  brood  for  ten  bonrs^  Mr.  Alky  hsffng  ■!► 
tioed  that  the  eggs  may  be  deetroyed  If  f^twma  to  a  eoloaf 
Just  made  queenlesa. 

This  method  is  probably  the  moat  eocpeditioiia  and  tte 
cheapest  that  can  be  followed,  for  raising  a  lai^  munbcrof 
queens ;  but  we  would  hardly  adTise  Apiaiiata  to  use  ai 
small  nuclei  as  Mr.  Alley  does  (5  oombe,  4}  indiea  square). 
The  stronger  the  colony  in  which  a  queen  Is  raised,  the  better 
the  queen. 

529.  As  it  happens  yery  often,  that  more  queen-esBi 
are  raised  than  are  needed  immediately,  and  as  the  bees 
usually  destroy  all  after  the  first  one  has  hatched,  Apiariiti 
haye  deyised  queenr^uneriM  topreseorye  the  supennuier- 
ary  ceDs  until  needed.  It  is  not  safe  to  leaye  the  queoi* 
cells  under  the  control  of  the  bees  after  ten  days,  as  a  queen 
may  hatch  at  any  time. 

There  are  several  ways  to  make  queen-nurseries.  Messrs. 
Hoot,  Hay  hurst,  Ileddon  and  Hutchinson,  warm  their  nur- 
series with  lamps,  while  the  nurseries  used  by  Messrs.  Alley, 
Doniarcc  and  others,  are  placed  in  well  populated  hives. 

580.  The  lamp-nursery  is  a  doubled-walled  tin  box,* 
of  the  right  size  to  receive  the  breeding  frames.  The  space 
between  the  walls  and  the  bottom  is  filled  with  water,  and  a 
kerosene  lump  is  lighted  under  it,  with  the  flame  about  one 
foot  from  the  bottom  of  the  box.  The  temperature  of  this 
lamp-nursery  is  regulated  by  raising  or  lowering  the  fiame, 
and  is  kept  between  t'O^  and  100*^.  The  combs  containing 
the  8eale<l  (pieen-eells  arc  placed  in  this  box,  and  if  the 
brood  in  the  combs  is  all  of  the  same  age,  every  queen  will 
hatch,  at  least,  five  days  before  any  of  the  workers.  These 
(pieen-eells  have  to  be  examined  every  few  hours,  for  the 
first  tpieens  hatehed  would  destroy  the  others. 

The  Alley  (pieen-nursery  is  composed  of  a  number  of  small 

•  Mr.  Ilayhariit,  of  Knnsas  City,  who  it  one  of  Um 
qQMu  brcodcn,  ate*  a  galvanised  iron  uorterj,  packed  la  S  flhaJT 


cages,  ooYored  with  wire  cloth  on  each  side  and  inserted  in 
a  frame.  Each  cage  has  two  holes  at  the  top,  one  for  a 
sponge  saturated  with  honey,  the  other  to  receive  the  queen- 
cell.  The  frame  is  inserted  in  a  strong  colony,  not  neces- 
sarily queenless,  since  these  young  queens  are  caged,  and 
haTe  feed  at  hand  when  they  hatch. 

The  hatching  of  queens  in  nurseries  properly  belongs  to 
the  trade  of  the  queen-breeder.  The  honey  producer,  who 
raises  queens  for  himself  only,  does  not  need  fresh  queens 
erery  day.  Besides,  the  introducing  of  these  young  virgin 
queens  to  nuclei,  previous  to  impregnation,  is  quite  difficult 
and  uncertain.  (541.) 
1^1.  Before  we  pass  to  the  subject  of  introducing  queens, 
we  cannot  refrain  from  noticing  the  rapid  progress  of  the 
business  of  queen  rearing  in  the  last  20  years.  The  intro- 
duction of  brighter  races  has  greatly  increased  the  spread- 
ing of  Apiarian  science,  and  many  facts  which,  years  ago, 
were  known  only  to  the  few,  now  belong  to  the  public  do- 

532.  In  breeding  the  new  races,  let  the  novice  remem- 
ber that  the  qualities  he  should  seek  to  improve  are,  first, 
prolificness  and  honey  production ;  second,  peaceableness ; 
third,  beauty. 

Since  their  introduction  into  this  country,  the  Italians 
have  been  bred  too  much  for  color,  at  the  expense  of  their 
other  qualities.  We  have  seen  queens,  that  had  been  so  in- 
bred for  color,  that  their  mating  with  a  black  drone  hardly 
showed  the  hybridization  of  their  progeny. 

This  in-and-in  breeding,  for  color,  has  even  produced  white- 
eyed  drones,  stone  blind,  a  degeneracy  which  would  tend  to 
the  extinction  of  the  race. 

uw  wiiBJn 
ft  Twrfymff  timm  €iiyttfm»  fm  aa  loiptagti  Mm  cl«»- 
ter,  aad  ah*  eommoolj  diei  ciAar  froat  hn^fcrorwaat  of  air.  If 
•fgfitgfffi  lioar»eIftpa»bgftit»^aMh«titatioaofft«tf«ngtf  q»w, 
dM  to  tmsed,  ftl  ftnt,  i&  tte  shm  viT*  ^^^  tte  teesksToter 
MOBcr.  Bor  Is  tte  mmwmdlog  etaster  •»  dose;  ttey  gndoally 
dtepeise.  and  tte  qaeen  is  st  IssI  litented ;  ste  sbotm  Isngnldly, 
snd  sometimes  expires  In  s  few  minoleft.  Some,  teweTcr,  s^ 
cspe  In  good  healch*  and  afterwards  reign  In  the  hire.** 

The  mauiner  in  which  strmnge  qaeens  are  treated  by  tte 
tees,  when  they  are  queenlesa,  depends  mainly  on  the  state 
of  the  honey  harvest. 

534.  But  in  order  to  meet  with  uniform  success,  the  fol- 
lowing conditions  must  be  fulfilled: 

The  bees  must  be  absolutely  queenless.  Sometimes  a 
colony  contains  two  (117)  queens,  and  the  Apiarist  after 
removing  one  may  imagine  that  he  can  introduce  a  stranger, 
safely.     Many  queens  are  thus  killed. 

53o.  As  bees  recognize  one  another  by  the  scent,  the 
new  queen  should  be  [)Iaced  so  as  to  get  the  odor  of  the 
hive,  before  being  released  among  them.  This  can  be  ef- 
fecterl  rea<iily  l»y  sprinkling  the  bees  and  the  new  queen 
with  sweetened  water  scented  with  peppermint,  and  liberat- 
ing; ber  at  once.  Hut  as  this  method  generally  causes  some 
robbing'  (004)  in  times  of  scarcity,  it  is  not  always  to  te 
relied  upon. 

530.  Our  method  consists  in  placing  the  queen  in  a  small 
flat  cage,  made  of  wire  cloth,  between  two  comte,  in  the 


most  populous  part  of  the  hive,  near  the  brood  and  the 
honey,  and  keeping  her  there  from  24  to  48  hours.  These 
qaeen-cages  were  first  used  in  Germany  for  introducing 

537.  In  catching  a  queen,  she  should  be  gently  taken 
with  the  fingers,  from  among  the  bees,  and  if  none  are 
crushed,  there  is  no  risk  of  being  stung.  The  queen  her- 
self will  not  sting,  even  if  roughly  handled. 

If  she  is  allowed  to  fiy,  she  may  be  lost,  by  attempting 
to  enter  a  strange  hive. 

To  introduce  her  into  the  cage,  she  should  be  allowed  to 
dimb  up  into  it.  It  is  a  fact  well  knovon  to  queen  breeders 
VuU  a  bee  or  a  queen  cannot  be  easily  induced  to  enter  a  cage 
or  a  box  turned  dotvnward.  The  meshes  of  the  wire  cloth 
should  not  be  closer  than  12  to  the  inch,  that  the  bees  may 
feed  the  queen  readily  through  them.  This  is  important, 
for  we  have  lost  two  queens  successively  in  a  cage  with 
closer  meshes. 

The  bees  will  cultivate  an  acquaintance  with  the  impris- 
oned mother,  by  thrusting  their  antennae  through  tlie  open- 
ings, and  will  be  as  quiet  as  though  the  queen  had  her  lib- 
erty. Such  a  cage  will  be  very  convenient  for  any  tempor- 
ary confinement  of  a  queen. 

538.  It  is  necessary,  when  the  queen  is  released,  that 
the  bees  be  in  good  spirits,  neither  frightened,  nor  angered, 
and  there  should  be  no  robbers  about,  as  they  might  take 
her  for  an  intruder,  and  ball  her. 

This  technical  word  is  used  to  describe  the  peculiar  way 
in  which  bees  surround  a  queen  whom  they  want  to  kill. 
The  cluster  that  encloses  her,  is  in  the  form  of  a  ball,  somr- 
times  as  large  as  one's  fist,  and  so  compact  that  it  cannot 
readily  be  scattered.  She  may  be  rescued  by  throwing  the 
ball  into  a  basin  of  water.  We  have  known  bees  to  ball 
their  own  mother  in  such  circumstances,  for  qneens  are  of 
a  timid  disposition  and  easily  frightened.     When  we  release 

S76  QUUEV  BSABoro. 

aitrange  queen,  we  put  a  small  slioe  of  comb  honej,  or  hamf 
cappings,  in  p}ace  of  the  stopper  of  the  cage,  and  doea  At 
hive.  It  takes  from  15  to  20  minutes  for  the  beea  la  ail 
through,  and  by  that  time  all  Is  quiet,  so  the  queen  wafti 
leisurely  out  of  her  cage,  and  is  safe. 

539.  If  the  colony,  in  which  a  queen  is  to  be  lolr^ 
duced,  is  destitute,  the  bees  should  be  abundantlly  fad  oa 
the  preceding  night  (005).  After  ahe  has  been  releaisd, 
it  is  well  to  leaye  the  colony  alone  for  two  or  three  d^ys. 

As  a  fertile  queen  can  lay  seyend  thousand  egga  a  d^i 
it  is  not  strange  that  she  should  quickly  become  erhanstsdi 
if  taken  from  the  bees.  ''  Ex  nihUo  nihUJU  "—from  not- 
ing, nothing  comes — and  the  arduous  duties  of  mateniitj 
compel  her  to  be  an  enormous  eater.  After  an  absence 
from  the  bees  of  only  fifteen  minutes,  she  will  solicit  honey, 
when  returned ;  and  if  kept  away  for  an  hour  or  upwards, 
she  must  cither  be  fed  by  the  Apiarist,  or  have  bees  to  sap- 
ply  her  wants. 

Mr.  Simmins  has  taken  advantage  of  this  appetite,  and 
of  the  propensity  of  bees  to  feed  the  queens,  in  introduciDg 
them  directly,  after  keeping  them  without  bees  and  food^ 
for  about  30  minutes.  At  dusk  he  lifts  a  comer  of  the 
cloth  (352)  of  the  hi^e  in  which  he  wants  to  introduce  the 
queen;  drives  the  bees  away  with  a  little  smoke  (882), 
and  permits  the  quccn^  to  run  between  the  combs.  Then  he 
waits  48  hours  before  visiting  the  hive.  Several  bee-keep- 
ers report  having  succeeded  with  this  method.  On  ac- 
count of  this  propensity  of  bees  to  feed  queens,  any  num- 
ber of  fertile  ones  may  be  kept  in  a  hive  already  contsiniog 
a  fertile  queeu,  if  they  are  placed  in  cages  between  the 
combs,  near  the  honey  and  the  brood. 

540.  Some  Apiarists  use  chloroform,  ether,  puff-balls,  or 
other  ingredients,  to  stupefy  the  bees  of  mutinous  colonies 
who  persist  in  refusing  to  accept  a  strange  queen  and  who 

nrrRODUcnON  or  yiroin  queens.  277 

■bow  it  by  angrily  suxTonnding  the  cage  in  which  she  is 

The  Rev.  John  Thorley,  in  his  ^^  Female  Monarchy," 
published  at  London,  in  1744,  appears  to  have  first  intro- 
duced the  practice  of  stupefying  bees  by  the  narcotic  fumes 
of  the  **  puff  ball  "  {Fungus  pulvenUentus),  dried  till  it  will 
hold  fire  like  tinder.  The  bees  soon  drop  motionless  from 
their  comb,  and  recover  again  after  a  short  exposure  to  the 
air.  This  method  was  once  much  practiced  in  France,  (L' Ap- 
iculteur,  page  17,  Paris,  1856)  but  is  very  dangerous,  as  too 
large  a  dose  of  ansestheticB  will  cause  death  instead  of  sleep. 

Introduction  of  Vibqin  Queens. 

1141.  The  difference  in  looks  between  a  virgin  queen 
and  an  impregnated  one  is  striking,  and  an  expert  will 
distingnish  them  at  a  glance.  The  virgin  queen  is  slender, 
her  abdomen  is  small,  her  motions  quick,  she  runs  about  and 
ahnoBt  flies  over  the  combs,  when  trying  to  hide  from  the 
light.  In  fact,  she  has  nothing  of  the  matronly  dignity  of 
a  mother. 

Bees,  in  possession  of  a  fertile  queen,  are  quite  reluctant 
to  accept  an  unimpregnated  one  in  her  stead ;  indeed,  it 
requires  much  experience  to  be  able  to  give  a  virgin  queen 
to  a  colony,  and  yet  be  sure  of  securing  for  her  a  good  re- 

Mi.  Langstroth  was  the  first  to  ascertain,  years  ago,  that 
the  best  time  to  introduce  her,  is  just  after  her  birth,  as  soon 
as  she  can  crawl  readily.  If  introduced  too  soon,  the  bees 
may  drag  her  out,  as  they  would  any  imperfect  worker. 
Moat  queen-breeders  liberate  them  on  the  comb,  or  at  the 
entrance  of  a  queenless  nucleus.  Mr.  H.  I).  Cutting,  of 
Clinton,  Mich.,  recommends  daubing  the  young  queen  with 
honey,  at  the  comes  out  of  her  cell,  and  liberating  her 

■S42  la  -n — •'■••— t<r  rwww  «  ^oks.-'mII*  to  foil  R>b>- 
xuis  :;.-:!;;  ^i  T-»-i.-Ti:ipKaB«ii.  i  i»;c*a»T«rT  often  tlut 

^■i  A:  :-j--  «..':.-i  »^:a.  !:c  &  few  dajs..  Ae   coloo j  U 

5*^5  1*  I  -:i'-^  '.T  i  ;-'«'i.  i"  is  BKVsmrr  to  mneB- 
if:T  '-i:  "r  J  :-  "i  J-'-i  .\'«^  aolcas  fn^t«Eied  «waj. 
If  -.-T  :>:-:-r  ij^  ::  :■:  zrinT.-  ii^mrbcd.  aa  Itaaaa  queen  maj 
i«  '    ::i  T  -.  -  ;t-  ~tz.z'jia  kfter  opeaiag  the  hire. 

A  ,  .'.-.z  :'  ■:—-  ::  ^-;*<,  or  <rf  hTbri<i5.  a  more  difflralt 
Xn  Z-  :  i.i  L--  :t<s  :f:«:i  risb  aboat  tbe  hive  as  aoon  aaitia 
i-.^-:.'.-  II  -:■:  .!::=■::  t*  f->cD<l  on  the  combs,  and  thehin 
i«  ;'  ;  ..  ;*  i!  i'  '^st  :•>  sh:>ke  all  the  tmnes  on  a  sheet,  in 
tr',  :  '  f  :Ln  fr:.-  'y  ^"  \.  aai  stK-iiR  them  in  a  closed  hJTe.  out 
'■!  '.':.'■  r-:j'  h  vf  r  ■■  'f-r*.  t:atjlthese»rcfa  Is  oter.  when eTcr;- 
thini'  mav  ;e  renirne-i  id  Us  proper  place. 

S44  Aft*:r  a  q'leea  is  taken  from  a  c«^,  the  bee«  iriD 
run  in  and  '>'it  of  it  f»r  a  long  time,  tfans  proving  thmt  tbcf 
nt:i>fiii\xt:  her  |«H;uliar  scent.  It  is  this  odor  which  causes 
them  Ut  run  imiuiringlf  over  oar  hands,  after  we  have  cangbt 

mTRODuonoM  or  yntaiN  qukbns.  279 

a  queen,  and  over  any  spot  where  she  alighted  when  her 
twarm  came  forth. 

This  scent  of  the  queen  was  probably  known  in  Aristotle's 
time,  who  says :  **  When  the  bees  swarm,  if  the  king  (queen) 
is  lost,  we  are  told  that  they  all  search  for  him,  and  follow 
him  with  their  sagacious  smell,  until  they  find  him. " 
Wildmansays:  *^  The  scent  of  her  body  is  so  attractive  to 
them,  that  the  slightest  touch  of  her,  along  any  place,  or 
substance,  will  attract  the  bees  to  it,  and  induce  them  to 
pursue  any  path  she  takes. " 

The  intelligent  bee-keeper  has  now  realized,  not  only 
how  queens  may  be  raised  or  replaced,  by  the  use  of  the 
movable-frame  hive,  but  how  any  operation,  which  in  other 
bives  is  performed  with  difficulty,  if  at  all,  is  in  this  rendered 
easy  and  certain.  No  hive,  however,  can  make  the  ignorant 
or  negligent  very  successful,  even  if  they  live  in  a  region 
where  the  climate  is  so  propitious,  and  the  honey  resources 
so  abundant,  that  the  bees  wiU  prosper  in  spite  of  misman- 
agement or  neglect. 


Racb  or  Boi. 

040.  The  honey-bee  ii  not  Ind^mooe  to  AMariOb 
Thomae  Jeflenon,  in  hli  "  Notes  on  TIrgini&,"  bsti: 

**  The  hoDej-bee  li  not  %  netlTe  at  oez  eoontiT.  Xerogim 
Indeed,  mentlDua  « ipeolcB  of  honeypea  In  &aiiL  BnttUskM 
■to  ttlng,  uid  Is  therefore  dlBfarent  from  the  one  we  have,  «Uafc 
TCMmbleB  perftoctlj  thftt  of  Europe,  nie  IndUnaooaciir  wUkM 
In  tbe  tradition  tbat  It  wki  bronght  from  Europe ;  but  wben  and 
by  wbom,  we  know  not.  The  bee«  here  generktly  extended 
themselves  Into  tbe  coantrf,  a  little  in  adTADoe  of  the  white  *et- 
tlen.    The  Indians  therefore  call  them,  the  white  man'i  Uy." 

"  When  John  Eliot  translated  the  Scriptmea  Into  the  langnap 
of  the  Aborigines  of  North  America,  no  words  were  fonnd  ax- 
preaalve  of  the  terms  wax  and  honey."    (A.  B.  J.  July  ISCG.) 

Longfellow,  in  liis  "Song  of  Hiawatha,"  in  describiog 
the  advent  of  tlic  European  to  the  New  World,  makes  his 
Indian  warrior  xay  of  tlie  bee  and  the  white  clover: — 
"  Whercsoe'cr  tbey  move,  before  them 
Swarms  the  stinging  fly,  the  Ahmo, 
Swarms  the  bee.  the  honey-maker; 
Whercsoe'cr  they  tread,  beneath  them 
Springs  a  ilower  unknown  among  na. 
Springs  the  White  Han'e  Foot  In  blossom." 

n40.  According  to  the  qiiotations  of  the  A.  B.  J., 
i-ommon  hcQs  were  imported  into  Florida,  by  the  Spaniarda 
pretiouB  to  1763,  for  ilicy  were  first  noticed  in  West 
Fli.riiia  in  that  year.  Tlu-y  appe.-ired  in  Kontncky  in  1780, 
in  New  York  in  1793,  and  West  of  the  Mississippi  in  1797. 

54T.  "It  laaurprislng  in  wbatcountlessiwuma  thebeeshara 
orerapread  the  far  West  wMhltv  but  a  moderate  n 

THK  BEE  nr  AMERICA.  281 

The  Indians  consider  them  the  harbingers  of  the  white  man,  as 
the  buffalo  is  of  the  red  man,  and  say  that,  in  proportion  as  the 

bee  advances,  the  Indian  and  the  buffalo  retire They  have 

been  the  heralds  of  civilization,  steadily  preceding  it  as  it  ad- 
vances from  the  Atlantic  borders ;  and  some  of  the  ancient  set- 
tlers of  the  West  pretend  to  give  the  very  year  when  the  honey- 
bee first  crossed  the  Mississippi.  At  present  it  swarms  in  my- 
riads in  the  noble  groves  and  forests  that  skirt  and  intersect  the 
prairies,  and  extend  along  the  alluvial  bottoms  of  the  rivers.  It 
seems  to  me  as  if  these  beautiful  regions  answer  literally  to  the 
description  of  the  land  of  promise — ^a  land  flowing  with  milk  and 
honey  ;*  for  the  rich  pasturage  of  the  prairies  is  calculated  to  sus- 
tain herds  of  cattle  as  countless  as  the  sands  upon  the  sea-shore, 
while  the  flowers  with  which  they  are  enamelled  render  them  a 
▼cry  paradise  for  the  nectar-seeking  bee." — Washington  Irving, 
"Tour  on  the  Prairies,"  Chap.  IX.  (1832). 

Many  Apiarists  contend  that  newly-settled  countries  are 
most  favorable  to  the  bee ;  and  an  old  German  adage  runs 


^  Bells'  ding  dong, 

And  choral  song, 

Deter  the  bee 

From  Industry : 

But  hoot  of  owl, 

And  *  wolTs  long  howl,' 

Incite  to  moil 

And  steady  toil." 

It  is  evident  that  the  bees  spread  Westward  very  rapidly, 
and  to  this  day,  many  old  bee-men  can  be  found,  who  posi- 
tively assert  that  a  swarm  never  goes  P^astward,  even  after 
it  is  proven  to  them  that  they  usually  go  to  the  nearest 

548.  Bees,  like  all  other  insects,  are  divided  scicntiricall}' 
into  genera,  species,  and  varieties. 

Aristotle  speaks  of  three  different  varieties  <»f  the  honey- 
bee, as  well  known  in  his  time.  Tlie  bei^t  variety  he  describes 
as  *'/iixpa,  girpoyyvXi]  ccai  noixiXi]  ** — that  is,  small,  and 
round  in  size  and  shape,  and  variegated  in  color. 

Acis  TitiiMcx  ifioaJ^  iearaaCBd  •mitffr  ^ne  3A3x«  of  bbck. 
ir  rn7  zk**.     Z«:ci   i.LTna  ir4  jrcr:criase.  siaos  rh*  nee 

-^  i±r:a-  La  T"i-1  ii  J.  "iie  Eimceaa  pru^lzces  of  Txirkej, 
ZS1&  i'zm:D.i:  c  *^<  izh  iiir^.  oietir!  j  black.  Ia  o^er  places, 
tn.»tir  i-i-'ir  -a  jraf-iii.  Piej  t^itt  ia.  S2i».  u  well.  Aceord- 
ixz  ''.  ^.  -.'-  Frrn-'ii  T^rttdr?.  "m  txes  of  Hoi'and  are  small. 
ic-i  ir*- .-..^a:e:  •  al  r^ni^f  i?:uii£itdixij«*'  ^^:iie  little  Hal- 
la:i«i-:r  ■  :2  :!:•»  :-^'-:r  ''i,  iiie  Camiolaa*  b^tw  are  quite 
larz't.  "^t  'iJ-T*;  -«T>r  5«wa  qaeens  as  large  as  some  Car- 
XLL^/,3LZJi  T-.:.  :j:  t^  :z:-':r.c'i  *«:=«  tea  jearsago.  But,  in  spite 
of  *:h»*  r--.  .t  :--»53  iz  i  z^^z-rrril  g^wd  repatatioa  of  this  race, 
w^  d:i  L-.r  1"^-;-;  :o  7:::  ica:e  it,  owing  to  the  difficulty 
of  *ifi\^,r.T.z  "l-:ir  ziiri":^  -k^::!!  :he  common  bees,  since  thej 
ar<^  ri!~-',«*  al;;^.a  in  c«:I:r. 

^.jO-  Br-?:  :*3  the  'ro-rmo'n  bee,  there  are  a  great  many 
TsHfr^ifr*.  The  best  kno^n  axe:  Irf,  the  Xii^vriaii,  ApiM 
Ligu?ti^a.  «o  narTied  by  .S:-:noIa.  because  hefoond  it  first,  in 

*  C«rnIo!a   '.«  a  proTir.ce  of  AnstriA .  nesr  tfa«  Adziallo. 


the  part  of  Italy  called  Idguria.  The  Rev.  E.  W.  Gilman, 
of  Bangor,  Maine,  directed  the  writer's  attention  to  Spinola's 
"  Inaectorum  LigurioB  species  novce  aut  rariores^"  from 
which  it  appears,  that  Spinola  accurately  described  all  the 
peculiarities  of  this  bee,  which  he  found  in  Piedmont,  in 
1805.  He  fully  identified  it  with  the  bee  described  by  Aris- 

2d,  The  apis  fasciata  (banded  bee).  This  bee,  related 
to  the  Italian,  or  Ligurian,  which  has  yellow  bands  also,  is 
found  in  Egypt,  in  Arabia,  along  both  sides  of  the  Red 
Sea,  in  Syria,  in  Cyprus  and  in  Caucasus. 

3d.  We  shaU  mention  also  the  large  Apis  darsata  of  South- 
em  Asia,  and  the  melipones  of  Brazil  and  Mexico. 

551.  The  Italian  bee,  Apis  Ligustica^  spoken  of  by  Aris- 
totle and  Virgil  as  the  best  kind,  still  exists  distinct  and 
pure  from  the  common  kind,  after  the  lapse  of  more  than 
two  thousand  years. 

The  great  superiority  of  this  race,  over  any  other  race 
known,  is  now  universally  acknowledged ;  for  it  has  victor- 
iously stood  the  test  of  practical  bee-keepers,  side  by  side 
with  the  common  bee.  The  ultimate  superseding  of  the 
common  bee  by  the  Italian  in  this  country  is  but  a  matter 
of  time. 

552.  The  following  facts  are  evident: 

1st,  The  Italian  bees  are  less  sensitive  to  cold  than  the 
common  kind.  2d,  Their  queens  are  more  prolific. 
3d,  They  defend  their  hives  better  against  insects.  Moths 
(802)  are  hardly  ever  found  in  their  combs,  while  they  are 
occasionally  found  in  the  combs  of  even  the  strongest  colo- 
nies of  common  bees.  Their  great  vigilance  is  due  to  the 
mildness  of  the  climate  of  Italy,  whose  Winters  never 
destroy  the  moth.  Having  to  defend  themselves  against  a 
more  numerous  enemy,  they  are  more  watchful  than  the  bees 
of  colder  regions.  4th,  They  are  less  apt  to  sting.  Not 
only  are  they  less  apt,  but  scarcely  are  they  inclined  to  sting, 

S84  nacEB  ov  bbh. 

though  they  will  do  so  U  intentioiudly  annoyed,  or  irritated, 
or  improperly  treated. 

Spinola  speaks  of  the  more  peaoeable  disposition  or  tfait 
bee ;  and  Columella,  1800  years  ago,  had  noticed  the  same 
peculiarity,  describing  it  as  ^*  mUior  marOms^**  (milder  hi 
habits).  When  once  irritated,  howerer,  they  become  verj 

5th.  They  are  more  industrious.  Of  this  fact,  all  the 
results  go  to  conQ^  Dzierzon*s  statements,  and  satisfy  us 
of  the  superiority  of  this  kind  in  every  point  of  view, 
6th.  They  are  more  disposed  to  rob  than  common  bees,  and 
more  courageous  and  active  in  self-defense.  They  strive 
on  all  hands  to  force  their  way  into  colonies  of  common  bees ; 
but  when  strange  bees  attack  their  hives,  they  fight  with 
great  fierceness,  and  with  an  incredible  adroitness. 

Spinola  speaks  of  these  bees  as  "vetoctores  tnori*"— 
qiiicker  in  their  motions  than  the  common  bees. 

They  however  sooner  grow  tired  of  hunting,  where  nothing 
can  be  gained  ;  and  if  all  the  plunder  is  put  out  of  their  reach, 
they  will  give  up  the  attempt  at  robbing  (664)  more  prompt- 
ly than  common  bees. 

7th,  Aside  from  their  peaceableness,  they  are  more  easily 
handled  than  the  common  bees,  as  they  cling  to  their  combs 
and  do  not  rush  about,  or  cluster  here  and  there,  or  fall  to 
the  ground,  as  the  common  bees  do. 

It  is  hardly  necessary  to  add,  that  this  species  of  the 
honey-bee,  so  much  more  productive  than  the  common  kind, 
is  of  very  great  value  in  all  sections  of  our  country.  Its 
superior  docility  makes  it  worthy  of  high  regard,  even  if  in 
other  respects  it  had  no  peculiar  merits.  Its  introduction 
into  this  country,  has  helped  to  constitute  the  new  era  in 
bee-keeping,  and  has  imparted  much  interest  to  its  pursuit. 
It  is  one  of  the  causes  which  have  enabled  America  to 
surpass  the  world  in  the  production  of  honey. 

553.  Their  appearance  can   be   described  as  follows: 

THE   ITALIAN   BEE.  28ft 

■'The  flrat  three  abdominnJ  rings  (fig.  95  )  of  the  worker 
bee  are  transparent,  and  vary  from  a  dark  straw  or  golden 
color  to  the  deep  yellow  of  ochre.  These  rings  have  a  nar- 
row dark  edge  or  border,  so  that  the  yellow,  which  is  some- 
times  called  leather  color,  constitutes  the  ground,  and  is 
seemingly  barred  over  by  these  black 
edges.  This  is  most  distinctly  percepti- 
ble when  a  brood-comb,  on  which  bees  '/ 
are  densely  crowded,  is  taken  out  of  a 
hive,  or  when  a  bee  is  put  on  a  window.  ■ 
When  the  bee  is  full  of  honey  these 
lings  extend  and  slide  out  of  one  another,  ^ 
and  the  yellow  bands  show  to  better 
advantage,  especially  if  the  honey  eaten 
is  of  a  light  color.  On  the  contrary,  dur- 
ing a  dearth  of  honey,  the  rings  are 
drawn  up,  or  telescoped  in  one  another, 
and  the  bee  hardly  looks  like  tlie  same  *' 

Insect.  This  pecuharity  has  annoyed  ma-  n  ii.i^K  hek. 

ny  bee-keepers,  who  imagined  tbcirbeaii-       From  a.  i.  Eoot. 
tiful  bees  had  suddenly  become  hybrids. 

Id  doubtful  cases,  as  the  purity  of  llaliau  bees  is  very 
important,  it  is  well  to  follow  the  advice  of  A.  I.  Uoot:  -If 
you  are  undecided  in  regard  to  your  bees'  purity,  get  some 
of  the  bees  and  feed  them  all  tbe  honey  they  can  take  ;  uow 
put  them  on  a  window,  and  if  the  band  C  (fig.  Oo)  is  not 
plainly  visible,  call  them  hybrid.'!."     (-'A.  B.  C.  page  145), 

654.  Aside  from  this  test,  Ihcir  tenacity  and  quietness 
on  the  comb,  while  bandied  (378),  arc  infallible  signs  of 
puiity.  We  have  repeatedly  carried  a  frame  of  brood  cov- 
ered with  pure  Italian  bees,  from  a  hive  to  tbe  house,  and 
passed  the  comb  from  hand  to  hand  among  visitors,  some 
of  whom  were  ladies,  without  a  single  bee  dropping  ofl, 
or  attempting  to  sting. 

SOS,  Hw  droDM  (185)  and  the  queens  are  very  irregu- 

186  BACKS  or  BBKt. 

lar  in  markings,  some  beiiig  of  a  Tery  bright  yellow  eobr 
others  almost  as  darlf  as  drones  or  queens  of  oommon  best. 

**  It  is  a  remarkable  fact  that  an  Italian  queen,  impregnated  lif 
a  common  drone,  and  a  common  queen  impregnated  bj  an  Itil^ 
ian  drone,  do  not  produce  workers  of  a  uniform  intermedlata 
cast,  or  hybrids ;  but  some  of  the  workers  bred  firom  the  eggs  ^ 
each  queen  will  be  purely  of  the  Italian,  and  others  as  purely  ^ 
the  common  race,  only  a  few  of  them,  indeed,  being  appaienQj 
hybrids.  Berlepsch  also  had  several  mismated  queens,  whieh  at 
first  produced  Italian  workers  exclusively,  and  afterwards  eom- 
mo|i  workers  as  exclusively.  Some  such  queens  produced  ftillj 
three-fourths  Italian  workers;  others,  common  workers  in  tha 
same  proportion.  Nay,  he  states  that  he  had  one  beantiftil 
orange-yellow  mismated  Italian  queen  which  did  not  produce  a 
single  Italian  worker,  bat  only  common  workers,  perhaps  t 
shade  lighter  in  color.  The  drone*^  however,  produced  by  a  mis- 
mated Italian  queen  are  uniformly  of  the  Italian  race,  and  this 
fact,  besides  demonstrating  the  truth  of  Dzlerzon^s  theory,(l38) 
renders  the  preservation  and  perpetuation  of  the  Italian  race,  ia 
its  purity,  entirely  feasible  in  any  country  where  they  may  bs 
introduced/' — S.  Wagneh. 

556.  The  Italian  bees  from  different  parts  of  Italy  are  of 
different  shades,  but  otherwise,  preserve  about  the  same 
characteristics  all  over  the  peninsula.  But  how  can  they 
keep  pure,  since  there  are  common  bees  in  Europe?  A 
glance  at  the  map  will  answer  the  question.  Italy  is  sur- 
rounded on  all  sides  by  water  or  snow-covered  mountains, 
which  offer  an  insuperable  barrier  to  any  insects.  This  is 
further  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  the  bees  of  the  canton  of 
Tessin  (Italian  Switzerland)  are  Italians,  being  on  the 
South  side  of  the  Alps,  while  those  of  the  canton  of  Uri 
(German  Switzerland),  on  the  other  side  of  the  mountains 
and  only  a  few  miles  off.  are  common  bees.* 

557.  The  importation  of  Italian  bees  to  another  country 
was  first  attempted  by  Capt.  Baldenstein. 

*  The  Idea  that  aclGct  Italian  bees  raised  in  America,  maj  b«  jrarvr  ttiaa  Aoy 
Italiaoi  eror  imported,  has  becu  gravely  discaaaed  bj  aoina 


^  Being  stationed  in  Italy^  daring  part  of  the  Napoleonic  wan, 
he  noticed  that  the  bees,  in  the  Lombardo-Venitian  district  of 
Valtelin,  and  on  the  borders  of  Lake  Como,  difiered  in  color  from 
the  common  kind,  and  seemed  to  be  more  industrious.  At  the 
close  of  the  war,  he  retired  from  the  army,  and  returned  to  his 
ancestral  castle,  on  the  Rhsetian  Alps,  in  Switzerland ;  and  to 
occupy  his  leisure,  had  recourse  to  bee-culture,  which  had  been 
his  favorite  hobby  in  earlier  years.  While  studying  the  natural 
history,  habits,  and  instincts  of  these  insects,  he  remembered 
what  he  had  observed  in  Italy,  and  resolved  to  procure  a  colony 
from  that  country.  Accordingly,  he  sent  two  men  thither,  who 
purchased  one,  and  carried  it  over  the  mountains,  to  his  resi- 
dence, in  September,  1843. 

**  His  observations  and  inferences  impelled  Dzierzon— who  had 
previously  ascertained  that  the  cells  of  the  Italian  and  common 
bees  were  of  the  same  size — to  make  an  effort  to  procure  the 
Italian  bee;  and,  by  the  aid  of  the  Austrian  Agricultural  Society 
at  Vienna,*  he  succeeded  in  obtaining,  late  in  February,  1853, 
a  colony  from  Minu  near  Venice." — S.  Wagner. 

558.  An  attempt  was  made  in  1856,  by  Mr.  Wagner,  to 
import  them  into  America ;  but,  unfortunately,  the  colonies 
perished  on  the  voyage.  The  first  living  Italian  bees  lauded 
on  this  continent  were  imported  in  the  Fall  of  1859  by  Mr. 
Wagner  and  Mr.  Hiehard  Colvin,  of  Baltimore,  from 
Dzierzon's  Apiary.  Mr.  P.  G.  Mahan,  of  Philadelphia, 
brought  over  at  the  same  time  a  few  colonies.  In  the  Spring 
of  1860,  Mr.  S.  B.  Parsons,  of  Flushing,  L.  I.,  imported  a 
number  of  colonies  from  Italy.  Mr.  William  G.  Rose,  of 
New  York,  in  1861,  imported  also  from  Italy.  Mr.  Colvin 
made  a  number  of  importations  from  Dzierzon's  Apiary  ;  and 

•Some  of  the  GoTemments  of  Enrope  have  long  ago  taken  great  interest  In 
dlMeminating  among  their  people  a  knowledge  of  Dzierzon's  pystem  of  Bee- 
Coltiirc.  Pnuaia  fomiahea  monthly  a  number  of  persona  from  <liff(Tent  parts 
of  the  Kingdom  with  the  means  of  ac<iuiring  a  ]iractical  knowledge  of  this 
■jatem;  while  the  Barariaa  Grovernmeut  has  prescribed  iii^tniction  in  Dzier- 
KOD'a  theory  aod  practice  of  bee-cultiire,  as  a  part  of  the  regular  conrse  of 
•tQdiM  Id  its  teachera'  Seminaries.  We  are  glad  to  see  that  the  United  States 
la  beginning  to  recogniae  the  importance  of  bee-cnltnrc,  and  that  an  Apiarian 
dcpATtmenthaa  been  inaagurated  under  the  control  of  the  Agricultural  Depart- 
OMDttt  Washington. 

288  SAOEB  or  BXES. 

in  the  Fall  of  1868  and  1864  Mr.  Langatroth  alao  imported 
queens  from  the  same  Apiary,  bnt  the  first  large  Bnceeflsfid 
importations  were  made  by  Adam  Grimm  of  Wisconsin,  in 
1867,  from  the  Apiary  of  Frof.  Mona  of  Bellinzona,  and  by 
us  in  1874,  from  the  Apiary  of  Signor  Giuseppe  Fiorini  of 
Monselice,  Italy.  Since  then,  Mr.  A.  I.  Boot,  and  othen, 
have  succeeded  weU  nearly  every  season. 

This  valuable  variety  of  the  honey-bee  is  now  eztensivdy 
disseminated  in  North  America. 

For  directions  on  breeding  and  shipping  Italian  bees,  see 
the  chapters  on  Queen  Raising  (407)  and  Shipping  Beei 

550.  The  Egyptian  bees  (Apis  fasdata)  are  smaller  and 
brighter  than  the  Italian  bee.  The  hairs  of  their  body  are 
more  whitish,  and  their  motions  are  quick  and  fly-like.  Their 
prolilicuess  is  great,  but  their  ill-disposition  has  caused 
many  who  have  tried  them  to  abandon  them. 

The  Cyprian  bees  (a  sub-race  of  Apis  fasciata)  were 
imported  from  Cyprus  to  Europe  in  1872,  and  they  were 
so  much  praised  that,  in  1880,  two  enterprising  American 
Apiarists,  Messrs.  D.  A.  Jones  and  Frank  Benton  made  a 
trip  to  Cyprus  and  the  Holy  Land,  and  brought  bees  from 
both  countries  to  America. 

The  Cyprian  bees  resemble  tlie  Italian  bees.  The  main 
difference  between  them,  in  appearance,  is  a  bright  3*ellow 
shield  on  the  thorax  of  the  Cyprians  not  to  be  seen  in  the 
Italians,  and  the  yellow  rings  of  the  former  are  brighter, 
of  a  copper  color,  especially  under  the  abdomen.  Their 
drones  are  beautiful. 

Their  behavior  is  like  that  of  the  Egyptians ;  quiek  and 
ready,  they  promptly  assail  those  who  dare  handle  them. 
Smoke  astonishes  but  does  not  subdue  them.  At  each 
puff  of  the  smoker  (382),  they  emit  a  aharp,  trilling 
sound,  not  easily  forgotten,  resembhng  that  of  ^^rneat  ta 
the  frying  pan,"  and  as  soon  as  the  smoke  disappears,  th^ 


are  again  on  the  watch,  ready  to  pounce  on  any  enemy, 
whether  man  or  beast,  bee  or  moth.  Their  courage  and 
great  prolificness  would  make  them  a  very  desirable  race, 
if  they  could  be  handled  safely. 

A  slight  mixture  of  this  race  with  the  Italian  improves  the 
latter  wonderfully  in  color  and  working  qualities. 

560.  The  Holy  Land  or  Syrian  bees  are  almost  similar 
in  looks  to  the  Egyptian,  these  two  countries  being  contigu- 
ous. Those  who  have  tried  them  do  not  agree  as  to  tlieii: 
behavior ;  some  holding  them  to  be  very  peaceable,  others 
describing  them  as  very  cross.     We  have  never  tried  them. 

Among  the  different  races  of  Eastern  bees,  the  Caucasian 
are  cited  by  Vogel,  a  German,  as  of  such  mild  disposi- 
tion, that  it  is  hard  to  get  them  to  sting.  Yet  it  is  said  that 
these  bees  defend  themselves  well  against  robber  bees. 

According  to  Vogel,  they  resemble  the  Syrian  bees,  having 
also  the  shield  of  the  Cyprians.  It  would  sooni  that  these 
bees  exist  in  the  temperate  zone  of  Asia,  from  the  shores 
of  the  Mediterranean  to  the  Himalayas,  for  1  r.  Dubini,  in 
his  book,  writes  that  they  were  found  at  the  foot  of  these 

561.  According  to  an  article  in  the  ''  Scioitijl:  Jlevicw*' 
of  England,  although  bees  have  been  sent  from  this  country 
and  Europe,  to  Australia,  there  is  an  Australian  native  bee, 
which  builds  its  nest  on  the  Eucalvptus.  Those  bees  gather 
immense  quantities  of  a  kind  of  honey  which,  although  very 
Bweet,  can  be  used  as  medicine,  to  replace  the  cod-liver  oil, 
used  with  so  much  repugnance  by  consumptives. 

562.  Apis  dorsata,  the  largest  bee  known,  lives  in  the 
jangles  of  India.  Mr.  Benton  attempted  to  import  this  bee 
at  great  expense  and  danger,  but  only  succeeded  in  bring- 
ing one  colony  to  Syria,  where  it  died.  Mr.  Vogel  tried 
also  to  bring  some  of  them  to  Germany  without  success. 
At  all  eyents  farther  attempts  at  importing  or  domesticat- 
ing these  bees  woald  be  so  expensive,  that  private  enter- 


MO  RAcas  or  Bcn. 

prise  will  be  balked  by  the  task.  It  behooves  our  govern- 
ment to  take  such  matters  in  hand  for  the  public  good. 
Besides  Apia  dorsata,  two  other  kinds  exist  in  India,  Apii 
/hrea  and  Apia  Indices.  The  latter  is  cultivated  by  the 
natives  with  good  results*  Both  are  smaller  than  our  oom> 
mon  bee. 

568.  Another  race  of  bees/  the  Melipone,  is  found  io 
Brazil  and  Mexico.  More  than  twelve  varieties  of  these 
have  been  described,  all  without  stings. 

Huber,  in  the  beginning  of  this  century,  received  a  nest 
of  them,  but  the  bees  died  before  reaching  Geneva.  Mr. 
Drory,  while  at  Bordeaux,  France,  was  more  suocessfoL 
One  of  his  friends  sent  him  a  colony  of  Melipones,  and  he 
published  in  the  ^^Rucher  du  Sud-Oueat "  some  very  curioas 
facts  coDceroing  them.  The  cells  containing  the  stores  of 
honey  and  pollen  are  not  placed  near  those  intended  for 
brood,  but  higher  in  the  hive ;  they  are  as  large  as  pig^n 
eggs,  and  attached  in  clusters  to  the  walls  of  the  hive.  The 
brood  cells  are  placed  horizontally  in  rows  of  several  sto- 
ries. The  workers  do  not  nurse  the  brood,  but  fill  the  cells 
with  food,  on  which  the  queen  lays.  The  cells  are  then 
closed  till  the  young  bees  emerge  from  them. 

A  peculiarity  of  these  bees  is  that  the  entrance  to  their 
home,  which  is  very  narrow,  is  usually  watched  by  a  single 
bee,  acting  as  janitor,  and  withdrawing  from  the  door  to  let 
the  workers  i)ass.  They  cannot  stand  the  cold,  and  Mr. 
Drory  could  not  save  his,  in  spite  of  his  care,  in  a  location 
as  mild  as  that  of  Bordeaux.  Mr.  T.  F.  Bingham  of  Abronia, 
Michigan,  imported  a  nest  of  them,  in  the  Spring  of  1886, 
and  lost  thom  the  same  Fall.  A  part  of  their  nest  was  exhib- 
ited by  him  at  the  Indianapolis  Convention,  in  October  18G8. 

•  These  bees  are  ■oientifloally  olaMifled  u  belongliif  to  a  diAowit  gtam  if 

TBI   APIABT.  29 1 

Thb  Apiart. 


564.  Any  one  can  keep  bees,  successfully,  if  be  has  a 
liking  for  this  pursuit  and  is  not  too  timid  to  follow  the 
directions  given  in  this  treatise.  Even  ladies  can  manage 
a  large  Apiary  successfully,  with  but  little  help. 

Almost  any  locality  will  yield  a  surplus  of  honey  in  aver- 
age seasons.  Mr.  Chas.  F.  Muth  of  Cincinnati,  with  22 
colonies  of  bees,  on  the  roof  of  his  house,  in  the  heart  of 
this  large  city,  harvested  a  surplus  honey  yield  of  198  lbs. 
per  colony  in  one  season. 

Mr.  Muth  informed  us  that  this  surplus  was  collected  from 
white  clover  blossoms  in  26  days. 

565.  But  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  honey 
resources  of  the  country  is  highly  important  to  those  dcsirousi 
of  engaging  largely  in  bee-culture.  While,  in  some  localities, 
bees  will  accumulate  large  stores,  in  others,  only  a  mile  or 
two  distant,  they  may  yield  but  a  small  profit. 

"While  Haber  resided  at  Cour,  and  afterwards  at  Vevey,  his 
bees  snffered  so  much  from  scanty  pasturage,  that  he  could  only 
preserve  them  by  feeding,  although  stocks  that  were  but  two 
miles  from  him  were,  in  each  case,  storing  their  hives  abund- 
antly." — Bevak. 

Those  desirous  of  becoming  specialists  will  find  the  subject 
of  location  and  yield  further  treated  iu  the  chapter  on 
Pasturage  and  Overstocking  (608). 

566.  Inexperienced  persons  will  seldom  find  it  profitable 
to  begin  beekeeping  on  a  large  scale.     By  using  movable- 

18X  1 

frame  (280)  liires,  they  oan  nptdljr  iiiore«M  theiz  itatk   ' 

after  they  hsve  acquired  bUU,  and  luive  i 

aimply  that  mosey  can  be  made  by  keeping  bees,  but  UM  \ 

Ocjr  can  vtake  it. 

While  large  proDtg  can  be  reallMd  by  oarefal  and  expe^ 
lenced  bee-keepers,  those  who  are  otherwiee  will  be  i 
sure  to  find  their  outlay  resolt  only  in  vexatious  losses.  Aa 
Apiary  neglected  dt 
mismanaged  Is  *  wone 
than  alarm  omgrovB 
with  weeds  or  mrhiTt 
ed  by  ignorant  tUisgs; 
for  the  land,  bypradtnt 
management,  may  again 
be  made  fertile,  bat  the 
bees,  when  once  de- 
stroyed, ore  11  total  loss. 
Of  all  farm  pursuits  bee- 
culture  roquires  the 
Ki^'.  •.><;.  greatest    skill,    and    it 

OBNAMKsru.  .;t..(-i.  iiivk;  oij)  jtvlk;     may  well    be    called  a 
iii,.M  vin\i,  bvsineasof  delaiU. 

fi«7.  WluToviT  tlie  Apiary  is  established,  great  pains 
ulioiilil  hi'  takin  to  protect  tlie  bees  ag^nst  high  winds. 
'Ilnir  jiivis  >li.iiiKl  be  placed  where  they  will  not  be  annoyed 
by  fi'ot  [iusseiigtTs  or  taltle,  and  should  never  be  very  ne«r 
nluTv  Imrsos  iimst  staiiil  or  pass.  If  managed  on  tbe 
eiviiriiiiiLi;  plan,  it  is  very  desirable  that  they  should  be  in 
full  si^In  of  ilie  rooms  most  occupied,  or  at  least  where  the 
soumi  of  their  sw.-Lrniiii},'  (406)  will  be  easily  heard. 

In  t!ie  Nortlieni  .ami  Miiidlc  States,  the  hives  should  have 
a  Sotilh-Kastorn,  SoulhorH,  or  South-Westem  exposure,  to 
give  the  bees  the  bciicltt  of  the  sun,  when  it  will  be  most 
conducive  to  their  welfare. 

668.  The  plot  occupied  by  the  Aplaiy  shoold  bs 
grassy,  mowed  frequently,  and  kept  free  bom  weedi. 


Sand,  gravel,  aaw-diiat"  or  coal  cinders,  spread  in  front  of 
the  liive,  will  prevent  the  growing  of  grass  in  their  (343) 
immediate  vicinity,  and  be  a  great  help  to  those  overladen 
beea,  that  fall  to  the  ground  before  reaching  the  entrance. 

Hives  are  too  often  placed  where  many  bees  perish  by 
falling  into  the  dirt,  or  among  the  tall  weeds  and  grass, 
where  spiders  and  toads  find 
their   choice    lurking-places, 

A  gentle  elope  aouthwan 
will  help  to  set  the  hives  m 
they  should  be,  slanting 
toward  the  entrance  (337. 

669.     They     should     be 
placed   on   separate   stands. 
entirely  independent  of  uiic 
another,  and,  whenever  prac- 
ticable, room  should  be  left  | 
for    the     Apiarist    to     pa. 
around  each  hive.     We  lu 
ter  to  place  them  in  rows  -n    .-- 
teen  feet  apart,  with  the  hives  •' 
about  six    feet  apart  in  the  "**■'''  ^'"■*' •  '"•"  "''•'■'■■ 

rows.    This  isolates  each  liive 

completely,  and,  while  handling  one  cohwiy.  tlie  A|iiLirisi  is 
not  in  danger  of  being  stung  by  the  bi-c.-;  of  iliihiIiit.  Tlic 
bees  are  also  less  likely  to  enter  the  wroiii;  hives  (50^). 

Covered  Apiaries. 

S70.  Covered  Apiaries,  nnlc-Js  liiiilt  at  f^ri-al  oxju'iisf, 
ftfford  little  or  no  protection  against  cKlrniii- licit  or  cold. 
ftnd  ^eatly  increase  the  risk  o(  losing;  Ihc  i|iici>n.^  (;t."i<(). 


and  the  young  bees.  The  week  cotoniea  art  altrajf  tbi 
losere,  for  their  yoxtng  bees,  in  returning  from  Ifarir  int 
trii)(173),  ire  mttracted  by  the  noucol  other  liiveBclooclj 

adjoining,  and  proTo  the  troth  of  the  F^enoh  piomb  "Lc 
pierre  va  toujoura  au  tos,"  (tlie  atooe  ahn^  gom  to  tto 
Wiicn  hires  muat  stand  too  close  togetfaor,  Uwjr  riioiild  kt 


of  different  colors.  Even  yarjing  the  color  of  the  blocks 
will  be  of  great  usefulness. 

John  MiUs,  in  a  work  published  at  London,  in  1766, 
gives  (p.  98)  the  following  directions: — "Forget  not  to 
paint  the  mouths  of  your  colonies  with  different  colors,  as 
red,  white,  blue,  yellow,  &c.,  in  form  of  a  half-moon,  or 
square,  that  the  bees  may  the  better  know  their  own  homes." 

Covered  Apiaries  are  common  in  Germany  and  Italy; 
their  only  quality  is  that  of  being  thief  proof,  when  shut  and 
locked.  But  such  structures,  especially  when  several  sto- 
ries high,  cannot  easily  shelter  top-opening  hives. 

1571.  Probably  the  most  convenient  covered  Apiaries  are 
simple  sheds,  facing  South,  and  open  in  front  during  the 
Summer  and  warm  days  of  Winter.  House  Apiaries,  in 
which  the  hives  are  placed  in  several  stories,  facing  every 
direction,  are  worse  than  nothing.  Their  only  quality  is 
to  be  ornamental  and  costly. 

1572.  For  ease  of  manipulation,  out-door  Apiaries  are 

In  the  Summer,  no  place  is  so  congenial  to  bees  as  the 
shade  of  trees,  if  it  is  not  too  dense,  or  the  branches  so 
low  as  to  interfere  with  their  flight.  As  the  weather 
becomes  cool,  they  can,  if  necessary,  be  mt^ved  to  any  more 
desirable  Winter  location.  If  colonies  are  moved  in  the 
line  of  their  flight,  and  a  short  diMance  at  a  thnr.  no  loss 
of  bees  will  be  incurred;  but,  if  moved  a  few  \:iids,  all  at 
once,  many  will  be  lost.  A  slanting  board  j)hiced  in  front 
of  the  hive,  so  as  to  prevent  the  bees  from  llyini^  in  strMJixlit 
line  from  the  entrance  to  the  field,  will  inf'ite  them  t«>  mark 
the  change  of  their  position.  By  a  fir*nl'iii!  jwor^ss,  I'u  hi\es 
in  a  small  Apiary  may,  in  the  Kail,  be  broiiLrht  into  a  narrow 
compass,  so  that  they  can  be  easily  sheltered  from  the  bleak 
Winter  winds.  In  the  Spring,  they  may  be  gra<lually 
returned  to  their  old  positions. 

By  removing  the  strongest  colonies  in  an  Apiary  th^ 

196  TBS  AI1ABT. 

first  day,  and  others  not  so  strong  ttie  next,  and  oODtti^ 
ing  the  process  oiitil  all  were  remorsd,  we  have  hIb^ 
changed  the  location  of  an  Apiary,  when  oompelled  to  mm 
bees  in  the  working  seaaoo.  Oo  the  removal  of  the  hit 
bive,  but  few  bees  retamed  to  the  old  spot.  Tbe  fihiiign.  m 
thns  oonducted,  strengthened  tbe  weaker  c<dotil«a,  botm 
wonld  advise  hee-fceepera  to  locate  their  hlToa  Im  m  p«aft- 
nent  a  position  as  possible,  as  tUs  moving  la  itot  prnelkal, 
eapecially  with  a  large  nomber  of  coiooies.  Those  who  do 
not  winter  thdr  beea  in  the  oallar,  «ui  eatfj  protaet  di^ 
on  their  Snmmer  atand.  See  ohapt«r  <m  Wintering  (619). 
If  the  hives  have  to  be  placed  in  an  expoaed  looatioB  with- 
oat  shade,  It  is  well  to  protect  them  with  notm  (889).  A 
roof  will  be  found  highly  economical,  aa  it  not  only  ahadi 
the  rain,  but  wards  off  the  heat  of  thi  saa. 

Promring  Beet  and  Tnaufarrtng. 

573.  Tbe  beginner  will  ordinarily  find  it  best  to  stock  Iiii 
Apiary  with  swanne  of  the  current  year,  thus  avoiding,  until 
he  can  prepare  himself  to  meet  them,  the  perplexities  which 
often  accompany  either  natural  or  artiQcnal  a  warming.  If  new 
Bwarma  are  purchased,  unless  they  are  large  and  early,  tbey 
may  only  prove  a  bili  of  expense.  If  old  colooiea  are  pui^ 
chased,  such  only  should  be  selected  aa  are  healthy  and 
populous.  If  removed  after  the  working  season  has  begun, 
they  should  be  brought  from  a  distance  of  at  least  two 
miles  (13). 

If  the  bcc9  are  not  all  at  home  when  the  hive  is  to  be 
reiiiuvct.1.  blow  a  little  smoke  into  its  entrance,  to  cause 
thone  witliiii  to  fill  tlieraaolvea  with  honey,  and  to  prevent 
them  tr'<;ii  leaving  for  the  liclds.  Repeat  this  process  Crom 
time  to  time,  and  in  half  an  hour  neariy  all  will  have 
rcturncil.  If  soy  are  clustered  on  the  ontdde,  tbey  may 
be  driven  within  by  smoke  (382). 


The  best  time  to  buy  fall  colonies  of  bees,  is  Spring.  A 
cool  day  may  be  selected,  in  which  to  move  them,  as  the 
bees  are  not  dying,  none  can  be  lost.  In  the  present  thriv- 
ing state  of  bee-keeping,  colonies  of  pure  Italian  bees  (551) 
in  movable  frame  hives  (286)  can  usually  be  bought  at 
very  reasonable  figures.  If  the  Apiarist's  means  are  very 
limited,  black  bees  (540)  in  old  style  box-hives  may  prove 
the  cheapest,  if  they  can  be  found.  But  they  should  be 
promptly  transferred  into  more  practical  hives,  and  Italian- 
ized (4:80) ;  these  manipulations  will  help  to  give  to  the 
novice  the  practice  which  he  lacks.  Italian  bees  and  mov- 
able-frame hives  are  now  a  sine  qud  non  of  success. 

No  colony  should  be  purchased,  unless  it  has  brood  in 
all  stages,  showing  that  it  has  a  healthy  queen.  For  trans- 
porting bees,  see  (587  and  603). 

Traksferriko  Bees  from  Common  to  Motable-Frame 


574.  This  process  may  be  easily  effected  whenever  the 
weather  is  warm  enough  for  bees  to  ily. 

It  has  sometimes  been  done  in  Winter,  for  purposes  of 
experiment,  by  removing  the  bees  into  a  warm  room,  but 
the  best  time  for  it,  is  when  the  bees  have  the  least  honey, 
al  the  beginning  of  the  fruit  bloom.  If  it  can  be  done  on  a 
warm  day,  when  they  are  at  work,  there  will  be  but  little 
danger  from  robbers  (664). 

It  is  conducted  as  follows:  Have  in  readiness  a  box— 
which  we  shall  call  the  forcing  box — whose  diameter  is  ubout 
the  same  with  that  of  the  hive  from  which  you  intend  to 
drive  the  swann.  Smoke  the  hive,  lift  it  from  its  bottom- 
board  without  the  slightest  jar,  turn  it  over,  and  carefuiiy 
carry  it  off  about  a  rod,  as  bees,  if  disturbed,  are  much 
more  inclined  to  be  peaceable,  when  removed  a  short  dis- 
tance from  their  familiar  stand.    If  the  hive  is  gently  placed 


upside  down  on  the  ground,  soaroelj  a  bee  will  fly  out,  md 
there  will  be  little  danger  of  being  stung.  The  timid  and 
inexperienced  should  protect'  themselTes  with  a  bee-fdl, 
and  may  blow  more  smoke  among  them,  as  soon  as  the  hive 
is  inverted.  After  placing  it  on  the  ground,  the  forcing-bos 
must  be  put  over  it.  If  smooth  inside,  it  should  have  slats 
fastened  one-third  of  the  distance  from  the  top,  to  aid  bees 
in  clustering.  Some  Apiarists  place  the  box  slanting  on  the 
hive,  so  as  to  be  able  to  see  the  bees  climbing.  This 
method,  called  open  driving,  is  a  little  slower,  but  it  may 
give  the  operator  the  chance  of  seeing  the  queen ;  when  the 
driving  can  be  considered  as  done. 

575.  As  soon  as  the  Apiarist  has  confined  the  bees,  he 
should  place  an  empty  hive — which  we  call  the  decoy-hive 
— upon  their  old  stand,  which  those  returning  from  the 
fields  may  enter,  instead  of  dispersing  to  other  hives,  to 
meet,  perhaps,  with  a  most  ungracious  reception.  As  a 
general  rule,  however,  a  bee  with  a  load  of  honey  or  bee- 
bread,  after  the  extent  of  her  resources  is  ascertained,  is 
pretty  sure  to  be  welcomed  by  any  hive  to  which  she  may 
carry  her  treasure ;  while  a  poverty-stricken  unfortunate 
that  presumes  to  claim  their  hospitality  is,  usually,  at  once 
destroyed.  The  one  mccis  with  as  flattering  a  reception  as 
a  wealthy  gentleman  proposing  to  take  up  his  abode  in  a 
country  village,  while  the  other  is  as  much  an  object  of  dis- 
like as  a  ))oor  man,  who  bids  fair  to  become  a  public  charge. 

If  tliorc  are  in  the  Apiary  several  old  colonies  standing 
close  together,  it  is  desirable,  in  performing  this  operation, 
that  the  tleeoy-hive,  and  the  forcing-box,  should  be  of  the 
same  shape  and  even  color  with  that  of  the  parent-stock.  If 
they  are  very  unlike,  and  the  returning  bees  attempt  to 
enter  a  neighboring  hive,  because  it  resembles  their  old 
home,  the  adjoining  hives  should  have  sheets  thrown  over 
them,  to  hide  them  from  the  bees,  until  the  operation  ii 


576.  To  return  to  our  imprisoned  bees :  their  hive  should 
oe  beaten  smartly  with  the  palms  of  the  hands,  or  two  small 
rods,  on  the  sides  to  which  the  combs  are  attached,  so  as 
to  run  no  risk  of  loosening*  them.  These  *'  rappings," 
although  not  of  a  very  "  spiritual "  character,  produce, 
nevertheless,  a  decided  effect  upon  the  bees.  Their  first 
impulse,  if  no  smoke  were  used,  would  be  to  sally  out,  and 
wreak  their  vengeance  on  those  who  thus  rudely  assail 
their  honied  dome ;  but  as  soon  as  they  inhale  its  fumes, 
and  feel  the  terrible  concussion  of  their  once  stable  abode, 
a  sudden  fear,  that  they  are  to  be  driven  from  their  treas- 
ures, takes  possession  of  them.  Determined  to  prepare  for 
this  unceremonious  writ  of  ejection,  by  carrying  off  what 
they  can,  each  bee  begins  to  lay  in  a  supply,  and  in  about 
five  minutes,  all  are  filled  to  their  utmost  capacity.  A  pro- 
digious humming  is  now  heard,  as  they  begin  to  mount  into 
the  upper  box :  and  in  about  fifteen  minutes  from  the  time 
the  rapping  began — ^if  it  has  been  continued  with  but  slight 
intermissions — the  mass  of  bees,  with  their  queen,  will  hang 
clustered  in  the  forcing-box,  like  any  natural  swarm,  and 
may,  at  the  proper  time,  be  readily  shaken  out  on  a  sheet, 
in  front  of  their  intended  hive. 

Now  put  the  forcing  box  on  their  old  stand,  and  carry 
the  parent-hive  to  some  place  where  you  cannot  be  annoyed 
by  other  bees. 

577.  It  is  important  to  make  sure  that  the  queen  is 
removed,  as  she  might  be  injured  in  the  transfer  of  comb. 
Her  presence  among  the  driven  bees  can  be  ascertained  in 
a  few  minutes,  by  the  quietness  of  their  behavior,  or  by  the 
eggs  which  she  drops  on  the  bottom  board,  and  which  can 
easily  be  seen  if  a  black  cloth  is  spread  under  the  forcing 
box  (155). 

*  Tbere  la  little  danger  of  loosening  the  combs  of  an  old  colony,  bat  the  great- 
eat  eautloii  la  neoeaaary  when  the  combs  of  a  hire  are  new.  If,  in  inverting 
anch  a  hire,  tb/B  broeui  ii/ien  of  the  combs,  instead  of  their  edgen,  are  inclined 
downwaida.  fha  hmt,  and  weight  of  the  beea.  may  loosen  the  oomba,  and  mia 

n  the  queen  is  not  iriOi  Am  bMi,  ft  iMrwfD 
nm  eboat,  ae  if  anziooelj  wieniMng  for  mmmOimg  liif 
luiTeloet  Tlie  alann  is  n^ld^  eoannnleated  to  flie  vMi 
colony ;  the  explorers  sie  rcinftmed,  tbm  tmiWsIws  es^ 
pend  their  operations,  snd  soon  the  air  is  filed  widi  beeii 
If  tliej  cannot  find  tlie  qneen,  tiMj  retnm  to  tiicir  old  sisad, 
and  if  no  liire  is  tliere,  wiH  soon  enter  one  of  tiie  a4Joinim 
colonies.  If  their  queen  is  restored  totbem  soon  aftcrllMj 
miss  her,  those  ranning  ont  of  tlie  liire  will  ma&e  n  llalf-ci^ 
cle,  and  return ;  the  Joyful  news  is  qniddy  conunnnieatod 
to  those  on  the  wing,  who  forthwith  alight  and  enter  thi 
hive ;  all  appearance  of  agitated  running  about  on  the  ontp 
side  of  the  hive  ceases,  and  Tedtilation,  withita  joyful  hoa, 
is  again  resamed.* 

If  the  queen  has  not  left  the  old  hiTO,  it  is  safer  to  return 
tlie  bees  and  to  resume  the  driving  at  another  time. 

578.  To  transfer  the  comb,  have  on  hand  tools  for  pry- 
ing ofl  a  side  of  the  hive ;  a  large  knife  for  cutting  out  the 
combs ;  vessels  for  the  honey ;  a  table  or  board,  on  which 
to  lay  the  brood  combs ;  and  water  for  washing  off,  from 
time  to  time,  the  honey  which  will  stick  to  your  handa. 

Have  also  a  number  of  pieces  of  wire,  No.  16,  cut  a  little 
longer  than  the  frame,  and  bent  on  the  ends  in  this  shape 

I 1  to  be  driven  into  the  wood  of  the  frame,  and  to  hold 

the  combs  in  place.  Let  a  certain  number  of  frames  be  in 
readiness,  with  three  or  four  of  these  wires  fastened  on  one 
side,  and  lay  them  on  the  table,  wire'Side  daum.  You  must 
also  have  your  movable  frame  hive  in  readiness  near  the 
table,  with  an  extracting  pan  (770)  under  it,  instead  of  a 
bottom  board,  to  receive  what  honey  may  drip.  All  this 
must  be  ready  before  disturbing  the  bees. 

570.  Having  selected   the  worker-combs^  carefully  cut 

*  To  wItncM  these  Intereetlng  prooeedingi.  It  U  onlj  atemaiy  to  €Stck  tkt 
qaeeo.  and  keep  her  until  the  le  mlMed  hj  her  eolooj. 
Ike  ihonld  be  oonflsed  In  a  queen  cage.  (OSS)  dnriof  tka 


them  rather  large,  so  that  they  will  just  crowd  into  the 
frames,  and  retain  their  places  in  their  natural  position  (fig. 
89),  until  the  bees  have  time  to  fasten  them. 

Now  tack  as  many  wires  over  them  as  may  be  necessary 
to  hold  them  securely,  and  hang  them  in  the  hive.  Drone 
combs  sJiovld  invariably  be  melted  into  wax.  If  drone-brood 
(168)  is  found,  it  can  be  fed  to  young  chickens,  who  are 
▼ery  fond  of  the  larvie.  The  bottom  board  should  be  put 
under  the  hive  just  before  carrying  it  out. 

When  the  hive  is  thus  prepared,  the  bees  may  be  put 
into  it  and  confined,  water  being  given  to  thera,  until  they 
have  time  to  make  all  secure  against  robbers  (664). 

If  there  is  danger  of  robbers,  it  is  preferable  not  to  put 
the  bees  into  the  hive  till  late  in  the  afternoon.  They 
should  be  shaken  in  front  of  the  new  hive  on  a  sheet  (427) 
like  a  natural  swarm. 

When  the  weather  is  cool,  the  transfer  should  be  made 
in  a  warm  room,  to  prevent  the  brood  from  beingj  fatally 
chilled.  An  expert  Apiarist  can  complete  the  whole  opera- 
tion— from  the  driving  of  the  bees  to  the  returning  of  them 
to  their  new  hive — in  about  an  hour,  and  with  the  loss  of 
very  few  bees,  old  or  young. 

580.  When  transferring  in  early  Spring,  it  should  be 
remembered  that  the  worker-brood  (168)  is  of  great  value ; 
and  not  the  least  bit  of  it  should  be  neglected  or  wasted 
unnecessarily.  After  a  week,  or  more,  according  to  the 
•eason,  the  hive  may  be  opened  and  the  fastening  removed. 

Dr.  Kirtland  thus  spoke  of  the  results  of  transferring 
some  of  his  colonies  to  the  movable-comb  hives. 

**  I  had  three  stocks  transferred  to  an  equal  number  of  Mr. 
Langstroth's  hives.  The  first  had  not  swarmed  in  two  years, 
and  had  long  ceased  to  manifest  any  industry ;  the  others  had 
never  swarmed.  All  the  hives  were  filled  with  black  and  filthy 
eomb,  candied  honey,  concrete  bee-bread«  and  an  accumulation 
9i  the  cocoons  and  larv»  of  the  moth.  Within  twenty-four  hours, 
colony  became  reconciled  to  its  new  tenement,  and  begao 


to  jQibor  with  fkr  greater  aetiTity  than  any  of  mj  old  stocki. ... 
I  have  now  no  stronger  ooloniea  than  theae,  whloh  I  eonaldered 
of  little  valae  till  my  acqoaintanee  with  thia  new  hlTa.*^— Ohio 
Fanner,  Deo.  12«  1857. 

Let  not  the  novice,  however,  think  that  tr&naferring  b^et 
is  a  task  that  requires  but  little  skill.   He  who  transfen  mc- 
cessfuUy  a  large  number  of  coUmiee  fnay  be  cMed  an  expert  ta« 
handling  bees* 

The  process,  as  it  has  been  condaeted  by  careless  Apiar^ 
ists,  has  resulted  in  the  wanton  sacrifloe  of  thousands  of 

581.  For  the  benefit  of  those  who  are  timid  in  manipu* 
lations,  we  will  give  Mr.  Jas.  Heddon's  method  for  trans- 
ferring, (page  5 G2  of  *' Gleanings''  1885).  About  swarming 
time  (406)  Mr.  Heddon  drives  the  old  queen  and  a  major- 
ity of  the  bees  into  the  forcing-box,  he  then  removes  the 
old  hive  a  few  feet  back,  and  places  the  new  hive  with 
frames  full  of  foundation  (674)  on  its  stand,  and  *'  runs 
in  "  the  forced  swarm.  It  would  be  well  to  return  a  part 
of  the  bees  to  the  old  hive,  as  its  brood  might  be  chilled  if 
the  weather  becomes  cool. 

Twenty-one  days  after  the  transfer  of  the  bees,  he  drives 
the  old  hive  clean  of  all  its  bees,  uniting  them  with  the 
former  drive.  As  the  worker  brood  of  the  old  hive  is  ail 
hatched,  there  is  nothing  left  in  it  but  the  combs  and  the 
honey,  which  can  be  transferred  at  leisure  in  cool  weather, 
or,  the  honey  may  be  extracted  (749),  and  the  comb  melted 
into  wax  (858). 


582.  When  an  Apiarist  wishes  to  make  bee-culture  his 
special  occupation,  he  should  expect  to  keep  bees  in  more 
than  one  location.  If  he  owns  more  than  120  colonies,  we 
would  advise  his  establishing  an  Out-Apiary.     It  is  true 


that  there  are  many  drawbacks  to  the  cultivation  of  bees 
four  or  five  miles  ofif,  but  there  are  also  some  advantages. 
The  crop  sometimes  fails  in  one  locality,  and  is  very  good 
in  another  a  short  distance  away.  One  Apiary  may  be  in  a 
hilly  country,  where  white  clover  abounds,  and  another  on 
low  lands,  where  Fall  blossoms  never  fail.  It  is  well — 
according  to  a  familiar  proverb^  not  to  ''  put  alt  our  eggs 
in  one  basket/' 

In  many  years'  practice  of  keeping  bees  in  five  or  six 
different  Apiaries,  occupying  a  range  of  country  about 
twenty  miles  in  width,  we  have  found  out  that  the  crop  wiU 
vary  greatly  in  a  few  miles,  owing  to  the  different  flora  of 
the  various  localities,  and  more  especially  to  the  greater  or 
less  amount  of  rain-fall  at  the  proper  time.  We  have  also 
learned  that  an  Apiary  placed  near  a  large  body  of  water 
(the  Mississippi),  will  produce  less  honey  than  one  a  mile 
or  two  from  it,  owing  to  the  smaller  area  of  pasturage  in 
reach  of  the  bees. 

583.  In  establishing  an  Out-Apiary  on  some  farmer's 
land,  the  following  must  be  taken  into  consideration :  Select 
a  farm  on  which  a  grove  or  an  orchard  is  near  the  house ^ 
8ome  distance  from  the  road.  The  place  ought  to  be,  at 
least,  three  miles  in  a  bee-line  from  your  own  bee-farm.  It 
is  not  necessary  that  it  should  be  more  than  four  miles 

Locate  your  bees  with  some  careful  man.  Do  not  trust 
a  farmer  who  lets  his  fences  fall,  who  leaves  his  mower  in 
the  3'ard  over  Winter,  or  puts  his  cows  in  liis  orchard.  You 
will  never  rest  easy,  if  you  think  that  some  of  your  hives 
may  be  upset  any  day  by  a  vagrant  cow. 

Do  not  put  your  bees  on  land  which  is  tenanted.     Let 

•  Mr.  J.  M.  Harobaagh,  of  Spring,  Dl. .  harvested  altogether  different  yields 
both  lo  quality  and  quantity,  ftom  two  Apiaries  only  two  and  a  half  milea 
apart.  Thla  tgraaa  with  onr  oft  repeated  experience  in  Apiarlea  three  or  four 



•  ■»  oM^  h  w  lr«  MiK  ad  fiiM 


i^s  «  »l|Mr7    Vm  lia  «h  lat  far  aa 

i__  1.  ^  tfMlilllWtlllljlllldil) 

nOKET-BODBK.  305 

lay  need  not  amoatit  to  ( 50.     Almost  any  spare  room  will 
do  for  a  honey  room. 

Tet  when  the  Apiuiit  wishes  to  be  at  eue,  we  would 
tdvlMliiiQ  to  bnild  his  honey-house  in  the  middle  of  hii 
Apiuy.  The  windows  and  doors  of  this  building  must  all 
be  provided  with  wire  cloth  nettiag,  to  exclude  bees,  flies, 

wiK  DO  w  -sci;eic»  . 

etc.  We  here  give  an  engraving  of  a  simple  method  of 
placing  the  wire  screen,  ao  as  to  allow  these  insects  to  escape. 
The  netting  is  nailed  on  the  outside  of  the  window  projecU 
iDg  aboat  six  inches  above.  Three  small  ^lats  are 
nailed  between  the  triune  and  the  netting,  so  as  to  leave  ■ 


■pace  of  I  of  an  inch  between  the  wire  cloth  and  the  will, 
at  the  top  of  the  window.  The  bees  and  flies  that  have  been 
brought  in  with  the  combs,  or  that  have  entered  the  room,  at 
some  time  or  other,  fij  against  the  wire  cloth,  and  soon 
find  the  small  fissure  aboye,  through  which  they  escape ;  bat, 
in  returning,  they  smell  the  honey  through  the  wire  cloth, 
and  forgetting  that  they  have  escaped  between  the  wire  tnd 
the  wall,  they  try  in  ^dn  to  pass  through  the  wire  doth. 
In  the  engraving,  the  window  sashes  haye  been  remoTsd, 
but  their  use  in  no  way  interftoes  with  the  screen,  if  tin 
lower  one  is  raised,  or  ttie  upper  one.  lowered,  while  tiim 
aie  bees  in  the  room. 



Shipping  and  Transportino  Bees. 

KB 7.  In  shipping  colonies  of  bees  by  rail,  it  is  not  neces- 

to  give  them  much  ventilation,  if  they  are  sent  during 

the  cool  weather  of  Spring.     We  have  successfully  shipped 

hundreds  of  colonies  to  all  parts  of  the  U.   S.,  in  early 

Spring,  with  no  other  ventilation  than  was  atfordcd  by  the 

joints  of  a  rough  block  nailed  over  the  entrance  of  the  hive. 

But,  if  the  weather  is  warm,  and  the  colony  populous,  plenty 

of  air  is  needed.     We  usually  replace  the  bottom  board  by 

a  wire-cloth-frame  protected  by  slats.    The  entrance  should 

never  be  covered  with  wire-cloth,  but  should  be  entirely 

closed,  for  the  old  bees  will  worry  themselves  trying  to  get 

through  it,  and  it  will  soon  be  clogged  with  dead   bees. 

They  should  be  given  as  much  air  as  needed  with  the  least 

possible  amount  of  light. 

When  the  colony  is  so  populous,  that  draught  through  the 
hive  cannot  injure  the  brood,  we  nail  a  screen  over  the 
frames  also,  and  shade  it  with  a  board  nailed  on  slats,  run- 
ning across  the  ends  of  the  hive.  The  closing  of  the  portico 
alone,  if  there  is  one,  with  wire-cloth,  is  not  practical,  as  a 
part  of  the  swarm  crowds  into  it  and  bars  the  ventilation. 

588.  The  frames  should,  of  course,  be  securely  fastened 
in  their  places.  For  this  purpose,  Mr.  Root  uses  sticks,  or 
slats,  of  the  depth  of  the  hive,  that  fit  between  the  frames 
and  hold  them. 

New  combs  had  better  not  be  shipped  at  all.  If  there  is 
plenty  of  fresh  honey,  we  would  advise  the  extracting  of  all 
that  is  unsealed,  previous  to  shipment.  When  there  is  brood 
in  every  comb,  and  the  weather  is  warm,  it  is  safer  to 
remove  a  part  of  the  brood,  and  put  frames  of  dry  comb 

altgniatdy  with  ttm  fnaws  of  Imod.    The  Imod 
niajr  be  med  to  etrengUieB  veek  edonlee. 

As  m  rule,  it  is  better  to  sliip  snudl  lots  hj  Biyiesi,  M 
large  lots  may  be  sent  in  early  Spring,  hj  frrig^  if  Oiy 
are  not  to  be  more  than  a  week  on  the  way.  We  haTsaal 
bees  safely,  from  Illinois  to  Utsh,  by  freight. 

589.  In  shipping  bees,  or  ecdonies,  it  is  importsnt  to 
place  ooospicaoos  cantimiary  eards  or  labels  on  the  pack- 
ages: Liying  Bees,  Handle  with  Cave,  This  aide  up.  Keep 
out  of  the  son,  etc 

The  damage  done  by  roii|^  railroad  handling,  is  ttt 
greatest  item  of  loss,  in  the  transportation  of  bees  property 
packed.  If  colonies  are  shipped  in  carloads,  thqr  ihonid 
be  so  placed,  that  the  combe  will  nm  lengthwise,  sad 
not  from  side  to  side,  as  in  Yehioles  drawn  by  horses.  Sxa* 
plus  racks  or  stories  should  be  shipped  separately. 

590.  Some  Apiarists,  among  whom  we  will  cite  the  firm 
of  Flanagan  and  Illinski  of  Belleville,  111.,  have  practiced 
shipping  bees  by  water  routes  to  the  Southern  States  in  the 
Fall,  for  Winter,  and  returning  them  in  Spring  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  honey  harvest.  If  proper  precautions  are  taken, 
this  plan  may  be  profitable,  where  low  rates  of  transporta- 
tion can  be  obtained,  but  much  judgment  must  be  exercised 
as  to  the  time  of  returning  them  North.  As  the  colo- 
nies become  strong  very  early  in  the  South,  if  they  sro 
brought  back  North  before  the  warm  weather,  their  brood 
may  become  chilled,  and  a  tendency  to  the  developementof 
foul-brood  is  encouraged. 

591.  Delia  Rocca,  in  his  treatise  on  **  Bee-ooltore  in  the 
Island  of  Syra,"  speaks  of  the  Egyptian^  method  of  keep* 

•  '*  Mr.  Cotton  mw  a  idad  In  Germany  who  kept  aU  Ida  BmnamM  ato^ 
rich  bj  changing  their  placaa  aa  loon  aa  the  hoaay  aaaaon  variad.  'SomatlBMi 
ha  tendi  thorn  to  the  moon,  sometimes  to  the  maadowa,  aiwnattmaa  to  tha  flor- 
aata,  and  sometlmM  to  the  hUla.  In  Franca— and  thaaama  praettoa  baa  aodalid 
1b  Xgypt  tiom  the  roost  andant  tlmea  thay  oftaa  pot  Ima^ada  of  Uvaa  la  • 
boat,  which  floats  down  tha  stream  by  night  and  atopa  bf  daj."- 


log  bees  on  boats,  which  were  floated  up  and  down  the  Nile 
U>  take  adrantage  of  the  different  crops  of  honey  at  different 

It  woold  even  appear  that  the  Greeks  in  the  time  of  Colu- 
mella transported  their  hives  to  Egypt  by  sea,  '*  the  sea- 
son of  blossoms  being  later  than  in  Greece ;  for  after  the 
month  of  September  there  is  no  pasture  in  Achaia  for  bees, 
whilst  in  "Egypt  flowers  are  in  full  bloom  even  after  that 
time,  owing  to  the  receding  of  the  high  waters  of  the  Nile." 
He  relates  a  laughable  story  about  one  of  these  floating 
Apiaries.  One  hive  having  been  upset  by  accident  on  a 
boat,  the  enraged  bees  attacked  the  mariners  unexpectedly, 
and  forced  them  to  jump  into  the  river  and  swim  to  the 
siiore,  which  likely,  was  not  far  distant,  nor  did  they  dare 
retnm,  until  they  had  provided  themselves  with  a  supply  of 
■moke-producing  ingredients. 

592.  There  is  a  certain  amount  of  fascinating  romance 
eonnected  with  the  idea  of  a  floating  Apiary,  following  the 
bloasoms,  on  the  waters  of  the  great  Mississippi,  or  of  some 
of  its  tributaries.  An  attempt  of  this  sort  was  made  on  a 
large  scale,  a  few  years  ago,  by  a  Chicago  firm.  It  was  a 
total  failure,  but  we  are  inclined  to  think  that  the  failure 
was  due  more  to  the  lack  of  practical  knowledge  in  bee- 
keeping, on  the  part  of  the  managers,  than  to  any  other 

503.  Transportation  of  bees  from  a  location  where 
blossoms  are  scarce  to  a  good  field,  and  returning  them 
after  the  crop,  is  sometimes  attended  with  fair  success. 
Some  Apiarists,  located  in  places  where  the  June  crop  alone 
can  be  depended  upon,  make  it  a  practice  to  transport  their 
hives  to  Fall  pasturage  every  Suininer.  We,  ourjjclves,  have 
taken  120  hives  of  bees,  about  eighteen  miles,  to  the  Missis- 
sippi river  bottoms,  in  August,  1880,  when  the  drouth  had 
destroyed  alPhopes  of  a  Fall  harvest  on  the  hills.  The 
high  waters  of  the  Mississippi,  which  had  receded  a  few 


weeks  before,  had  left  those  immense  bottom  lands  covered 
with  a  luxuriant  vegetation.  The  result  fully  answered  oar 
anticipations.  Those  lately  starving  colonies,  yielded  a  boun- 
tiful surplus,  while  their  sisters  on  the  hills  had  to  be  fed  for 
Winter.  But  the  labor  of  transportation,  the  risk  incurred, 
if  the  colonies  are  strong  and  heavy,  and  the  diflSculty  of 
transporting  old  bee-hives,  without  danger  of  some  bees 
escaping,  make  the  habitual  shipping  of  bees  for  pasturage 
hardly  advisable. 

SmppiNa  QuEKxs. 

504.  It  was  in  the  numerous  and  partially  saccessful 
attempts,  which  we  made  before  1874,  to  import  bees  from 
Italy,  that  we  became  acquainted  with  the  conditions  neces- 
sary to  the  shipping  of  queens. 

695.  When  they  are  to  be  confined  a  long  time,  the 
question  of  food  is  the  most  important.  Many  were  the 
blunders  made  by  the  first  shippers,  who  imagined  that 
they  re(iuired  a  large  amount  of  food,  and  literally  drowned 
them  in  honey.  By  repeated  and  costly  experiments,  we 
ascertained  that  the  bees  that  arrived  in  the  best  condition 
were  those  that  were  fed  on  the  purest  saccharine  matter. 
Those  that  suffered  the  most,  were  those  that  had  the  most 
watery  (249),  orthc  darkest,  honey  (627).  Water  (271), 
which  some  Italian  shippers  persisted  in  giving  them,  in 
spite  of  what  we  could  say,  was  noxious;  as  the  consump- 
tion of  it,  with  the  food,  helped  to  load  their  abdomen  with 
matter  that  could  not  be  discharged  (73),  causing  what  is 
inii)roperly  called  dysentery  (784).  Water  is  needed  only 
in  brood  rearing, 

590.  Old  bees,  or  rather,  bees  that  have  begun  to  work 
in  the  field,  will  stand  a  longer  trip  than  young  bees,  as  the 
latter  consume  more  honey,  and  need  to  discharge  their 
abdomen  oftener. 

smppiNa  QUKSMS.  811 

The  shipping  boxes  in  which  bees  are  usually  sent  from 
Italy,  are  about  three  inches  deep,  by  three  inches  in  width, 
mnd  four  inches  in  length,  with  two  small  frames  of  comb, 
one  with  thick  sugar  syrup,  the  other  dry.  From  fifty  to 
seventy-fiye  bees  are  put  with  one  queen  in  each  box.  Air 
holes  are  cut  into  the  sides  of  the  boxes,  and  these  are  fas- 
tened together  in  a  pyramidal  shape,  with  an  outer  covering 
of  tin,  to  which  is  fastened  the  handle.  Queens  thus  put 
up,  have  reached  us  after  thirty-six  days  of  confinement  with 
very  little  loss,  and  it  is  in  this  way  that  the  greatest  num- 
ber of  imported  queens  are  received. 

The  usual  transit  from  Italy  to  New  York,  takes  from  ten 
to  fourteen  days.  If  the  importer  receives  his  bees,  through 
a  custom-house  broker,  they  will  not  be  delayed  in  the  cus- 
tom-house, but,  if  this  precaution  is  neglected,  the  bees  may 
be  held  at  the  custom-house  for  clearance,  and  the  poor 
insects  will  die,  martyrs  to  the  protection  (?)  of  the  coun- 
try's interests. 

597.  We  might  mention  in  connection  with  this,  an  oft- 
repeated  incident,  so  touching  and  sweet,  as  to  seem  more 
tike  a  romancer's  fable,  or  a  poetic  idyl,  than  a  mere  fact. 
On  receiving  the  boxes  containing  Italian  queens,  we  noticed 
that  frequently  all  the  bees  shipped  with  the  queen  had 
died,  she  being  the  only  one  alive  in  her  prison.  We  after- 
ward found  out  that  the  faithful  little  subjects  had  denied 
themselves  nourishment,  and  starved  to  death,  sacrificing 
themselvee,  that  their  queen  might  not  be  deprived  of  food 

MAHJNa  Queens. 

598.  To  Mr.  Frank  Benton  is  due  the  credit  of  flrsi 
maiH"g  queens  safely  across  the  ocean,  but  the  mailing  of 
them,  with  more  or  less  success  on  the  American  continent, 
has  been  practiced  for  years.  Messrs.  J.  H.  Townley  and 
H.  Alley,  appear  to  have  been  the  first  to  succeed,  as  early 
as  1868. 

Hw  methodfl  bave  been  w  tn  Impnmd,  that  oar  fllMd 
Sir.  Fsnl  TiaOoD,  a  pracdeal  qnean-IWMdar  of  Trim'TlrT. 
sent  u  IfiO  qaeena  In  tbe  naMO  of  18U,  hj  mall,  wltt  te 
loM  of  only  Uiree  or  (oar.  ^m  oagia  fas  ued  war*  thaPM 

(Frontlie    "BeTaelntenitlontle."! 

cages.  Yet  the  mails  are  bo  roughly  handled  genaaDj, 
tliat  we  would  not  advise  the  sending  of  Talnable  qneeni  in 
this  way. 

The  food  given  is  the  Soholz  candy  (613)  made  of 
powdered  sugar  and  honey  kneaded  together.  A.  tnflBciat 
number  of  bees  must  be  put  with  the  queen  to  keep  her 
warm,  but  not  enough  to  crowd  the  cage— six  to  ten  bees 
are  sufficient,  in  Summer. 

ff  09.  Of  late  years,  at  the  sn^estion  of  friend  Boot,  tbs 
ahipping  of  bees  by  the  pound  instead  of  in  colonies,  has 
been  practiced,  for  the  purpose  of  stocldog  Apiaries.  Sinos 
the  invention  of  comb  foundation,  a  hive  may  be  supplied 
Willi  comb  of  the  best  quality,  at  comparatively  small  cost,- 
and  a  choice  queen,  with  a  pound  or  two  of  bees,  can  build 
up  a  very  fair  colony,  it  piircliased  at  the  iMginning  of  the 
clover  harvest  and  properly  cared  for.  They  ar«  ahlpped 
in  wire-cloth  cages  (Bg.  101)  and  fed  with  Sdioli  candy  for 
the  trip. 


0OO.  How  many  bees  are  there  in  a  pound?  Thia  qnea* 
lloQ  haa  been  piopoonded  to  us  several  limes.  L*abbi 
CoUin^  by  carefal  experiments,  found  that  in  a  normal  con* 
dition  it  takes  about  6,100  bees  to  weigh  a  pound ;  while  in 
the  swarm,  when  they  are  supplied  with  honey,  it  takes  less 
than  4,d00.  TheiT  weight  will  vary  according  to  the 
quantity  of  honey  they  haye  absorbed. 

601«  Parties  contemplating  the  breeding  of  bees  and 
<iueens  (489)  for  sate,  will  do  well  to  locate  themselyes  as 
tax  South  as  oonyenient  for  easy  shipment,  as  it  is  by  far 
more  husratiye  to  raise  them  there  than  in  the  North.  This 
is  Tery  easy  to  understand.  In  the  South,  the  bees  usually 
winter  safely,  and  breed  early,  so  that  the  colonies  are 
■trong,  while  those  of  the  Northern  latitudes  are  still  con- 
fined in  their  hives,  struggling  against  the  rigors  of  Winter. 

If  an  Apiarist  purchases  bees  or  queens  at  the  proper 
time — Spring — to  recruit  his  Winter  loss,  he  will  most  likely 
bay  them  from  some  location  South  of  him,  as  he  can  there 
obtain  stronger  oolonies,  and  earlier  queens,  than  in  his  own 

602.  On  the  other  hand,  as  the  honey  of  the  Northern 
States  is  superior  in  quality  to  Southern  honey,  bee-culture 
lor  hooey  productioa  can  be  made  fully  as  profitable  in  the 
North,  in  spite  of  the  difficulties  of  wintering  (619). 


69S*  The  boK-hives  may  be  prepared  for  removal  by 
Inverting  them  and  tacking  a  coarse  towel  or  sack  over 
Ihem,  or  strips  of  lath  may  be  laid  over  wire-cloth,  and  brads 
driven  through  them  into  the  edges  of  the  hive. 

Confine  the  hive,  so  that  it  cannot  be  jolted,  in  a  wagon 
with  q>ring8,  and  be  sure,  before  starting,  that  it  is  imposMle 
tor  a  bee  to  get  out.  The  inverted  position  of  the  hive  will 
fire  the  bees  what  air  they  need,  and  guard  their  oomba 

OTrfhv.  to  BM*  a  Urn  wifafe  aartiriM  mn^  saw  ooiik 

(««),«  lfcl*lMlj(M»). 

lBlMi,««  aoalt  AiB^aifa  ta^nnen  not  to  tnufMrt 
>—l»— ■liifcg  jMtbiionfniit-bloMoniuitUebcit 
■■■■■•bai^atliaMlaiiaafban.  Some  adviH  tna*- 
fOtBag  Omm  !■  WMh^  «■■  liBdi,  but  after  trial  neoo- 

MM  »■  Miifcii!  to  am  wo*.    WfltenNM 

itaitB  iwullii^  tnat  «  fatrs  droppiag  ten  ■ 
bmd'i  hutda  to  tka  gnxmd,  nmiag  Um  tww  to  flvape,  ud 

to  itiiig  both  the  drivo  uid  the  horMS  WTerely. 

U  a  colony,  in  hot  weatber,  is  to  be  moved  any  distance  in 
movable-frame  hires,  it  will  t>e  advisable  to  fasten  trama 
of  wire-cloth,  both  to  the  top  and  bottom  of  the  brood 
apartmenl,  and  to  transport  the  bottom-board  (344),  cloth, 
mat,  or  surplus  cap  or  cover  (3AA),  separately. 

Glass  hives  ought  never  to  be  sent  off  tor  fear  of  acddent. 
Hives  with  movable-frames  shoatd  be  arranged  ia  sncb  a 
position  that  the  frames  nm  tromnde  to  dde,  and  not  fron 
front  to  rear,  in  the  cairiages. 

603.  (lis.)  Upon  arrivid  at  the  Airiary,  if  the  weather  ii 
warm,  you  should  at  once  set  the  hive  in  proper  poaltion.  and 
release  the  Ijees.  It  is  good  policy  to  place  a  s&ade  boari 
in  front  of  the  entrance  for  a  day  or  two.  The  object  ol 
this  is  to  cause  the  old  bees  to  notice  that  sometliing  ii 
changed  in  their  location,  and  to  torn  aroodd  and  mark  Um 
place,  instead  of  starting  out  aa  usual  in  a  bee-line  without 
looking  behind. 

e04.  New  swarms  may  be  brought  home  in  any  box 
which  has  ample  ventilation.  A  tesrcbest,  with  wire-doth 
on  the  top,  sidea,  and  bottom-board,  win  b«  toond  ntj  ooa-  ■ 


Of  Iftte  yeuB,  Mr.  A.  I.  Root,  &ud  others,  have 
DTkcticed  the  shipping  of  bees  b;  the  pouad,  with  or  with- 
out queens,  to  stock   Apiaries.    Tfaeic  wiie-cloth  cagei 

(from  Boot'* 

or  boxes  for  shipping  bees,  are  just  the  thing  for  hauling 
natnral  Bwanns,  if  made  large  enough  (fig.  101). 

The  bees  may  be  shut  up  in  the  box  as  soon  aa  the;  are 
hived.  New  tuamu  require  even  more  air  than  old  colonia, 
being  full  of  honey  and  closely  clustered  together.  They 
should  be  set  in  a  cool  place,  and,  if  the  weather  is  very 
sultry,  should  not  be  removed  until  night.  Many  swarms 
are  suffocated  by  the  neglect  of  these  precautions.  The 
bees  may  be  easily  shAken  out  from  this  temporary  hive. 

When  movable-comb  hives  are  sent  sway  to  receive  a 
■warm,  two  strips  of  wood,  with  pieces  nailed  to  them,  to  go 
between  the  frames  and  keep  them  apart,  should  be  laid 
over  the  frames,  or  tbey  may  be  tacked  fast  in  their  proper 

The  enamel-clofh  (352)  should  be  fastened  on,  by  nail- 
ing strips  all  around  over  it. 

For  Uie  further  preparation  of  hivce  to  receive  swarms, 
SM  (491). 



FsEDnro  Bbbs* 

605*  Fbw  things  In  practical  hiw  kiwpfag  are  more  l» 
portant  than  the  feeding  of  bees ;  yet  none  ha^e  been  non 
grossly  mismanaged  or  neglected.  Sinoe  the  aolphnr-fit 
has  been  discarded,  thousands  of  teeble  oolcmiee  starre  in 
the  Winter,  or  early  Spring ;  while  <rften,  when  an  nniaier- 
able  Summer  is  followed  by  a'  aefere  Winter,  and  kli 
Spring,  many  persons  lose  most  of  their  ooloiiiea  and  abas* 
don  bee-keeping  in  disgust. 

In  the  Spring^  the  prudent  bee-keeper  wtU  no  mors  megUd 
to  feed  his  destitute  colonies^  than  to  provide  for  his  own 
table.  At  this  season,  being  stimulated  by  the  returning 
warmth,  and  being  largely  engaged  in  breeding,  bees  re* 
quire  a  liberal  supply  of  food,  and  many  populous  coloniss 
perish,  which  might  have  been  saved  with  but  trifling 
trouble  or  expense. 

**  If  e^er  dark  ikntumn,  with  untimely  storm. 
The  honey'd  harrest  of  the  year  defbrm ; 
Or  the  chill  blast  from  Earns'  mildew  wingt 
Blight  the  fair  promise  of  returning  Springf 
Full  many  a  hive,  but  late  alari  and  gay, 
Droops  in  the  lap  of  all-inspiring  May.'*        BvaaSi 

**  If  the  Spring  is  not  favorable  to  bees,  th^  should  be 
beeause  that  is  the  season  of  their  greatest  expense  in  honey,  fw 
feeding  their  young.    Having  plenty  at  that  time,  enables  thes 

to  yield  early  and  strong  swarms."— (Wildman.) 

A  bee-keeper,  whose  colonies  are  allowed  to  perish  after 
the  Spring  has  opened,  is  on  a  level  with  a  farmer  wlioas 
eattle  are  allowed  to  starve  in  their  stalls ;  while  those  who 
withhold  from  them  the  needed  aid,  in  seasons  irtien  tiief 

sPBnro  FSKDDfO.  327 

cumot  gather  a  sapply,  resemble  the  merchant  who  burna 
up  his  ships,  if  they  have  made  an  anfavorable  voyage. 

Columella  gives  minute  instructions  for  feeding  needy 
oolonies,  and  notes  approvingly  the  directions  of  Hyginus-^ 
whose  writings  are  no  longer  extant — that  this  matter 
should  be  most  carefully  (''  dUigmUiuime")  attended  to. 

Spring  Fbbdino* 

HOB.  When  bees  first  begin  to  fly  in  the  Spring,  it  is 
well  to  feed  them  a  litUe^  as  a  small  addition  to  their  hoards 
encourages  the  production  of  brood.  Great  caution,  how- 
ever, should  be  used  to  prevent  robbing.  Feeding  should 
always  be  attended  to  in  the  evening  (666),  and  as 
soon  as  forage  abounds,  the  feeding  should  be  discon- 
tinued. If  a  colony  is  over-fed,  the  bees  will  fill  their 
brood-combs,  so  as  to  interfere  with  the  production  of 
joong,  and  thus  the  honey  given  to  them  is  worse  than 
thrown  away. 

The  over-feeding  of  bees  resembles,  in  its  results,  the 
noxious  influences  under  which  too  many  children  of  the 
rich  are  reared.  Pampered  and  fed  to  the  full,  how  often 
does  their  wealth  prove  only  a  legacy  of  withering  curses, 
as,  bankrupt  in  purse  and  character,  they  prematurely  sink 
to  dishonored  graves. 

Colonies,  which  have  abundant  stores,  may  be  incited  to 
breed,  by  simply  bruising  the  cappings  of  a  part  of  their 
hooey.  This  causes  them  to  feed  their  queen  more  plenti- 
folly,  and  more  eggs  are  laid. 

607.  Bees  may  require  feeding,  even  when  there  are 
many  blossoms  in  the  flelds,  before  the  beginning  of  the 
■Mdn  harvest,  if  the  weather  is  unfavorable  to  the  honey 
iow.  Large  quantities  of  brood  hatch  daily,  requiring 
much  food,  and  a  few  days  without  honey  sometimes  en- 


dangers  the  life  of  colonies,  on  the  e?e  of  a  pleatlfal  hs^ 

The  best  way  to  feed  destitute  oolonies  in  Spring  is  to 
give  them  combs  of  honey,  which  have  been  saved  from  the 
previous  season  for  this  purpose.  If  such  cannot  be  liad, 
the  food  may  be  put  into  an  empty  comb,  and  placed  whors 
it  can  be  easily  reached  by  the  bees. 

Honey  partially  candied  (880),  may  be  given  than,  in 
small  quantities,  by  pouring  it  over  the  top  of  the  combs  ia 
which  the  bees  are  clustered.  A  bee  deluged  by  sweeU, 
when  away  from  home,  is  a  sonry  spectacle ;  but  what  is 
thus  given  them  does  no  harm,  and  they  will  lick  eaoh  oilier 
clean,  with  as  much  satisfaction  as  a  little  child  raito  its 
fingers  while  feasting  on  sugar  candy. 

If  a  colony  has  too  few  bees,  its  population  must  be 
replenished  before  it  is  fed.  To  build  up  small  colonies  by 
feeding,  requires  more  care  and  judgment  than  any  other 
process  in  bee-calture,  and  will  rarely  be  required  by  those 
who  have  movable-frame  hives.  It  can  only  succeed  when 
everything  is  made  subservient  to  the  most  rapid  produc- 
tion of  brood. 

Fall  FsKimro. 

608.  By  the  time  the  honey-harvest  closes,  all  the  colo* 
nics  ought  to  be  strong  in  numbers ;  and,  in  favorable  sea- 
sons, tlicir  aggregate  resources  should  be  such  that,  when 
an  equal  division  is  made,  there  will  be  enough  food  for  all. 
If  somo  have  more,  anil  others  less  than  they  need,  an  equi- 
table division  may  usually  be  effected  in  movable-frame 
hives.  Such  an  agrarian  procedure  would  soon  overthrow 
human  society ;  but  bees  thus  helped,  will  not  spend  the 
next  season  in  idleness ;  nor  will  those  deprived  of  their 
surplus  limit  their  gatherings  to  a  bare  competency. 



Before  die  first  heavy  frosts  all  feediD) 
required  for  wintering  bees  should  be* 
carefully  attended  to. 

609.   Feeders  of  all  descriptions    are  ^ 
made  and  sold.*  To  feed  our  bees  we  have 
used  for  years  a  fruit  can,   (fig.  102)  cov- 
ered with  cloth  and  inverted  over  the  hive. 
It  costs  nothing  aud  can  be  found  in  every  Fig.  iin. 

bouse.     We  now  use  Hill's  Feeder  (fig.  102    can  fsbder. 
bis),  in  which  the  cloth  Is  replaced  by  a  perforated  cover. 


The  bees  can  then  get  their  food,  without  being  chilled 
ereD  in  cold  weather,  and  they  promptly  store  it  away  in 
the  combs,  for  later  use. 

It  is  desirable  to  get  through  with  Fall  feeding  as  rapidly 
M  possible,!  as  the  beea  are  aoexcited  by  it  that  they  con- 
Hunfl  more  food  than  they  otherwise  would.  In  feeding  a 
large  amount  for  Winter  supply,  wc  have  given  ns  many 
as  five  quart-cans  to  one  colony  at  one  time.  Wooden 
feeders  in  the  shape  of  troughs,  as  made  by  Root,  SluKk, 
and  HeddoQ,  have  the  advantage  over  the  vans  of  not  need- 
ing removal  to  be  refilled,  but  tboy  are  not  bo  well  in  reach 
of  the  cluster. 

1,  wUl  MldDm  pay  uipenMa. 

M  emptj  Utm,  unlaM  oomba  •■■ 

610.  As  hoiiflj  Is  sesros  lo  tbm  ssssons  vies 
Fall  feeding  bss  to  be  resorted  to,  we  wfB  ghi 
directtons  for  mskiiig  good  sjmp  for  WUbm 
food:  Disserve  twenty  pounds  of  gnunhled 
sugar  (use  none  but  the  best)  In  one  gallon  ^ 
boiling  water,  with  the  addition  of  Uto  or  ab 
pounds  of  bonsy.  StfrtID  well  melted,  and  lisi 
while  hikewann. 

611.  Ayor  eoM^,  for  feeding  beeOt  waa  int 
reomunended  bj  Mr.  Welgei of  SOealn.  Utte 
candy  is  laid  on  the  framea  Jnat  abore  the  doi* 
tared  bees,  it  wiU  be  aoesarible  to  liiem  in 
the  ooldest  weather.     II  mtj  also  be  put  be> 

w\g,im,     tween  the  combs,  in  an  upright  position,  among 

ROOT  the  bees,  or  poured  into  combe  before  it  is 
^^^'     cold. 

To  make  candy  for  bee-feed:  add  water  to  sugar,  and 
boil  slowly  until  the  water  is  evaporated.  Stir  constantly 
80  that  it  will  not  burn. 

To  know  when  it  is  done,  dip  your  finger  first  into  cold 
water  and  then  into  the  syrup.  If  what  adheres  is  brittle 
to  the  teeth,  it  is  boiled  enough.  Poor  it  into  shallow 
pans,  a  little  greased,  and,  when  cold,  break  it  into  pieces 
of  a  suitable  size. 

612.  Before  attempting  to  make  candy  for  bee  feed,  the 
novice  will  do  well  to  read  the  following  advice  from  the  witty 
pen  of  friend  A.  I.  Root : 

**  If  your  candy  is  burned,  no  amount  of  boiling  will  make  it 
hard,  and  your  best  way  is  to  use  it  for  cooking,  or  fseding  the  bees 
In  Summer.  Burnt  sugar  Is  death  to  them,  if  fSsd  In  cold  weather. 
You  can  tell  when  it  is  burned  by  the  smelly  color  and  taste.  If 
you  do  not  boil  it  enough,  it  will  be  soft  and  sticky  in  warm  wea- 
ther, and  will  be  liable  to  drip,  when  stored  away.  Perhaps  you 
bad  better  try  a  pound  or  two,  at  first,  while  you  ^get  your  hand 
in**.  Our  first  experiment  was  with  60  lbs.  and  it  all  got  ^scorehed^ 
somehow    •        •    •    .    Before  yon  commenoe*  make  up  your 


■ind,  700  will  not  get  one  drop  of  sugar  or  syrap  on  the  floor  or 
table.  Keep  jour  hands  clean,  and  everything  else  clean,  and 
let  the  women  folks  see  that  men  hare  common  sense ;  some  of 
them  at  least.  If  yon  should  forget  yourself,  and  let  the  candy 
boil  oyer  on  the  store,  it  would  be  rery  apt  to  get  on  the  floor, 
and  then  yon  would  be  rery  likely  to  g^t  **your  foot  in  it",  and 
before  you  got  through,  you  might  wish  yon  had  never  heard  of 
bees  or  candy  either;  and  your  wife,  if  she  did  not  say  so,  might 
wish  she  had  never  heard  of  anything  that  brought  a  man  into 
the  kitchen.  I  have  had  a  little  experience  in  the  line  of  feet 
■ticking  to  the  floor  and  snapping  at  every  step  you  take,  and 
with  door  knobs  sticking  to  the  Angers,  but  it  was  in  the  honey 
house."    0' A.  B.  C."  page  48.) 

613.  The  Rev.  Mr.SchohE»  of  Silesia,  more  than  80  years 
ago,  recommended  the  following  as  a  substitute  for  sugar- 
candy  in  feeding  bees : 

**  Take  one  pint  of  honey  and  four  pounds  of  pounded  lump- 
sugar;  heat  the  honey,  without  adding  water,  and  mix  it  with 
the  sugar,  working  it  together  to  a  stiff  doughy  mass.  When  thus 
thoroughly  incorporated,  cut  it  into  slices,  or  form  it  into  cakes 
or  lumps,  and  wrap  them  in  a  piece  of  coarse  linen  and.  place 
them  in  the  frames.  Thin  slices,  enclosed  in  linen,  may  be  pushed 
down  between  the  combs.  The  plasticity  of  the  mass  enables 
the  Apiiarist  to  apply  the  food  in  any  manner  he  may  desire.  The 
bees  have  less  difllculty  in  appropriating  this  kind  of  food  than 
where  candy  is  used,  and  there  is  no  waste." 

This  preparation  has  been  used  of  late  years  with  suc- 
cess, as  food  in  mailing  and  shipping  bees,  under  the  name 
of  '•^Good's  candy." 

Thick  sugar-syrup  and  candy  are  undoubtedly  the  best 
bee-food,  especially  when  the  bees  are  to  be  confined  a  long 
time  and  no  brood  is  to  be  raised. 

614.  An  experiment  of  De  Lajens  has  proved  that  bees 
can  use  water  to  dissolve  sugar  (273).  The  same  writer 
relates  how  a  French  bee-keeper,   Mr.  Beuzelin,  feeds  his 

in  Winter : 

**  He  aawt  into  slices  a  large  loaf  of  lump-sugar,  and  places 
ittees  tipoa  tbm  frames  under  a  cloth.    Another  bee-keeper 

rBBDOlO  BB18. 

told  me  seTend  yeara  ago  of  baring  aarod  eolonlea  in  atimw  hlwrn 
hy  almply  aoapending  in  them,  with  wirea,  Itimpa  of  aagir 
weighing  sereral  ponnda."— (Bm^Ci^  tk  ia  Aottt  BomimdtJi 

While  sach  methods  sucoeed  in  a  mild  and  damp  oiimate, 
like  that  of  Franoe,  they  are  not  advisable  in  the  Northern 
part  of  the  United  States,  unlesd  the  bees  are  wintered  in 
cellars  (640). 

615.  The  prudent  Apiarist  will  regard  the  fee<Ung  of 
bees — the  little  given  by  way  of  encouragement  excepted— 
as  an  evU  to  be  submiUed  to  only  when  U  cannot  be  avoided^ 
and  will  much  prefer  that  they  should  obtain  their  supplies 
in  the  manner  so  beautifully  described  by  him  whoee  Inimi- 
table writings  furnish  us,  on  almost  every  subjectt  with  the 
liappiest  illustrations : 

^^  So  work  the  honey-bees, 
'  Creatures  that,  by  a  rule  in  Nature,  teach 
The  art  of  order  to  a  peopled  kingdom. 
They  have  a  king  and  officers  of  sorts, 
Where  some,  like  magistrates,  correct  at  home« 
Others,  like  merchants,  venture  trade  abroad ; 
Others,  like  soldiers,  armed  in  their  stings. 
Make  boot  upon  the  Summer's  velvet  buds ; 
Which  pillage  they,  with  merry  march,  bring  home 
To  the  tent  royal  of  their  emperor. 
Who,  busied  in  his  majesty,  surveys 
The  singing  masons  building  roofs  of  gold; 
The  civil  citizens  kneading  up  the  honey; 
The  poor  mechanic  porters  crowding  in 
Their  heavy  burdens  at  his  narrow  gate ; 
The  sad-eyed  Justice,  with  his  surly  hum, 
Delivering  o*cr,  to  executors  pale. 
The  lazy,  yawning  drone." 

Shakespeaiir*s  Jlemy  K,  Ad  I,  Sctm  f. 

610.  All  attempts  to  derive  profit  from  selling  cheap 
honey  or  syrup,  fed  to  bees,  h.ive  invariably  proved  unsuc- 
cessful. The  notion  that  they  can  change  a//  sti^eets,  however 
poor  their  quality,  into  honey^  on  the  same  principle  that 


COWS  secrete  milk  from  mjhj  acceptable  food,  is  a  complete 

It  is  true  that  they  can  make  white  comb  from  almost 
eyery  liquid  sweet,  because  wax  being  a  natural  secretion 
of  the  bee,  can  be  made  from  all  saccharine  substances,  as 
fat  can  be  put  upon  the  ribs  of  an  ox  by  any  kind  of  nour- 
ishing food.  But  the  quality  of  the  comb  has  nothing  to 
do  with  its  contents ;  and  the  attempt  to  sell,  as  a  prime 
article,  inferior  sweets,  stored  in  beautiful  comb,  would  be 
as  truly  a  fraud  as  to  offer  for  good  money,  coins  which, 
although  pure  on  the  outside,  contain  a  baser  metal  within. 

Different  kinds  of  honey  or  sugar-syrup  fed  to  the  bees 
can  be  as  readily  distinguished,  after  they  have  sealed  them 
up,  as  before. 

The  Golden  Age  of  bee-keeping,  in  which  bees  are  to 
transmute  inferior  sweets  into  such  balmy  spoils  as  were 
gathered  on  Hybla  or  Hymettus,  is  as  far  from  prosaic 
reality  as  the  visions  of  the  poet,  who  saw — 

**A  golden  hive,  on  a  golden  bank, 
Where  golden  bees,  by  alchemical  prank. 
Gather  gold  instead  of  honey." 

Even  if  cheap  sugar  could  be  "  made  over  '*  by  the  bees 
so  as  to  taste  like  honey,  it  would  cost  the  producer,  taking 
into  account  the  amount  consumed  (223)  in  elaborating 
wax,  almost  if  not  quite,  as  much  as  the  market  price  of 
white  clover  honey;  and,  if  he  feeds  his  bees  after  the 
natural  supplies  are  over,  they  will  suffer  from  filling  up 
their  brood  cells. 

617.  The  experienced  Apiarist  will  fully  appreciate  the 
necessity  of  preventing  his  bees  getting  a  taste  of  forbidden 
sweets,  and  the  inexperienced,  if  incautious,  will  soon  learn 
a  salutary  lesson.  Bees  were  intended  to  gather  their 
supplies  from  the  nectaries  of  flowers,  and,  while  following 
their  natural  instincts,  have  little  disposition  to  meddle 
with  property  that  does  not  belong  to  them ;  but,  if  their 


foeaiittoiiB  owner  tempti  than  witli  liquid  ioodf  al 
when  they  can  obtain  nothing  from  the  bloeaoaw,  tlq 
become  so  infatuated  with  iaoh  ttmy  gatheringii  as  to  Iqm 
all  discretion,  and  will  perish  bj  thooaanda  If  Ibe  ymmk 
which  oontain  the  food  are  not  fomlahed  with  floatSi  ts 
which  they  can  safely  stand  to  hdp  tbemaebea. 

Aa  the  fly  waa  not  intended  to  banqn^  on  Mnasoms,  bil 
•o  snbstancea  in  which  it  might  easily  be  drowned,  ttei» 
ttonaly  aUghta  on  the  edge  of  any  tsssbI  oontniaing  Iqsli 
food,  and  warily  helps  itself;  iriiito  the  poor  bee,  p^-f^i 
In  headlong,  speedily  perishes.  The  sad  file  of  tiWr  »> 
lortonate  companiona  does  not  in  the  least  deter  oChsn  who 
approach  the  tempting  Inre,  from  madly  •Mgfctitfcg  ea  fti 
bodies  of  the  dying  and  the  dead,  to  share  the  aame  misi^ 
able  end  I  No  one  can  understand  the  extent  of  their 
infatuation,  until  he  baa  seen  a  confectioner's  shop  asssiled 
by  myriads  of  hungry  bees.  We  haye  seen  thousands 
strained  out  from  the  syrups  in  which  they  had  perished; 
thousands  more  alighting  even  upon  the  boiling  sweets ;  the 
floors  covered  and  windows  darkened  with  bees,  some 
crawling,  others  flying,  and  others  still,  so  completely 
besmeared  as  to  be  able  neither  to  crawl  nor  fly — not  one 
in  ten  able  to  carry  home  its  ill-gotten  spoils,  and  yet  the 
air  filled  with  new  hosts  of  thoughtless  comers. 

We  once  furnished  a  candy-shop,  in  the  Ticinity  of  our 
Apiary,  with  wire-gauze  windows  and  doors,  after  the  bees 
had  commenced  their  depredations.  On  flnding  themselvei 
excluded,  they  alighted  on  the  wire  by  thousands,  fairly 
squealing  with  vexation  as  they  vainly  tried  to  force  a 
passage  through  the  meshes.*  Baffled  in  every  effort,  they 
attempted  to  descend  the  chimney,  reeking  with  sweet 
odors,  even  although  most  who  entered  it  fell  with  scorched 

•  If ttDQfictnien  of  candlet  and  lyrapa  wiU  Snd  II  to  tbatx  Interest  to  St  ncfe 
gmuda  to  thalr  premliet;  for,  if  only  ono  boo  la  a  fcaiiSiod  OMSpot  wltS 
lood,  ooMldosUo  loM  wUl  bo  ineuTBd  in  tho  eoaiM  of  Iks 

on  AMD  ABun.  St5 

wings  into  the  fire,  and  it  became  necessary  to  put  wire> 
gauze  over  the  top  of  the  chimney  also.     (586). 

618.  As  we  have  seen  thousands  of  bees  destroyed  in 
■och  places,  thousands  more  hopelessly  struggling  in  the 
deluding  sweets,  and  yet  increasing  thousands,  all  unmind- 
ful of  their  danger,  blindly  hovering  over  and  alighting  on 
Ihem,  how  often  liave  they  reminded  us  of  the  infatuation 
of  those  who  abandon  themselves  to  the  intoxicating  cup  I 
Even  although  such  persons  see  the  miserable  victims  of 
this  degrading  vice  falling  all  around  them  into  premature 
graves,  they  still  press  madly  on,  trampling,  as  it  were, 
over  their  dead  bodies,  that  they  too  may  sink  into  the 
same  abyss,  and  their  sun  also  go  down  in  hopeless 

The  avaricious  bee  that,  despising  the  slow  process  of 
extracting  nectar  from  "every  opening  flower,"  plunges 
recklessly  into  the  tempting  sweets,  has  ample  time  to  be- 
wail her  folly.  Even  if  she  does  not  forfeit  her  life,  she 
letnms  home  with  a  woe-begone  look,  and  sorrowful  note, 
in  marked  contrast  with  the  bright  hues  and  merry  sounds 
with  which  her  industrious  fellows  come  back  from  their 
lui|»py  rovings  amid  **  bndding  honey-flowers  and  sweetly* 
iMMthlniT  flnlds  ** 

619.  Bees  can  h%  i  Mj  in  neariy  aD  eBnatai, 
where  tlie  Sammer  is  k  i  to  enable  theoi  to  atae  i 
IHnter  aapply.  1  itate,  the  vital  lieat  of  tte 
Uto  hollow  trees  in  i  ch  they  dwell,  helps  to  majatain  a 
higher  temperature  t  .  that  of  the  oataide  air,  aad  bees 
Winter  so  well  in  si  abodes,  that  travelera,  wlio  Tiait 
Northern  Russia,  wonder  bow  so  small  an  insect  can  five  is 
such  inhospitable  c  ountries. 

620.  As  s  on  as  frosty  weather  arriTes,  bees  cluster  c  im- 
pact ly  together  in  their  hives,  to  lcee,>  warm.  They  do  not 
assemble  on  combs  fall  of  honey,  bat  on  the  empty  comb 
Jast  below  the  honey.  They  are  never  dormant,  lilce  wasps 
and  hornets,  and  a  thermometer  pus'ied  up  among  them 
will  show  a  Summer  temperature,  even  when,  in  the  open  air, 
it  is  many  degrees  below  zero. 

The  bees  in  the  cluster  are  imbricated^  like  the  shingles  of 
a  roof,  each  bee  having  her  head  under  the  abdomen  of  the 
one  above  her,  and  so  on,  to  the  ones  who  are  in  reach  of 
the  honey.  These  pass  the  honey  to  those  below  them, 
which  pass  it  to  the  next,  and  so  on,  to  the  bottom  of  the 

621.  When  the  cold  becomes  intense,  they  keep  up  ao 
incessant  tremulous  motion,  in  order  to  develop  more  heat* 

*  Xrerybody  knowi  that  motion  trantformt  ItMlf  ioto  kest,  and  that  haat  li 
Irat  tt  form  of  motion ....  whether  the  motion  oooMs  firam  a  large  bodr 
og  firom  a  email  one,  whether  this  motion  he  awktonlj  or  gESdaaUy  etopped, 
tte  reenlt  is  the  same,  it  ie  tranatormed  into  heal.— KWii*!— Hoa,  *  *Le 
ATSnt  la  CHatlon  de  1' Homme.") 


by  aotlTe  ezerdfle ;  and,  as  those  on  the  ontside  of  the  oIas> 
ter  become  chilled,  they  are  replaced  by  others.  Besidest 
the  fanning  of  wings,  which  causes  this  roar,  sends  the  warm 
air  from  the  top  of  the  cluster  to  the  bottom  of  the  hive- 
thus  warming  the  bees  placed  at  the  lowest  part  of  the 
cluster ;  and  these,  if  not  too  chilled,  take  advantage  of  a 
warmer  day,  to  climb  above  the  mass,  and  get  honey  in 
their  turn. 

When  the  weather  is  very  cold,  their  humming  can  often 
be  heard  outside  of  the  hive ;  and,  if  the  hive  be  jarred,  at 
any  time,  there  comes  a  responsive  murmur,  which  is  longer 
or  shorter  in  duration,  and  lower  or  higher  in  tone,  accord* 
ing  to  the  strength  of  the  colony. 

622.  As  all  muscular  exertion  requires  food  to  supply 
the  waste  of  the  system,  the  more  quiet  bees  can  be  kept, 
the  less  they  will  eat.  It  is,  therefore,  highly  important  to 
preserve  them  as  far  as  possible,  in  Winter,  from  every 
degree,  either  of  heat  or  cold,  which  WiU  arouse  them  to 
great  activity. 

When  all  the  food  which  is  in  their  reach  is  consumed, 
they  will  starve,  if  the  temperature  is  too  cold  to  allow  them 
to  move  their  cluster  to  the  parts  of  the  combs  which  con- 
tain honey ;  hence,  if  the  central  combs  of  the  hive  are  not 
well  stored  with  honey,  they  should  be  exchanged  for  such 
as  are,  so  that,  when  the  cold  compels  the  bees  to  recede 
from  the  outer  combs,  they  may  cluster  among  their 
stores.  In  districts  where  bees  gather  but  little  honey  in 
the  Fall,  such  precautions,  in  cold  climates,  will  be  spe- 
cially needed,  as,  often,  after  breeding  is  over,  their  central 
combs  will  be  almost  empty. 

623.  It  is  impossible  to  say  how  much  honey  will  be 
needed  to  carry  a  colony  safely  through  the  Winter.  Much 
will  depend  on  the  way  in  which  they  are  wintered,  whether 
in  the  open  air  or  in  special  depositories,  where  they  are 
protected  against  the  undue  excitement  caused  by  sudden 

of  the  WinlwB,  whieh  my  m  aoflh  fa  dUtamt  htliBilM, 
•ad  tlM  lorwirdoMB  of  tte  «iaofa^  flptiag*  XaaoaMrf 
oar  Norttem  Stetot,  boes  vill  oltaa  gtikm  aotti^f  Ik 
mot^  tham  8iz  souths,  iHiila,  fa  tho  flEctaMDo  Soalh«  tlHf 
•rt  MUom  d«|Krlfod  of  all  natonl  mppltas  lor  m  mfUf 
meki.  In  fdl  oar  Northern  aad  Middle  Stafeeo,  If  tte  oob- 
niee  are  to  be  wintered  oat  of  doors,  thqr  ahonld  hsve  si 
isoMl  twaatgr-llTe  poaads  of  hoaegr* 

In  mofable-framo  hires,  thesiaooatolstosasflMgr  bses»> 
Uj  ssesrtsinod  by  aetasl  inspootioa.  Tbs  «ai|^  of  faivas 
is  aoi  always  a  sals  eriterion,  as  old  oondMi  sra  hsaHsr  thaa 
new  ones,  besides  being  oftsa  ofscstssad  wttii  baa  brsad, 


624.  Fraotieal  bee-keepers  osaally  Jadga  of  the  aDMMial 

of  stores  by  sight.  The  majority  of  oombs  in  an  ordinary 
Langstroth  hive  should  be  aboat  half  fall  of  luMiey,  for  oat* 
door  wlnteriog,  in  this  latitude.  Remember  that  food  is 
needed,  not  only  to  carry  them  through  the  Winter,  but 
also  to  help  them  to  raise  brood  largely,  daring  the  oold 
days  of  early  Spring.  Bees  do  not  waste  their  stores,  and 
the  wealthy  colonies  will  usually  De  fbond  stronger,  and 
better  prepared  for  the  following  harvest. 

Enthusiastic  beginners,  in  Apioalture,  are  Mpt  to  overdo 
extracting  (753),  leaving  too  little  hoaey  ia  the  brood* 
chamber  for  Winter.  If  the  bees  are  not  aotaaily  crowded 
with  honey,  we  would  advise  them  to  leave,  to  strong  colo- 
nies, all  the  honey  that  the  brood-chsmber  coataiaa.  Soom 
may  think  that  nine  or  ten  neavy  Qainby  fraaiea,  are  too 
many  for  a  colony,  for  they  may  be  totalsrsd  on  s<s  or  ifsss. 
We  will  here  give  a  bit  of  our  experience  on  that  point: 

625.  Some  18  years  ago,  in  an  Apiary  away  from  bone, 
where  we  were  raising  comb-honey  (719),  we  hadmaaaiber 
of  swarms,  which,  in  the  rush  of  the  hon^-crop,  we  did  aoi 
ezaaiiae  antU  their  oombs  were  baili.    Al  thai  ttsse,  the 

wnnTKBixe.  S29 

triangular  bar  (810)  was  the  guide  principally  used,  and 
the  combs  of  some  of  these  swarms  were  joined  together  in 
a  way  that  rendered  the  frames  immovable.  In  the  Fall, 
we  extracted  (751)  from  the  brood-chamber  of  nearly 
every  colony,  as  was  then  our  practice,  leaving  only  seven 
Quinby  frames  on  an  average — for  Winter.  The  colonies, 
that  had  crooked  combs,  were  left  with  all  their  stores — ten 
frames, — because  we  could  not  disturb  them  without  break- 
ing combs,  and  causing  leakage  and  robbing,  and  it  was  not 
the  proper  season  to  transfer  (574)  them.  These  colonies 
did  not  have  to  be  fed,  the  following  Spring,  became  very 
strong,  and  yielded  the  largest  crop.  This  untried-for 
result  caused  us  to  make  further  experiments,  which  proved 
that  there  is  a  proJU  in  leaving^  to  strong  colonies,  a  large 
quantity  of  honey^  so  that  they  will  not  limit  their  Spring 


626.  The  quality  of  the  bee-food  is  an  important  matter 
in  wintering  bees.  Protracted  cold  weather  compels  them 
to  eat  large  quantities  of  honey,  filling  their  intestines 
with  fecal  matter  which  they  cannot  void,  for  bees  never 
discharge  their  faeces  in  the  hive  (73),  unless  they  are 
confined  too  long,  or  greatly  disturbed. 

Unhealthy  food  in  prolonged  confinement,  sooner  or  later 
causes  diarrhea  (784),  not  only  in  wintering  out  of  doors, 
but  in  cellar  wintering  (646),  and  in  shipping  bees  long 
distances   (587). 

Diarrhea,  or  as  some  call  it,  dysentery,  in  bees,  is  not 
properly  a  disease,  since  it  is  only  caused  by  the  retaining 
in  the  abdomen,  of  a  large  amount  of  excrements,  which  in 
ordinary  circumstances  would  be  voided  regularly.*  These 
excrements  or  fseces,  from  a  reddish  yellow  to  a  muddy 
black  in  color,  according  to  the  quality  of  the  food  eaten, 

kATt  Im6q  oonilned  for  two  weeks  or  more,  Uiej  dlBcharge 
tai  ilflil  «xeTCaMDto  whleb  Mil  eTerything  about  the  Apiaiy.    The  hoiu»- 
svoids  hamlnf  cloUiee  out  to  dry  on  laoh  dayt. 

f^^ie  w^  iptolerably  off uftfe  nML  |ii  ejtoewtye  pofiiM- 
liiaitfirith  m  laige  oopsnn^tioii,  from  aoy  opuOt  <4  fponoi 
ieaB  heatthj  food,wb0&  bees  cm  no  longer  Tetaln  the  esqe- 
nients  in  their  distended  sbdomen,  tbqr  y^d  them  i|pos 
one  snother,  apon  the  OMDbs,  iip<^  the  floor,  ipd  sfc  tin 
entrsnoe  of  the  hive,  **  whidi  bees  in  m  heslftby  sUte  u% 
psrticalsrlj  csrefol  to  keep  dean." 

If  bees  can  YiAd  them,  in  fli|^  (78),  petcn  it  is  too 
Iste,  they  eicperience  no  bad  effeots,  hence  it  is  indispemsr 
bie  that,  when  wintered  oat  of  doors,  bees  should  be  ensbled 
to  fly,  at  intervals,  daring  the  Winter. 

f|87.  From  namerous  experiments  made,  it  is  erident 

production  of  f axes.  Hence  watery,  anripe,  or  soar  honey, 
and  all  honey  containing  extraneous  matter,  are  more  or 
less  injurious  to  confined  bees.  D^rk  honey  contaioing  a 
large  proportion  of  mellose  is  inferior  to  clover- honey  or 
sugar-syrup.  Honey  harvested  from  flowers,  which  yield 
much  pollen  (263),  is  likely  to  contain  many  floating 
grains  of  it,  and  will  be  more  injurious  than  clear,  trans- 
parent honey,  in  cases  where  bees  will  be  confined  to  their 
hives  by  cold  for  five  or  six  weeks.  Honey-dew  (255) 
seems  worse  yet.  The  juices  of  fruits,  apples,  grapes,  etc. 
(877),  are  worst  of  all.  In  the  Winter  of  18a0-81,  we 
purchased  the  remaius  of  some  90  colonies,  that  had  been 
winter-killed,  and  in  which  the  only  food  left  was  apple- 
juice,  that  had  been  carried  in,  during  the  preceding  Fall, 
and  bad  turned  to  cider.  This  unwholesome  food  in  Winter 
confinement,  by  causing  diarrhea,  had  killed  bees  every- 
where arouuvi  us  (784). 

628.  Happily  these  instances,  of  bees  storing  apple- 
juice,  are  scarce,  but  the  practical  bee-keeper  will  not  allow 
such  food  to  remain  in  the  hive.  It  can  be  extracted  (740), 
boiled,  and  fed  back  in  Spring,  for  bees  do  not  suffer  from 

wiNTsaniG.  881 

ttiis  tood  when  not  confined  to  their  hives.  The  same  may 
be  said  of  inferior  or  unripe  honey  (261). 

Mnoh  unsealed  honey  in  the  comb  is  injurious  for  Win- 
ter, even  if  the  honey  is  ripe.  This  unsealed  honey  gathers 
moisture  pn  account  of  its  hygrometric  properties,  and  be- 
comes thin  and  watery.  In  addition  to  this  peculiarity, 
honey,  when  cold,  condenses  the  moisture  or  steam  of  the 
bees,  in  the  same  manner  that  a  pitcher  of  cold  water  con- 
denses the  moisture  of  the  air  in  a  warm  room.  In  some 
Winters,  we  have  seen  unsealed  honey  gather  so  much  of 
the  moisture  of  the  bees  that  it  overflowed,  and  ran  out  of 
the  cells  to  the  bottom-board.  Luckily  the  bees  usually 
oonsume  this  honey  first,  before  Winter  begins. 

620.  To  avoid  the  accidents  caused  by  poor  honey, 
some  Apiarists  have  suggested  that  all  the  honey  might  be 
extracted  every  Fall,  and  sugar-syrup  fed  in  its  place. 
This  system  is  even  carried  farther  by  the  inverting 
process,  which  (726)  compels  the  bees  to  place  all  their 
honey  in  the  surplus  sections  (721),  leaving  dry  all  the 
oombs  of  the  brood-chamber.  At  the  first  glance,  this 
course  seems  profitable,  when  the  difference  between  the 
price  of  comb-honey  (783)  and  the  cost  of  sugar-syrup  is 
considered,  but  when  we  take  into  acccount  the  trouble 
of  feeding,  and  the  poor  results  obtained  in  wintering 
the  bees,  we  see  much  labor  for  a  small  profit.  Having 
ascertained  that  bees  winter  better  on  Spring  or  light-col- 
ored honey  (782),  we  no  longer  extract  from  the  brood- 
chamber,  avoiding  the  annoyance  and  the  extra  labor  of 
feeding.  Our  experience  has  convinced  us  that,  unless  the 
Spring  crop  has  failed,  or  the  food  is  decidedly  bad,  such 
as  unripe  honey  (240),  or  honey-dew  (255),  or  fruit-juice 
(877),  it  is  cheaper  to  winter  bees  on  natural  stores. 
When  sugar-syrup  is  needed,  none  but  the  best  sugar 
should  be  used.     (See  Feeding.  605.) 

6dO.  AH  empty  oombs,  whetber  brood-combs  or  surplus- 

1ft  AeiBil  cold 
Wc  Ittve 
eold  f octBghl  im 

alofy  (vUck  had  tat  Ittit  honqr  ia  it»  nd  had 
left  OB  by  Bcgleel),  fllttoi«^  llnra  wm  planfef  of 
hoagj ia ^^ hi^^ * fe^y "gfcw bdofw ft—.  Tliei|Mfle,MI 
CBptj  bjr  fte  icmond  of  tte  eoBbs,  riMttld  te  med  iritt  a 
wsna  Bsterial  placed  beftw€<a  fte  lida  of  Oa  Uva  and  tte 

<I81.  As  aoiiie  beea  wUdi  dhnlar  om  flha  ontilda  eoabi 
are  often  unable  to  Join  fte  oUicn  la  oold  weatfcar,ttwoaM 
be  wen  to  hare  holes,  or  Winter  paaaagea,  throng  thi 
combs,  sach  as  will  allow  them  to  pass  readily,  in  oold 
weather,  from  one  to  another ;  but  if  these  holes  are  made 
before  they  feel  the  need  of  them,  they  will  freqaently 
close  them.  It  is  suggested  that  smaU  tabes  made  of  dder^ 
the  pith  of  which  has  been  removed,  would  make  permanent 
Winter-passages,  if  inserted  in  the  comb,  at  any  time.  On 
a  cold  NoTcmbrr  day,  Mr.  Langstroth  found  bees,  in  ahivs 
without  any  Winter-passages,  separated  from  the  main 
cluster,  and  so  chilled  as  not  to  be  able  to  move ;  while, 
with  the  thermometer  many  degrees  below  zero,  he  repeat- 
edly  noticed,  in  other  hives,  at  one  of  the  holes  made  in  the 
comb,  a  cluster,  varying  in  size,  ready  to  rush  out  at  the 
slightest  jar  of  their  hive. 

It  has  been  found  quite  praciical  to  glTe  them  a  passage 
above  the  combs,  or  between  the  combs  and  the  straw-mat, 
or  quilt,  above  them.  The  Hill  device  is  very  good  for  this 
purpose,  although  we  find  that  the  bees  often  have  bridge' 
combs  in  sufficient  quantity  above  the  frames  to  giTe  them 
the  necessary  passage. 

OUT-DOOB   ¥nNTEBnfG.  S88 

0UT*D00B  WlNTBRmO. 

632.  The  usnal  mode  of  allowing  bees  to  remain  all 
Winter  on  their  Summer  stands,  is,  in  cold  climates,  very 
objectionable.  In  those  parts  of  the  country,  however,  where 
the  cold  is  seldom  so  severe  as  to  prevent  them  from  flying, 
mt  frequent  intervals,  from  their  hives,  no  better  way,  all 
things  considered,  can  be  devised.  In  such  favored  regions, 
bees  are  but  little  removed  from  their  native  climate,  and 
their  wjnts  may  be  easily  supplied,  without  those  injurious 
effects  which  commonly  result  from  disturbing  them  when 
the  weather  is  so  cold  a^  to  confine  them  to  their  hives. 

If  the  colonies  are  to  be  wintered  in  the  open  air,  they 
should  all  be  made  populous,  and  rich  in  stores,  even  if  to 
do  so  requires  their  number  to  be  reduced  one-half  or  more. 
The  bee-keeper  who  has  ten  strong  colonies  in  the  Spring, 
will,  by  judicious  management  with  movable-frame  hives, 
be  able  to  close  the  season  with  a  larger  Apiary  than  one 
who  begins  it  with  thirty,  or  more,  feeble  ones. 

632  (5i8).  Small  colonies  consume,  proportionally,  much 
more  food  than  large  ones,  and  then  perish  from  inability 
to  maintain  sufficient  heat. 

Bees,  in  small  or  contracted  hives,  especially  when  de- 
prived of  all  the  honey  gathered  in  Spring,  as  stated  be- 
fore (620),  have  too  scanty  a  population  for  a  successful 
wintering,  especially  out  of  doors;  for,  as  it  is  by  eating 
that  bees  generate  warmth,  the  abdomens  of  a  small  number 
are  soon  filled  with  residues,  and  if  the  cold  continues  for 
weeks  the  bees  get  the  diarrhea  (784).  We  have  often 
seen  colonies  in  small  hives  perishing  side  by  side  with 
large  ones  whose  bees  were  very  healthy. 

Such  facts  abound,  and  we  have  but  to  open  the  bee- 
JoummlB  to  find  the  confirmation  of  our  statement. 



In  the  Ammican  Bm-J&utiuiI  tor  Ftibruaij  8,  1888,  pap 
88,  Ur.  J.  P.  Stone  of  H0II7,  Hiob.,  asks  whjr  m.  oolonjr, 
which  was  hived  in  I6fi9  In  a  l&rge  box,  is  prospering  jit, 
while  others  have  perished.  The  size  giTsn,  16Xl<Xtl. 
which  shows  that  the  box  hss  twioe  Uie  oifMUiltjr  of  u 
S-trome  Langatroth  hive,  answers  his  qaestion. 

in  the  following  number  of  the  ssme  Joamal,  pi^s  lOT, 
iir.  Heddon  mentions  •  colon;  which  had  wintex«d  ssfS^ 
tot  seren  years  io  a  box  t«n  times  larger  than  ths  Laqf- 
•troth,  wldle  many  oUiers  died  by  Its  side.  "The  colour, 
when  tranaferred,  oontuned  about  doable  tbs  iiombKd 
bMS  nsoally  rused  from  one  queen." 

FU.  IW. 
COllUOX  I11VB.1 

(From  namM.) 

Yf  t  small  colonies  can  Eomelimes  be  safely  wintered  ont 
of  <liMjrs,  if  tliL'tr  comlia  and  honey  are  not  Spread  over  » 
lar^'i'  tijiacc,  and  if  tliev  are  sheltered  bo  ss  to  maintain  the 
projuT  lie;it.  It  is  tliercfwre  iiiilispensBble  to  reduce  the 
combs  i)f  ,1  hive  tn  the  arnoiiutuf  room  which  the  bees  cm 
be^t  ktep  >v:inii,  by  the  use  of  the  tlivision  or  contracting 
board  (a41>),  without  ft>rpettiny  to  leave  a  a uQtcient  supply 
of  good  liiiney.  8u\>pA5  v.-\k\<;\i,6oiii«x\\(\%«,  c«nbe  taken  from 
too  rich  colooica. 

OMiTiMO  885 


B3S.  A  queenless  colonji  in  the  Fall,  should  always  be 
miited  to  some  other  hive. 

If  two  or  more  colonies,  which  are  to  be  united  in  the 
Fall,  are  not  close  together,  their  hives  must  be  gradually 
drawn  nearer,  and  the  bees  may  then,  with  proper  precau- 
tions, be  put  into  the  same  hive.  For  this  purpose,  it  is 
well  to  kill  the  poorest  queen  (if  both  have  queens)  and 
keep  the  best.  This  may  be  dispensed  with,  but  the  pru- 
dent bee-keeper  will  never  neglect  an  opportunity  to  im- 
prove his  stock.  On  a  cool  November  day,  the  combs  of 
the  weaker  colony  that  bear  the  cluster,  should  be  lifted 
all  together,  and  inserted  in  the  other  hive,  after  the  bees 
of  the  latter  have  been  thoroughly  frightened  with  smoke. 

634.  If,  when  two  colonies  are  put  together,  the  bees  in 
the  one  on  the  old  stand  are  not  gorged  with  honey,  they 
will  often  attack  the  others,  and  speedily  sting  them  to 
death,  in  spite  of  all  their  attempts  to  purchase  immunity, 
by  offering  their  honey.  The  late  Wm.  W.  Gary,  of  Cole- 
raine,  Massachusetts,  who  has  long  been  an  accurate 
observer  of  the  habits  of  bees,  united  colonies  very  success- 
fully, by  alarming  those  that  were  on  the  old  stand  ;  as  soon 
as  they  showed  by  their  notes,  that  they  were  subdued,  he 
gave  them  the  new-comers.  The  alarm  which  causes  them 
to  gorge  themselves  with  honey,  puts  them,  doubtless,  upon 
their  good  behavior,  long  enough  to  give  the  others  a  fair 

Thej'  can  also  be  made  to  unite  peaceably,  by  sprinkling  a 
little  sweet-scented  water  on  them  (485).  It  is  well  to  put 
a  slanting  board  in  front  of  the  entrance  (G0«3  bis)  to  show 
the  moved  bees  that  their  location  is  changed.  The  empty 
hive  should  be  removed  from  its  place  to  prev^rkt  Ui^  V^^^%^ 


from  retaming  to  it.  The  nombcir  of  combs  la  Ot  udlid 
colony  can  be  reduced  MiOOiiM  the  bees  hsTV  all  elMtwd 

In  this  maimer  a  strong  oobiqr  with  little  honey,  sad  a 
weak  one  with  plenty  of  stores,  oan  be  united  to  foma 
good  hive  of  bees. 

OuT-*DooB  Shblmiwb 

&Sii.  The  moving  of  a  colony  to  a  warmer  or  bettor 
sheltered  place,  just  before  Winter,  is  not  adviaable,  for  a 
great  many  bees,  not  having  noticed  their  new  loeatjoe, 
would  perish  of  cold,  while  searching  for  their  liome,  and 
the  population  would  be  greatly  decreased. 

In  our  Northern,  Middle  and  Western  States,  the  style 
of  hive  used  has  a  considerable  influence  on  the  safety  of 
out-door  wintering. 

With  hives  that  are  single-walled  all  around,  great  care 
should  be  taken  to  shelter  the  bees  from  the  piercing  winds, 
which  in  Winter  so  powerfully  exhaust  their  animal  heat; 
for,  like  human  beings,  if  sheltered  from  the  wind,  they  will 
endure  a  low  temperature  far  better  than  a  continuous  cur- 
rent of  very  much  warmer  air. 

In  some  parts  of  the  West,  where  bees  suffer  much  from 
cold  winds,  their  hives  are  protected,  in  Winter,  by  sheaves 
of  straw,  fastened  so  as  to  defend  them  from  both  cold  and 
wet.  With  a  little  ingenuity,  farmers  might  easily  turn 
their  waste  straw  to  a  valuable  account  in  sheltering  their 

Not  only  can  straw  be  used  for  this  purpose  with  much 
service,  but  also  forest  leaves,  com  fodder,  and  rushes. 
Snow  is  found  to  be  a  very  good  shelter,  provided  its  suc- 
cessive melting  and  freezing  does  not  interfere  with  the 
necessary  ventilation.  It  must  be  removed  from  the  en- 
trance on  the  approach  of  a  warm  day. 


Mr.  Geo.  H.  Beard,  of  Winchester,  Mo.,  safely  wintered 
ninety-three  colonies  out  of  ninety-six,  in  the  severe  Winter 
of  1884-5,  in  two-story  Simplicity  hives,  (324)  by  removing 
the  oil-cloth  and  replacing  it  with  coarse  sack-cloth,  filling 
the  upper  story  with  maple  leaves,  and  covering  the  hives, 
on  all  sides,  except  the  front,  with  what  is  commonly  known 
as  slough-grass.  This  success  is  worthy  of  notice,  for  in 
that  Inemorable  Winter,  more  than  two-thirds  of  the  bees 
in  the  Northern  States  died,  some  Apiarists  losing  all  they 
bad.  'Like  that  of  1855-6,  it  will  long  be  remembered, 
not  only  for  the  uncommon  degree  and  duration  of  its  cold, 
but  for  the  tremendous  winds,  which,  often  for  days  to- 
gether, swept  like  a  Polar  blast  over  the  land. 

We  have,  for  years,  wintered  part  of  our  bees  on  the 
Summer  stand,  by  sheltering  them  on  all  sides  but  the  front, 
with  forest  leaves  closely  packed,  and  held  with  a  frame- 
work of  lath. 

636.  One  of  the  most  important  requirements  for  success- 
ful out-door  wintering,  is  the  placing  of  warm  absorbents, 
immediately  over  the  cluster,  to  imbibe  the  excess  of  moisture 
that  rises  from  the  bees,  without  allowing  the  heat  to  escape. 

In  March,  1856,  we  lost  some  of  our  best  colonies,  under 
the  following  circumstances :  The  Winter  had  been  intensely 
cold,  and  the  hives,  having  no  upward  ventilation,  were 
filled  with  frost,  —  in  some  instances,  the  ice  on  their 
glass  sides  being  nearly  a  quarter  of  an  inch  thick.  A  few 
days  of  mild  weather,  in  which  the  frost  began  to  thaw,  were 
followed  by  a  severely  cold  spell  with  the  thermometer 
below  zero,  accompanied  by  raging  winds,  and  in  many  of 
the  hives,  the  bees,  which  were  still  wet  from  the  thaw, 
were  frozeti  together  in  an  almost  solid  mass. 

Ab  long  M  the  v^por  remains  congealed,  it  can  injure 
the  bees  only  by  keeping  them  from  stores  which  they 
need;'  bnt,  as  soon  as  a  thaw  sets  in,  hives  which  have  no 
upward  absorbents  are  in  danger  of  being  ruined. 

8o8  WDITBBOld. 

Mr.  E.  T.  Sturtevant,  of  Kast  Cleveliuid,  Ohio,  wlditf 
known  as  an  experienced  Apiarist,  thiis  gives  hm  expcErienee 
in  wintering  bees  in  tlie  open  air: 

^No  extremity  of  ook)  that  we  er^  have  In  this  cHtif,  will 
Ix^nre  bees,  if  their  breath  is  allowed  to  pass  ofl;so  that  th^  in 
dry.  Ineyerlostagoodeoloay  thatwasdij,  and  had  plenty  of 

The  absorbents  generally  osed  are  ohalf  In  ensfaloiis, 
straw,  forest  leaves  (maple  leaves  preferred),  oorn  cobs, 
woolen  rags,  or  wool  waste,  etc.  Mr.  Cheshire  uses  eork- 
dust,  which  he  daims  gives  fourteen  tlmea  as  much  proteo- 
tion  as  a  dead-air  space.  The  cU-dbth,  whidi  ssakes  ai 
air*tight  covering,  must  be  first  removed,  and  if  no  straw- 
mat  is  used,  the  cushion  of  absorbents  may  bo  plaoed  right 
over  the  frames.  We  use  the  straw-mat,  and  fill  the  upper 
half-story  with  dry  leaves,  these  being  the  cheapest  and 
best  absorbent  at  our  command. 

In  the  coldest  parts  of  our  country,  if  upward  ofteorfraid 
are  neglected,  no  amount  of  protection  that  can  be  given  to 
hives,  in  the  open  air,  will  prevent  them  from  becoming 
damp  and  mouldy,  even  if  frost  is  excluded^  unless  a  large 
amount  of  lower  ventilation  is  given.  Then  they  need  as 
much  air  us  in  Summer.  Often,  the  more  they  are  protected, 
the  greater  the  risk  from  dampness.  A  very  thin  hive 
unpainted,  so  tliat  it  may  readily  alisorb  the  heat  of  the 
sun,  will  dry  inside  much  sooner  than  one  painted  white, 
and  in  every  way  most  thoroughly  protected  against  the 
cold.  The  first,  like  a  garret,  will  suffer  from  dampness 
for  a  short  time  only ;  wliile  the  other,  like  a  cellar^  may  be 
so  lont]^  in  drying,  as  to  injure,  if  not  destroy,  the  bees. 

G37.  If  the  colonies  are  wintered  in  the  open  air ^  the  en- 
trance  to  their  hives  must  be  large  enough  to  allow  the  bees  to 
fly  at  will.  Many,  it  is  true,  will  be  lost,  but  a  large  part 
of  these  are  diseased;  and,  even  if  they  were  not,  it  is 

better  to  lose  some  healthy  bees  Ihan  to  incur  the  risk  of 
loein^.  or  greatly  injuring,  a  whole  colony  by  the  excite- 
ment created  by  confining  them  when  the  weather  is  warm 
enough  to  entice  them  abroad. 

If  the  sun  is  warm  and  the  ground  covered  with  new- 
fallen  snow,  the  light  may  so  blind  the  bees,  that  they  will 
tali  into  this  fleecy  snow,  and  quickly  perisb.  £\en  at  such 
times,  it  is  hardly  advisable  to  confine  them  to  their  hives. 
A  neighbor  of  ours  kiUed   four  colonies,   all  he  had,  by 

dodng  the  entrances  with  wire-clotli  for  Winter.  Vi'c  had 
advised  him  to  remove  it,  but  be  did  not  do  so  bocuuse 
■ome  one  had  told  him  that  his  bees  would  get  lost  in  Iliu 

638.  Great  injury  is  often  done  by  dislnrhini:  a  colony 
of  bees  when  the  weather  is  so  i-old  thai  tlioy  i-atiiiot  llv. 
Uany  that  are  tempted  to  leave  the  cluslcr,  pcri.ili  before 
they  can  regain  it,  and  every  disturliance,  hy  rousin|i  lliciii 
I  activity,  causca  an  increased  lonsimiption  of 
On  the  other  hand,  it  ia  ot  Uic  vamti&v.  \a\\iOT\,iv\i'i% 


thftt  they  be  allowed  to  fly  and  vtrfd  th^  exoremeata  (78) 
whenever  the  weather  is  warm  enough.  At  aacb  tiiM*  It 
will  be  advisable  to  clean  the  bottom-boards  of  hivea,  of 
dead  bee§,  and  other  refiue. 

639.  To  show  the  advantages  derived  by  the  bees  boa 
a  Winter  flight,  we  will  give  our  experience  during  one  of 

the  coldest  Winters,  that  of  1872-3.  From  the  beginning 
of  December  to  tlie  middle  of  January,  the  weather  wu 
cold  and  the  bees  were  unable  to  leave  the  hive.     The  16th 



f  January  was  s  rather  pleasant  day.  We  took  occasion 
f  this  to  exaraioe  our  weak  colonies,  being  anxious  ia 
egard  to  their  conditiou.  To  our  astonishmeat,  Ihey  were 
>und  alive,  and  our  disturbing  them  caused  them  to  fly 
nd  discharge  their  excrements.  Being  convinced  that  all 
ur  bees  were  safe,  we  did  not  disturb  the  strong  colonies, 
nd  a  few  of  the  latter  remained  quiet.  The  next  day,  the 
old  weather  returned,  aud  lasted  three  weeks  longer.  Then 
re  discoTered  that  the  weak  colonies,  that  had  had  a  clean- 
ing flight,  were  alive  and  well,  while  the  strong  ones  which 
1  confined,  were  either  dead  or  in  bad  condi- 

040.  In  order  to  shelter  bees  more  elBciently.  in  out- 
x>or  wintering,  against  climatic  influences.  Apiarist^  have 
Ariwd  hires,  with  double  walls,  fllled  at  the  sides,  as  well 
t  on  top,  with  Bome  light  material  non-conductor  of  heat. 
otne  Kre  made  on  the  same  principle  as  the  old  two-story 
Oiibl»-waU  L.  hive  (fig.  106)  without  packing. 

Tb9  ipoqt  wid«-ipnmd  styla,  !■  Om  ehaS-hiTB,  o(  A.  L 
Boot,  This  hive  U  far  anperiOT  to  ringle-wallliiTM  for  «^ 
cjoof  wintering.  It  iB  made  lit  two  storiM,  bat  alila oh 
piece.  TtiiB  rendeii  it  nther  inoonvciilant  to  readl  don 
to  tbe  lower  story,  when  huidllog  bees.  We,  thentet, 
nwde  our  oh»ff  hireB  qt  %  dngle  st^ry  wltb  tutU-eton  etp, 
like  tb»t  pt  fig.  69.  Thii  iliigle-wall  cap  can  be  flOid 
with  a  coshion,  dry  leayes,  or  any  other  abeorbente.  Soot 
Apiarists  also  use  one-«tory  eht^-hiVM  with  looee  botton- 
boards  that  can  be  taken  off  to  ranore  flie  dead  bees  la 

641.  After  having  used  some  eighty  obaft-hiTn  dnriiif 
six  or  ^ht  years,  we  find  two  dlsadrantagM  la  then! 
la.  They  are  heavy  and  inconvenient  to  handh,  eqtedallj 
wfa«n  made  to  accommodate  ten  Quinby,  or  twenty  HmpHo- 

^HKiBuu  mva. 
Si,  alTM  iIiIm  wiUi  co[k-<lQit  for  picking. 


Ity  framea.  3d.  As  they  do  not  allow  the  heat  or  oeld  ,to 
pass  ip  and  oat  readily,  the  bees  in  these  hives  may  remain 
ia-doors,  in  occasional  warip  Winter  days,  while  those  of 
thin-front  hives  will  have  a  cleansing  flight.  Thus^  in  bard 
Winters,  these  bees  suffer  as  much  from  diarrhea  (626- 
7S4)  as  others,  unless  the  Apiarist  takes  puns  to  disturb 
them  and  maifcfl  (&«mj(y,  occasionally. 

onsndoUien.     On*  elda  ■■  rgmoTsd  to  ibow  th* 

642.  But  we  highly  recommend  the  use  of  these  bivcs, 
to  the  bee-keepers  who  do  not  hIsIi  to  go  to  the  tcoubk  of 
sheltering  their  bees  every  Winter.  With  tlie  chuff-bive. 
It  is  a  matter  of  only  a  few  minutes  to  put  into  Winter- 
qaarters  a  colony,  that  bas  sufficient  stores  ami  bees.  As  to 
the  advantage,  claimed  for  these  hives,  of  Ivceping  weak 
colonies  warm,  In  the  Spring,  we  found  it  couutcrbalnnced 
by  the  lou  of  the  sun's  heat  during  the  first  warm  days. 

and  we  found  ttiat  bees  bred  m  tek,  la  our  ordinal} 
hives  (double  only  on  the  windward  aidea),  owing  to  tiN 
quick  absorption  of  the  son's  rajs  by  the  boarda. 

648.  To  obtain  the  advantagea  of  the  6half-IiiT6  withoot 
any  of  its  disadTsntages,  and  at  the  aame  time  retatn  in  qm 
the  single-wall  Langstroth  or  Simplioity  liivea,  some  bee- 
keepers have  devised  onter-bozes  to  be  placed  over  tlie  col- 
onies during  Winter,  and  removed  in  Spring.  These  can  bs 
filled  with  absorbents,  and  make  tiie'  best  and  aalest  out- 
door shelters  (Fig.  109).  They  are  only  hooked  togetbv 
by  naib  partly  driven,  and  are  taken  off  in  |rieoea,  in  ths 
Spring,  and  put  away,  under  abetter.  The  rooCs  mBj  bs 
used  over  the  hives  all  Summer,  if  desfarable.  The  only 
disadvantage  of  outer-boxes  is  tliat  tiiey  may  harbor  ndoe 
or  insects.  Some  use  them,  without  ttaj  packing,  and  we 
know  by  experience,  that  even  in  this  way,  very  email  colo- 
nies may  be  wintered  safely.  If  the  hive  has  a  portico,  the 
front  of  the  box  is  made  to  fit  around  it.  In  any  case,  the 
portico  itself  can  be  closed,  during  the  coldest  weather,  by 
a  door  fitting  over  it,  but  it  must  be  opened  on  warm  days. 
In  the  extraordinary  Winter  of  1884-5,  several  bee-keepers 
of  McDonough  County,  Illinois,  among  whom,  we  will  die 
Mr.  J.  G.  Norton,  of  Macomb,  safely  wintered  their  Sim- 
plicity hives  with  this  method,  while  their  neighbors  lost 
all,  or  nearly  all,  their  bees. 

044.  If  the  colonies  are  strong  in  numben  and  HortM^  Jboof 
upper  moisture  absorbents,  easy  cammuniecUion /)ram  comb  to 
comb,  good  ripe  honey,  shelter  from  piercing  winds ^  and  can 
have  a  cleansing  flight  once  a  month,  they  have  aU  the  otmdi- 
tians  essential  to  wintering  successfully  in  the  open  air. 

ai-DOOR  wiirrKRiKO.  346 

In-door  Wintbriko. 

645.  In  some  parts  of  Europe,  it  is  customary  to  winter 
all  the  bees  of  a  village  in  a  common  vault  or  cellar.  Dzier- 
zon  says : 

**A  dry  cellar  Is  very  well  adapted  for  wintering  bees,  even 
though  It  is  not  wholly  secure  from  frost ;  the  temperature  will 
be  much  milder,  and  more  uniform  than  In  the  open  air ;  the  bees 
will  be  more  secure  fh>m  disturbance,  and  will  be  protected  from 
the  piercing  cold  winds,  which  cause  more  injury  than  the 
greatest  degree  of  cold  when  the  air  Is  calm. 

^^  Universal  experience  teaches  that  the  more  efiectually  bees 
are  protected  from  disturbance  and  from  the  variations  of  tem- 
perature, the  better  will  they  pass  the  Winter,  the  less  will  they 
consume  of  their  stores,  and  the  more  vigorous  and  numerous 
will  they  be  in  the  Spring.  I  have,  therefore,  constructed  a 
special  Winter  repository  for  my  bees,  near  my  Apiary.  It  is 
weather-boarded  both  outside  and  within,  and  the  intervening 
space  is  filled  with  hay  or  tan,  etc. ;  the  ground  and  plat  enclosed 
Is  dug  out  to  the  depth  of  three  or  four  feet,  so  as  to  secure  a 
more  moderate  and  equitable  temperature.  When  my  hives  are 
placed  in  this  depository,  and  the  door  locked,  the  darkness, 
uniform  temperature,  and  entire  repose  the  bees  enjoy,  enable 
them  to  pass  the  Winter  securely.  I  usually  place  here  my 
weaker  colonies,  and  those  whose  hives  are  not  made  of  the 
warmest  materiids,  and  they  always  do  well.  If  such  a  structure 
Is  to  be  partly  underground,  a  very  dry  site  must  be  selected  for 

In  Russia,  bee-keepers  dig  a  well  from  twenty  to  twenty- 
five  feet  deep,  and  six  or  eight  feet  wide.  The  hives, 
which,  there,  are  hollow  trees,  are  then  piled  horizontally 
upon  one  another,  like  cord-wood^  with  one  end  open.  The 
well  is  filled  to  within  six  feet  of  the  top,  and  a  shed,  made 
of  straw,  is  bnilt  above.  The  bees  are  left  there  during 
the  five  or  six  months  of  Winter. 

In  some  other  countries,  they  are  kept  in  caves,  aban- 
doned mines,  or  any  under-ground  place  near  at  hand. 

646.  In  the  North  of  the  United  Stetee,  and  in  Cenada, 
they  are  generally  wintered  in  oellara,  and  remain  th«e  ii 
quiet  from  November  till  April,  aometimea  till  May. 

In  all  localitiea,  where  the  beea  eannot  fly  at  laaat  obm  t 
month,  in  the  Whiter,  it  ia  heat  to  follow  fthia  mtfthoA  d 

Ab  Daieraon  says,  a  dry  oellar  ia  the  beat,  aithowgh  beai 
can  be  wintered  in  a  damp  eeBor,  bnt  with  more  dai^ier  of 
loss,  eapedally  if  the  food  is  not  of  the  best  The  bossy  of 
Northern  ooontriea  is  generally  of  finer  qnattty  than  tlnl  of 
the  South. 

647.  In  the  first  place,  tiie  beea  ahonld  be  moved  to  Un 
oellar,  Just  after  they  have  had  a  day*a  flight,  at  the  open> 
ing  of  cold  weather.  We  take  only  the  brood-i^partaent 
leaving  the  cap,  and  sometimes  the  bottom-board,  on  the 
Summer  stand,  being  careful  to  mark  the  number  of  esdi 
hive  inside  of  its  cap*  so  as  to  return  it  to  the  aame  location 
in  Spring  (32-33).  In  the  cellar,  the  hives  are  piled  one 
upon  another.  An  empty  hive  or  a  box  is  put  at  the  bottom 
of  each  pile,  so  that  the  bees  will  be  aa  high  np  fran  the 
damp  ground  as  possible.  If  the  bottom-board  ia  brought 
in  with  the  hive,  the  entrance  should  be  left  open.  It  ii 
well  to  raise  the  lower  tier  of  hives  from  their  bottoms  with 
entrance-blocks.  Some  upper  ventilation  had  better  be 
given  also,  for  the  escape  of  moisture.  If  the  oellar  is 
damp,  the  combs  will  mould  more  or  less;  if  it  is  dry,  they 
will  keep  in  perfect  order. 

048.  After  the  bees  are  put  in,  they  should  be  left  in 
darkness,  at  the  temperature  that  will  keep  them  the  quiet- 
est. We  find  that  from  42  ®  to  45  ^  is  the  best.  Every 
A))iarist  should  have  a  thermometer,  and  use  It.  The  cost 
is  iusigniticant,  and  it  will  pay  for  itself  many  times. 

The  fact  that  bees,  in  Russia  (64K),  are  eonfined  fa 

•In  A  weU-r«^{nlAt»i  Apiftry,  6Mh  h\v  hmn  a  ummibK  pilBiti«s  tto  bt^. 

iK-DOOB  wurrsBiNa. 


deep  wells,  for  riz  months,  shows  that  a  total  deprivation 
of  light  cannot  be  injurious.  It  prevents  them  from  flying 
OQt  of  tbeir  hives,  to  which  they  would  be  unable  to  return, 
after  flying  to  the  windows,  allured  by  the  light,  when  the 
temperature  of  the  cellar  rises  occasionally  and  unexpect- 
edly to  50  or  60  degrees. 

Ab  bees,  wintered  oa  their  Summer  stands,  begin  to  fly 
oot  when  the  temperature  reaches  about  50  degrees,  and 
are  in  fall  flight  at  about  55,  one  can  imagine  how  restless 
they  become  when  the  temperature  of  the  cellar  rises  to 
65  or  60  degrees.  They  wait  impatiently  for  the  dawn  of 
the  day  which  will  afford  them  the  opportunity  for  flying 
oat.  But  as  the  days  pass  and  darkoess  continues  they  are 
uneasy  and  tired. 

The  warmth  incites  them  also  to  breed,  and  as  tbey  need 
water  for  their  brood  (271),  some  leave  tbe  hive  in  quest 
of  it  and  are  lost.  Thia  happens  more  or  less  every  Winter. 


To  cool  the  air  of  the  cellar,  ice  may  be  brought  in  ud 
allowed  to  melt  slowly  over  a  tab. 

The  Apiarist  moat  gaArd  against  cold,  also,  but  ia  wintei- 
Ing  a  large  number  of  colonies,  the  heat  which  they  gener- 
ate will  usually  keep  the  cellar  quite  warm  in  the  coldest 
weather.  Id  our  experience,  we  have  had  to  keep  the 
cellar  windows  open,  often,  in  cold  weather. 

649.  To  allow  cold  air  to  enter  without  giving  light,  we 
have  devised  cellar  blinds  (figs.llOand  111).     Whentiw 

window,  inside,  is  raistd,  a  wire-cloth  frame  is  put  in  its 
place  to  keep  mice  uui,  and  tliere  is  a  slide  on  the  inside 
of  the  I'liutter  which  can  be  used  to  give  more  or  less  air  as 
the  case  rcqiiiTca.  Itesides,  the  windows  of  oor  hee-cellsx 
are  made  with  double  panes,  to  exclude  cold  or  heat  more 


cfflcientlj,  when  thej  are  shut.  A  slight  quantity  of  pure 
mir  is  needed  at  all  times. 

As  we  have  said  above,  when  the  warmer  days  of  Spring 
come,  with  alternates  of  cold,  the  bees  will  breed  a  little, 
and  if  this  is  not  begun  too  early,  it  will  be  a  help  to  them 
rather  than  an  injury,  for  they  will  become  strong,  all 
the  sooner,  after  being  taken  out. 

6ffO.  A  small  number  of  colonies  can  be  wintered  in  any 
ordinary  cellar,  quite  safely,  when  their  food  is  of  good 
quality,  and  the  temperature  does  not  vary  too  much,  but 
they  must  be  quiet  and  in  the  dark, 

Wil.  If  the  temperature  of  the  cellar  is  too  low,  or  too 
high,  or  if  the  food  is  unhealthy,  the  bees  will  have  a  large 
amount  of  fecal  accumulation  in  their  intestines,  and  will 
show  their  anxiety  by  coming  out  of  the  hive  in  clusters, 
during  the  latter  part  of  their  confinement.  If,  in  addition 
to  thiSi  the  cellar  is  damp,  the  comb  will  mould ;  and  when 
taken  out,  some  colonies  may  desert  (407,  663)  their 

61^2.  Oreat  loss  may  be  incurred  in  replacing,  upon  their 
Summer  stands,  the  colonies  which  have  been  kept  in  spe- 
cial depositories.  Unless  the  day  when  they  are  put  out  is 
very  favorable,  many  will  be  lost  when  they  fly  to  discharge 
their  fnces.  In  movable-frame  hives,  this  risk  can  be  greatly 
diminished,  by  removing  the  cover  from  the  frames,  and 
aUowing  the  sun  to  shine  directly  upon  the  bees ;  this  will 
warm  them  up  so  quickly,  that  they  will  all  discharge  their 
fseces  in  a  very  short  time.* 

•  TIm  floUowing  U  Ao  extrtct  ttom  Mr.  Langstroth's  Jonmal : 
**  Jan.  Slit,  1817.— .RemoTod  the  appcr  cover,  exposln;?  tho  bocs  to  the  fiiU 
beat  of  the  ran,  tlM  thermometer  being  90®  in  the  shade,  and  tho  atmosphere 
ntm.  ThehiTe  etandiDg  on  the  sunny  aide  of  tho  house,  tho  bees  (luickly 
took  wing  and  dlaehaiged  their  teoea.  Very  few  were  lost  on  the  snow,  and 
neailyall  that  alighted  on  It  took  wing  without  being  chilled  More  beet 
wen  loet  firom  otlm  hlTea  which  were  not  opened,  aa  fow  which  left  wen 
ahlatontm;  w1dla»  In  tba  one  with  the  coTcr  remoyed,  theretaming  bees 
•bla  t9  allgtat  at  onoa  among  their  warm  companloaa. ' ' 

653.  If  more  Uum  one  hundred  colonies  ere  wlnUaed  fai 
the  cellar,  and  it  is  desired  to  remofe  them  all  the  sam 
day,  enough  help  should  be  seoored  to  put  them  all  on  their 
stands  before  the  warm  part  of  the  day  is  orer.  It  is  far 
better  to  keep  them  in  the  oellar  even  one  week  longer, 
than  to  take  them  out  when  the  weather  is  so  oold  that  thej 
cannot  cleanse  themselves  immediately ;  to  our  mind,  45  ® 
in  the  shade,  or  55  ^  in  the  sun,  is  the  lowest  lemperators 
in  which  it  is  best  to  put  bees  out. 

654.  As  bees  remember  their  location,  it  is  importaBt  to 
return  each  colony  to  its  own  place.  If  this  is  not  dcM, 
the  confusion  may  cause  some  colonies  to  abandon  thsir 
hives.  Dzierzon  also  advises  placing  them  on  their  fdrmsr 
stands,  as  many  bees  still  remember  the  old  spot.  If  it  ii 
desirable  to  remove  some  hives  to  a  new  location,  a  slanting 
board  (603  bis)  should  be  placed  in  front  of  the  hive.  All 
the  bottom-boards  should  be  cleaned  of  dead  bees  or  rub- 
bish, without  dela^. 

655.  If  the  hives  of  an  Apiary  are  aU  removed  from  the 
cellar  on  the  same  day,  there  will  be  but  little  danger  of 
robbing,  for  they  are  somewhat  bewildered  when  first 
brought  out ;  but  if  some  are  taken  out  later  than  others, 
the  last  removed  will  be  in  danger,  unless  some  precautions 
are  taken. 

656.  If  the  bees  that  are  wintering  in  the  cellar,  are 
found  to  be  restless,  it  may  be  good  policy  to  give  them 
some  water  (271),  or  to  take  them  out  on  a  warm  day 
when  the  temperature  is  at  least  45  ^  in  the  shade,  to 
let  them  have  a  flight,  and  return  them  to  the  cellar  after- 
ward. We  do  not  advise  it  as  a  practice  however.  On  the 
contrary,  if  they  are  quiet,  it  is  better  to  keep  them  in- 
doors, till  the  early  Spring  days  have  fairly  come,  to  avoid 
what  is  called  Spring-dwindling  (650). 

657.  Those,  who  have  no  cellar,  can  successfully  win- 
ter their  bees  in  clamps  or  silos  as  advised  by  the  Bev.  Mr. 


Sduds,  of  Lower  SUmIk,  widely  knowD  id  Qcrmanj  (or  hli 
aklU  in  bee-keeping.     These  clamps  aie  made  simllkr  to 

I,  •irdnft.  d,  Toor. 
tliOM  in  which  farmers  place  apples,  potatoes,  tnraipB,  etc., 
toprMBTve  them  daring  cold  weather.    Tbeonly  objeotionto 

thta  mode,  is  the  dampness  of  tbe  grouad  In  wet  ami  warm 
Winteia.  The  hives  are  put,  on  a  led  of  straw,  in  a  pyra- 
midal tem  (fig.  113),   and  covered,  first  with  old  boards. 


then  with  a  thick  layer  of  straw,  and  another,  of  eeitk 
Wooden  pipes  are  placed  at  the  bottom  (fig.  114),  and 
one  in  the  shi^e  of  a  chimney,  at  the  top,  for  an  air-dralt 
The  requisites  are  the  same  as  in  oellar  wintering,  an  eqnsl 
temperature,  sufficient  Tcntilation,  a  fairly  dry  atmo^heie, 
and  quiet. 

058.  We  must  warn  novices  against  the  wintering  ol 
bees  in  any  repository  in  which  the  temperatare  deeeendi 
below  the  freeadng  point.  In  sodi  places  the  been  wmswiitf 
a  great  deal  of  honey,  and  they  soon  become  restleas,  lor 
want  of  a  flight.  Their  Summer  stand  even  withoat  aheltar, 
is  far  safer  than  any  such  place,  because  they  can  at  least 
take  adTsntage  of  any  warm  Winter  day  to  void  their  «s* 
crements.    These  facts  are  demonstrated  beyond  a  dooht 

Sprino  Dwimdliho. 

659.  When  the  conditions  necessary  to  the  successful 

wintering  of  bees  are  not  complied  with,  and  they  haye 
suffered  from  diarrhea  (784),  many  colonies  may  be  lost 
by  Spring  dwindling,  especially  if  the  Spring  is  cold  and 
backward.  Even  colonies,  which  appeared  to  have  gone 
through  the  Winter  strong  in  numbers,  may  slowly  lose 
bee  after  bee  till  the  queen  alone  remains  in  the  hive.  This 
is  sometimes  mistaken  for  desertion  (407),  as  will  be  seen 
in  the  following  paragraph,  which  we  quote  from  The 
London  Quarterly  Review^  and  in  which  the  author  attrib- 
utes to  lack  of  loj-alty  in  the  bees,  that  which  evidently 
must  have  been  due  only  to  Spring  dwindling: 

"Bees,  like  men,  have  their  dififerent  dispositions,  so  that  eren 
their  loyalty  will  soinetimes  fail  them.  An  Instance  not  long 
ago  came  to  our  knowledge,  which  probably  few  bee-keepers 
will  credit.  It  is  that  of  a  hive  which,  having  early  exhausted 
its  store,  was  found,  on  being  examined  one  morning,  to  be 


attexij  deserted.  The  comb  was  empty,  and  the  only  symptom 
of  life  was  the  poor  queen  herself,  *  unfriended,  melancholy, 
slow,'  crawling  over  the  honeyless  cells,  a  sad  spectacle  of  the 
Call  of  bee-greatness.  Marius  among  the  ruins  of  Carthage- 
Napoleon  at  Fontainebleao— was  nothing  to  this." 

Several  such  instances,  caused  by  Spring  dwindling,  with 
subsequent  robbing  of  the  honey,  were  observed  by  us. 
Colonies  are  thus  destroyed  as  late  as  April  and  May. 

OOO.  In  some  instances,  the  enlarged  abdomen  of  the 
bees  will  show  that  they  are  suffering  from  constipation — 
or  inability  to  discharge  their  faeces,  even  though  they  may 
have  voided  their  abdomen  since  their  long  confinement. 
Probably  their  intestines  are  in  an  unhealthy  condition.  In 
the  worst  cases  of  Spring  dwindling,  sometimes,  even  the 
queens  show  signs  of  failing,  and  eventually  disappear. 
This  may  occur  also  with  colonies  that  were  wintered  in 
the  cellar,  if  they  have  suffered  from  diarrhea,  or  have  been 
removed  too  early. 

There  is  another  sort  of  Spring  dwindling  caused  by  the 
loss  of  working  bees  in  cold  Springs,  while  in  search  of 
water  (271),  or  pollen  (263),  for  the  brood. 

661.  To  avoid  losses,  or  to  check  them  as  far  as  possible, 
after  a  hard  Winter,  it  is  indispensable  that  the  following 
be  observed : 

Ist.  The  hives  should  be  located  in  a  warm,  sunny,  well- 
sheltered  place.  All  Apiaries  that  are  placed  in  exposed 
windy  situations,  or  facing  North,  suffer  most  from  Spring 

2d.  The  number  of  combs  in  the  hive  should  be  reduced 
in  early  Spring,  with  the  division-board  or  contractor,  to  suit 
the  size  of  the  cluster  (349).  This  helps  the  bees  to  keep 
warm  and  raise  brood.  The  space  must  again  be  enlarged 
gradaally,  when  the  colony  begins  to  recruit. 

We  condder  this  contraction  of  the  hive  as  altogether 
indispensable.     Let  us  suppose  that,  in  early  Spring,  we 

haro  a  colony  whose  popalation  ia  so  much  reduced  tbMH 
cannot  warm,  to  the  degree  needed  for  breeding,  more  tl 
500  cubic  inches  of  space.  If  wc  leave  the  brood-c 
without  contraction,  as  it^  surface,  ia  ft  lU-frotno  Lnngstiolk 
hive,  wil!  be  about  270  square  Inches,  the 
heated  will  have  about  two  inches  in  thickness  at  th«  Xof, 
:  heat  always  rises.  If,  on  the  contrary',  we  halt 
reduced  the  aumbet  of  fruaei  to  three,  the  depA  «(  Oa 
space  warmed  at  the  top  wlU  amount  to  more  than  thna 
timea  aa  much,  or  to  mora  than  rix  inohas.  naa,  tta 
bees  will  not  only  be  mora  healthy,  but  the  laying  ot  tta 
(iueeo,  not  being  delayed  by  the  oeld,  and  the  nnmbar  dt 
Uie  bees  Increasing  faster,  Uiey  wIQ  be  able  to  repay  the 
bee-keeper  for  the  care  bestowed,  inatead  of  dwindling,  or 
remaining  worthless  for  the  Spring  crop. 

3d.  The  heat  shoult}  be  concentrated  in  the  brood  apart- 
ment, by  all  means,  and  not  allowed  to  escape  above.  The 
entrance  also  must  remalo  reduced. 

4th.  The  bees  should  be  provided  with  aufflclent  Stores 
of  honey,  pollen,  and  w&tor. 

662.  Apiarists  in  general,  do  not  attach  enough  import- 
ance to  the  necessity  of  furnishing  wstor  (271)  to  bees  in 
cold  Springs,  In  order  that  they  may  stay  at  home  in  quieL 
Although  lierlep9ch  laid  too  much  stress  on  the  question  ol 
water,  the  lack  of  which  he  even  said  was  the  cause  of  dys- 
entery, yet  he  was  right  in  calling  our  attention  to  the  need 
of  it  tor  breeding : 

"  The  Creator  has  given  the  boe  an  Inatlnet  to  store  np  bonsy 
and  pollen,  which  are  not  atwaj*  to  b«  procured,  hot  not  water, 
which  Is  always  acceiBlble  In  her  native  regions.  In  Northern 
latitudes,  when  confined  to  the  hive,  often  for  months  together, 
they  can  obtain  the  water  thej  need  only  from  the  watery  parti- 
cles contained  in  the  honey,  the  perspiration  wbloh  rnnitrnira 
on  the  colder  parts  of  the  hive,  or  the  humidity  of  the  air  wUcb 
enters  their  hives. 

**  la  March  and  April,  the  rapldly-lncieaslag  amonnt  of  brood 

DX8BRTINO.  355 

oaoflei  An  inereased  demand  for  water;  and  when  the  thermom- 
eter li  as  low  as  450,  bees  may  be  seen  carrying  it  in  at  noon, 
eren  on  windy  days,  although  many  are  sure  to  perish  from  cold. 
In  these  months,  in  1856,  daring  a  protracted  period  of  unfavor- 
able weather  we  gave  all  our  bees  water,  and  they  remained  ai  home 
in  fuiei^  whilst  those  of  other  Ai>iaries  voere  flying  briekly  in  seatch 
of  water.  At  the  beg^inning  of  May,  our  hives  were  crowded  with 
hee9;  whilst  the  colonies  of  our  neigbors  were  mostly  weak, 

**The  consumption  of  water  in  March  and  April,  in  a  populous 
colony,  is  very  great,  and  in  1856,  one  hundred  colonies  required 
eleven  Berlin  quarts  per  week,  to  keep  on  breeding  uninterruptedly. 
In  Springs  where  the  bees  can  fly  safely  almost  every  day,  the 
want  of  water  will  not  be  felt. 

**  The  loss  of  bees  by  water-dearth^  is  the  result  of  climate,  and 
no  form  of  hive,  or  mode  of  wintering,  can  furnish  an  absolutely 
efficient  security  against  it."— (Translated  from  the  German,  by 
S.  Wagner.) 

That  bees  cannot  raise  much  brood  without  water,  unless 
they  have  fresh-gathered  honey,  has  been  known  from  the 
times  of  Aristotle.  Buera  of  Athens  (Cotton,  p.  104), 
aged  80  years,  said  in  1797 : 

**  Bees  daily  supply  the  worms  with  water ;  should  the  state  of 
the  weather  be  such  as  to  prevent  the  bees  from  fetching  water 
for  a  few  days,  the  worms  would  perish.  These  dead  bees  are 
removed  out  of  the  hive  by  the  working-bees  if  they  are  healthy 
and  strong ;  otherwise,  the  stock  perishes  from  their  putrid  ex- 

In  any  movable-frame  hives,  water  can  be  given  to  the 
bees,  by  pouring  it  into  the  empty  cells  of  a  comb. 


60S.  We  httve  shown  (407)  that  bees  sometimes  desert 
their  hives,  when  the  colony  is  too  weak,  or  short  of  stores, 
or  suffering  from  dampness,  mouldy  combs,  etc.,  etc. 
This  desertioa,  which  differs  from    natural  swarming  in 


this,  that  it  ma;  Uke  place  in  any  seasoD,  and  that  tlw 
deserting  bees  do  not  raise  any  queen-cells  prerioculj,  ti 
more  frequent  in  cold  backward  Springs  than  at  anyotho 

At  ditferent  times  we  have  seen  bees  deaerting  Uisr 
hives  and  forsaking  their  brood  for  lack  of  pollen  (304). 
A  comb  containing  pollen  having  been  put  in  their  b)T« 
and  the  bees  returned  they  remaiued  happy.  But  the 
worst  of  these  desertions  is  when  the  bees  have  suffered 
while  wintered  in-doors  (651.)  These  colonies  abandon 
their  hives  very  soon  after  being  replaced  on  their  Sum- 
mer stands.  When  such  desertion  is  (eared,  it  is  better 
not  to  put  out  more  than  one  dosen  colonies  at  one  time, 
aud  to  prepare  a  few  dry  combs,  in  clean  hives,  to  hivfl 
the  swarm  as  soon  as  possible ;  for,  too  often  some  other 
colonies  following  the  example,  mix  with  the  first,  the 
queens  are  balled  (S38),  causing  great  annoyance  and 
loss  to  the  bee-keeper.  Such  swarms  should  be  hived  (» 
clean  dry  comb,  and  furnished  with  honey  and  pollen. 
The  capacity  of  the  hive  in  which  they  are  put  should  be 
reduced  to  suit  the  size  of  the  swarm,  and  increased  very 
cautiously,  from  time  to  time,  when  the  bees  seem  to  be 
crowded ;  for  warmth  is  indispeDsable  to  bees  in  Spring. 
The  condition  of  such  colonies  must  be  regularly  aacflr- 
tained  and  their  wants  supplied. 

We  would  refer  those  who  think  that  "it  U  too  mvdt 
trouble"  to  examine  their  hives  in  the  Spring,  to  the  prac- 
tice of  the  ancient  bee-keepers,  as  set  forth  by  Columella: 
"The  hives  should  be  opened  in  the  Spring,  that  all  tlie 
filth  which  was  gathered  in  them  during  the  Winter  may  be 
removed.  Spiders,  which  spoil  their  combs,  and  the  worms 
from  which  the  moths  proceed,  must  be  killed.  When  the 
hive  has  been  thus  cleaned,  the  bees  will  apply  themselves 
to  work  with  the  greater  diligence  and  reaolation."  The 
•ooner  those  abandon  bee-keeping,  who  ivwiffiilirr  the  propv 

DE8BRTINO.  857 

emre  of  their  bees  as  *'  too  much  trouble, "  the  better  for 
themselYes  and  their  unfortunate  bees. 

In  making  this  thorough  cleansing,  the  Apiarist  will 
learn  which  colonies  require  aid,  and  which  can  lend  a 
helping  hand  to  others ;  and  any  hive  needing  repairs,  may 
be  put  in  order  before  being  used  again.  Such  hives,  if 
occasionaUj  re-painted,  will  last  for  generations,  and  prove 
riieaper,  in  tiie  long  run,  than  any  other  kind. 




An  ounce  of  prevention  is  worth  a  ton  of  cure. 

664.  Bkbs  are  so  prone  to  rob  emch  other,  in  time  of 
scjurcitj,  that,  unless  great  precautions  are  used,  the  Aplip 
rist  will  often  lose  some  of  his  most  promising  colonies. 
Idleness  is,  with  them,  as  with  men,  a  fruitful  mother  of 
mischief.  They  are,  however,  far  more  excusable  than  the 
lazy  rogues  of  the  human  family ;  for  they  seldom  attempt 
to  live  on  stolen  sweets,  when  they  can  procure  a  sufficiency 
by  honest  industry. 

As  soon  03  they  can  leave  their  hives  in  the  Spring,  they 
may  boirin  to  assail  the  weaker  colonies.  In  this  matter, 
the  morals  of  our  little  friends  seem  to  be  sadly  at  fault; 
for.  those  colonies  which  have  the  largest  surplus  are — like 
some  rich  oppressors — the  most  anxious  to  prey  upon  the 
moairre  possessions  of  others. 

If  the  marauders,  who  are  ever  prowling  about  in  search 
of  plunder,  attack  a  strong  and  healthy  colony,  they  are 
usually  clad  to  escape  with  their  lives  from  its  resolute 
defenders.  The  bee-keeper,  therefore,  who  neglects  to 
watch  h's  needy  colonies,  and  to  assist  such  as  are  weak  or 
qiioonless,  must  count  upon  suffering  heavy  losses  from 

005.  It  is  sometimes  dil!lcult,  for  the  novice,  to  discrim- 
inate between  the  honest  inhabitants  of  a  hive,  and  the 
robbers  which  often  minirle  with  them.  There  is,  however, 
an  air  of  rotruery  about  a  thie\incr  bee  which,  to  the  expert, 
is  as  characteristic  as  are  the  motions  of  a  pickpocket  to  a 
skillful  policeman.     Its  sneaking   look,  and  nervous,  guilty 

ROBBIMO.  859 

agitation,  onoe  seen,  ean  never  be  mistaken.  It  does  not, 
like  the  lal>ojer  carrying  home  the  fruits  of  honest  toU, 
alight  boldly  upon  the  entrance-board,  or  face  the  guards, 
knowing  well  that,  if  caught  by  these  trusty  guardians,  its 
life  would  hardly  be  worth  insuring.  If  it  can  glide  by 
without  touching  any  of  the  sentinels,  those  within — ^taking 
it  for  granted  that  all  is  right — ^usually  permit  it  to  help 

Bees  wliich  lose  their  way,  and  alight  upon  a  strange 
hive,  can  readily  be  distinguished  from  these  thieving 
acamps.  The  rogue,  when  caught,  strives  to  pull  away 
irom  his  executioners,  while  the  bewildered  unfortunate 
shrinks  into  the  smallest  compass,  submitting  to  any  fate 
his  captors  may  award. 

These  dishonest  bees  are  the  ^^ Jerry  Sneaks'*  of  their 
profession,  and  after  following  it  for  a  time,  lose  all  taste 
for  honest  pursuits.  Constantly  creeping  through  small 
holes,  and  daubing  themselves  with  honey,  their  plumes 
assume  a  smooth  and  almost  black  appearance,  just  as  the 
hat  and  garments  of  a  thievish  loafer,  acquire  a  *^ seedy" 

Dzierzon  thinks  that  these  black  bees,  which  Huber  has 
described  as  so  bitterly  persecuted  by  the  rest,  are  nothing 
more  than  thieves.  Aristotle  speaks  of  '*  a  black  bee  which 
is  called  a  (At€/." 

Some  bee-keepers  question  whether  a  bee  that  once 
learns  to  steal  ever  returns  to  honest  courses.  The  writer 
has  known  the  value  of  an  Apiary  to  be  so  seriously  im- 
paired by  the  bees  beginning  early  in  the  scasr  n  to  rob 
each  other,  that  the  owner  was  often  tempted  to  wish  that 
he  had  never  seen  a  bee. 

666.  Yet,  we -should  hardly  blame  them  for  their  rob- 
bing propensities.  With  them,  as  with  men,  much  depends 
on  the  education  which  they  are  allowed  to  receive.  Their 
nature    teaches  them  to  hunt  for  sweets    industriously, 

flwj  en  find  tficfl^  aad  fuqr  tnraet,  wliieli  tiHj 
leadi,  bj  the  meet  etiennoQe  eflorte.  Is  eooMdeied  bj 
U  ei  onee,  ee  liieir  pihrete  propcrfj.  Were  it  not  lor 
due  dispoeitioa  of  the  bee,  to  hmit  lor  sweets  ef etj  wheie, 
and  take  them  home,  the  honej  of  ttiose  edonies  that  dveD 
fai  the  woods,  sad  fkeqinentlj  perish  during  the  Wbittf, 
wookL  be  wssted.  The  piopensitj  to  idb  is  soqidiwd  only 
daring  a  dearth  of  honey  in  the  flowers;  for  bees  hawe  a 
omdi  greater  relish  lor  fjraah  lionqr,  aa  prodooed  in  the  blot- 
aoma,  than  lor  an j  other  aweet  oo  earth*  Thia  ia  ao  traSt 
that  in  a  daj  of  abundant  liarvest,  lionqr  may  be  left  «• 
posed  where  bees  can  reaoh  it,  without  being  toadied,  or 
eren  approached,  bj  a  aingle  bee,  for  hoora;  wldle,  if 
placed  in  the  yerj  same  spot  daring  a  dearth  of  lioney,  it 
will  be  covered  with  bees  in  very  few  minutea. 

If  the  bee-keeper  would  not  have  his  bees  so  demoralized 
that  their  value  will  be  seriooslj  diminished,  he  will  be 
exceedingly  careful  in  time  of  scarcity  to  prevent  them  from 
robbing  each  other.  If  the  bees  of  a  strong  colony  once 
get  a  taste  of  forbidden  sweets,  they  will  seldom  stop  until 
they  have  tested  the  strength  of  every  hive.  Even  if  all  the 
colonies  are  able  to  defend  themselves,  many  bees  will  be 
lost  in  these  encounters,  and  much  time  wasted ;  for  bees, 
whether  enga^rcd  in  robbing,  or  battling  againat  robbers, 
lose  both  the  disposition  and  the  ability  to  engage  in  ose- 
ful  labors. 

007.  An  experienced  bee-keeper  readily  perceives  when 
any  robbing  is  going  on  in  his  Apiary.  Bees  are  flying 
vagrantly  about,  hunting  in  nooks  and  comera,  and  at  aU 
the  hive-crevices.  Extensive  robbing  causes  a  general  up- 
roar, and  the  bees  of  all  the  hives  are  much  more  disposed 
to  sting.  The  robbers  sally  out  with  the  first  peep  of  light, 
and  often  continue  their  depredations  until  it  is  so  late  that 
they  cannot  find  the  entrance  to  their  hive.  Some  even 
pass  the  night  in  the  plundered  colony. 


The  olond  of  robbers  arriving  and  departing  need  never 
be  mistaken  for  honest  laborers  (174)  carrying,  with  un- 
wieldy flight,  their  heavy  burdens  to  the  hive.  These  bold 
plunderers,  as  they  enter  a  hive,  are  almost  as  hungry-look- 
ing as  Pharaoh's  lean  kine,  while,  on  coming  otU,  they  show 
by  their  burly  looks  that,  like  aldermen  who  have  dined  at 
the  expense  of  the  city,  they  are  stuffed  to  their  utmost 

668.  When  robbing-bees  have  fairly  overcome  a  colony, 
the  attempt  to  stop  them — by  shutting  up  the  hive,  or  by 
moving  it  to  a  new  stand — if  improperly  conducted,  is  often 
far  more  disastrous  than  allowing  them  to  finish  their  work. 
The  air  will  be  quickly  filled  with  greedy  bees,  who,  unable 
to  bear  their  disappointment,  will  assail,  with  almost  fran- 
tic desperation,  some  of  the  adjoining  hives.  In  this  way, 
the  strongest  colonies  are  sometimes  overpowered,  or  thous- 
anda  of  bees  slain  in  the  desperate  contest. 

How  TO  Stop  Robbiko. 

When  an  Apiarist  perceives  that  a  colony  is  being 
robbed,  he  should  contract  the  entrance  (330),  and,  if 
the  assailants  persist  in  forcing  their  way  in,  he  must  close 
it  entirely.  In  a  few  minutes  the  hive  will  be  black  with 
the  greedy  cormorants,  who  will  not  abandon  it  till  they 
have  attempted  to  squeeze  themselves  through  the  smallest 
openings.  Before  they  assail  a  neighboring  colony,  they 
should  be  thoroughly  sprinkled  with  cold  water,  which  will 
somewhat  cool  their  ardor. 

Unless  the  bees,  that  were  shut  up,  can  have  an  abund- 
ance of  air,  they  should  be  carried  to  a  cool,  dark  place, 
after  tbe  Apiarist  has  allowed  the  robbers  to  escape  out 
of  it.  Barly  the  next  morning  they  must  be  examined, 
and,  if  naoMsafj,  united  to  another  hive. 


"  In  OermaDy,  when  colonies  In  common  hives  Are  being  leb- 
bed,  they  are  alton  removed  to  a  dl&taot  loeatloD,  or  pat  in  i 
darkoellar.  A  blve,  almilu  In  appearuice.  Is  pliced  ob  Iketr 
•t&nd,  and  leaves  of  wormn'ood  and  the  expressed  Jafoe  of  tbi 
plant  are  put  on  the  bottom-board.  Bees  bare  such  ■■  aniK 
patby  to  the  odor  of  this  plant,  that  the  robbers  speedily  taMfea 
the  place,  aod  the  ussnlled  colony  may  then  be  broDgbt  back. 

"  TliB  Bey.  Mr.  Klclne  Bays,  that  robbers  may  be  reptfW  bj 
Imparttng  to  the  hive  some  intensely  powerful  aad  aMew*- 
tomad  odor.  He  eS'ects  this  the  most  readily  by  placing  In  K.  In 
the  ovonln^,  a  email  portion  of  mutk,  and  on  the  roUawtn(  ntem- 
tn(r  the  bees.  If  they  have  a  healthy  qneen,  will  boUly  mwt 
their  assailants.  These  are  nonplussed  by  the  unwoattd  otev 
uicl.  If  any  of  them  enter  the  hive  and  carry  ofl*  ions  it  Ot 
coveted  booty,  oo  their  return  home,  having  a  stnui^  t^^U, 
Uey  will  be  killed  bf  their  «wa  boiwebold.  Tba  ntbbtaf  U 
thiu  looii  broogbt  to  a  oIom."— S.  XfAtanai. 

It  win  often  be  found  that  a  hive  which  ts  overpowered 
by  robbers  has  no  queen,  or  one  that  is  diseased. 

069.  One  of  the  best  methoda  wbich  we  liave  foaad  to 
■top  the  robbing  of  one  hive  by  another,  when  the  robbed 
oolony  ia  worth  eaving,  is  to  excban^  them ;  f.  s.  to  place 
the  robbed  colony  on  the  stand  of  the  robbing  colony,  and 
vice  versa.  The  robbing  colony  can  usually  be  found  by 
sprinkling  the  returning  bees  with  floor,  as  they  come  out 
o(  the  robbed  hive,  and  watching  the  direction  which  Uiey 
take.  It  can  also  often  be  detected  by  the  actiTity  of 
'Its  bees.  If  the  neighboring  hives  are  idle,  espedallj 
after  sunset. 

This  method,  however,  canoot  be  practiced  when  the 
robbing  and  the  robbed  colonies  do  not  belong  to  the  same 
person ;  or  when  the  robbing  ia  carried  on  by  many  hives 
at  one  time,  although,  in  the  latter  case,  the  exchange  of 
stands  between  the  strongest  of  the  robbing  hives  and  the 
weak  robbed  colony,  in  the  evening,  sod  the  redacing  of  tbs 
entrances  of  both,  usually  has  a  good  result.  The  oM 
robber  bees,  bewildered  by  this  exchange,  make  their  hoiss 
in  the  robbed  colony,  since  they  find  it  on  the  stand  witsn 



they  are  accastomed  to  bring  their  honey ;  and  they  defend 
it  with  as  much  energy  as  they  used  in  attacking  it  before. 
See  Quinby's  ''Mysteries  of  Bee-Keeping"  N.  Y.,  1866. 

670.  We  read  in  the  British  Bee-Journal  that  a  car- 
bolized  sheet  (384)  can  be  used  to  stop  robbing,  if  spread 
in  front  of  the  robbed  hive.  This  same  sheet,  spread  on 
the  hive  as  soon  as  opened  while  extracting  (740),  and  on 
the  surplus  box  where  the  combs  are  placed  (768),  dis- 
pleases the  robbers  and  protects  the  comb, 

671.  There  is  a  kind  of  pillage  which  is  carried  on  so 
secretly  as  often  to  escape  all  notice.  The  bees  engaged 
in  it  do  not  enter  in  large  numbers,  no  fighting  is  visible, 
and  the  labors  of  the  hive  appear  to  be  progressing  with 
their  usual  quietness.  All  the  while,  however,  strange  bees 
are  carrying  off  the  honey  as  fast  as  it  is  gathered.  After 
watching  such  a  colony  for  some  days,  it  occurred  to  us 
one  evening,  as  it  had  an  unhatched  queen,  to  give  it  a 
fertile  one.  On  the  next  morning,  rising  before  the  rogues 
were  up,  we  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  them  meet  with 
such  a  warm  reception,  that  they  were  glad  to  make  a 
speedy  retreat. 

This  is  another  proof  that  discouragement  caused  by 
qneenlessness  often  leads  to  the  loss  of  a  colony. 


672.  If  the  Apiarist  would  guard  his  bees  against  dis^ 
honest  courses,  he  must  be  exceedingly  careful^  in  his  various 
opercUions,  not  to  leave  any  combs  or  any  honey  where  bees 
can  find  them,  for,  after  once  getting  a  taste  of  stolen  honey, 
they  wiU  hover  around  him  as  soon  as  they  see  him  operating 
on  a  hive,  aU  ready  to  pounce  upon  it  and  snatch  what  they 
eon  of  Um  eaqposed  treasures. 


In  times  of  acarcitj,  food  fthould  nerer  be  grven  to  the 
bees  in  the  day  time,  but  only  in  the  evening,  ahrmjB 
inside  of  the  hive  and  shore  the  combs.  The  feeding  of 
bees  (d05)  in  the  day  time  causes  robbing  in  two  ways. 
It  excites  the  bees  which  are  fed,  and  induces  them  to  go 
oat  to  hunt  for  more,  and  the  smell  of  the  food  giveo 
attracts  the  bees  of  the  other  hives.  Hence  follows  fight- 
ing and  trouble.  But,  above  all  things,  the  Apiarist  must 
try  to  keep  his  colonies  strong.  When  there  is  a  scarcity 
of  blo8.som.s,  or  of  nectar  in  the  flowers,  the  entrance  of 
the  hive  should  be  lessened,  to  suit  the  needs  of  the  colony, 
by  moviug  the  entrance  blocks  (339).  If  the  hive  con- 
tains more  combs  than  the  bees  can  well  defend,  the 
number  of  the  combs  should  be  reduced  by  the  use  of  the 
divi.sion  board  (340). 

073.  It  is  especially  with  weak  colonies  that  care  should 
be  taken,  in  Sj^ring  or  Fall.  The  strong  hives  being  better 
able  to  keep  warm,  their  bees  fly  out  earlier  in  the  day  and 
will  readily  discover  the  weaker  ones,  which,  unless  their 
lioiicy  is  protected,  they  will  soon  overpower. 

When  the  above  instructions  are  carried  out,  if  thieves 
try  to  slij)  into  a  feeble  colony  they  are  almost  sure  to  be 
overhauled  and  put  to  death;  and  if  robbers  are  bold 
enough  to  attempt  to  force  an  entrance,  as  the  bottom- 
board  slants  forward  (327)  it  gives  the  occupants  of  the 
hive  a  derided  advantage.  Should  any  succeed  in  entering, 
they  will  find  hundreds  standing  in  battle-array,  and  fare 
as  hadly  as  a  forlorn  hope  that  has  stormed  the  walls  of  a 
beleaguered  fortress,  only  to  perish  among  thousands  of 
enraged  enemies. 

Cracks  and  openings  in  disjointed  hives,  should  be  se- 
curely closed  with  yellow  clay,  until  the  bees  can  be  trans- 
ferred into  better  abodes. 

When  the  hives  are  opened,  the  work  must  be  performed 
speedily     and     carefully ;    and,    if    any   great   number   of 


robbers  show  themselyes  daring  the  operation,  it  is  well, 
after  closing  the  hive,  and  reducing  the  entrance,  to  place  a 
bunch  of  grass  (fine  grass  or  fine  weeds  preferred)  over  it, 
for  an  hour,  or  till  the  temporary  excitement  has  subsided. 
The  guardian  bees  station  themselves  in  this  grass  and 
chase  out  robbers  much  more  easily  than  they  could  other- 
wise. The  robbers  themselves  recognize  that  their  chances 
of  *' dodging  in"  are  slim,  and  give  up  the  undertaking. 
We  have  never  had  any  trouble  with  robbers  after  closing 
a  hive  in  this  way. 

When  the  robbed  colony  is  weak,  the  robbing  may  be 
abated  by  preventing  any  bees  from  entering  it  till  evening, 
when  other  colonies  have  stopped  flying ;  allowing,  at  the 
same  time,  any  bee  that  wishes  to  depart  from  it,  and  clos- 
ing the  entrance  till  late  in  the  morning.  By  this  course 
most  of  the  robbers  will  be  tired  of  their  useless  attempts, 
while  the  remaining  workers  of  the  robbed  hive  will  be 
ready  to  repel  the  attacks. 

When  none  of  these  methods  succeed,  a  small  comb  of 
hatching  Italian  bees  (551)  may  be  given,  with  the  nec- 
essary precautions  (480),  to  the  weak  colony,  and  the 
hive  placed  in  the  cellar  for  a  few  days.  The  batched  Ita- 
lians will  receive  the  intruders  warmly  when  the  hive  is 
brought  back. 

The  Italian  bees  (551)  defend  their  hives  much  better 
than  the  black  (549)  against  the  intrusion  of  robbers,  and 
the  Cyprians  and  Syrians  (550)  surpass  even  the  Italians. 

When  a  comb  of  honey  breaks  down  in  a  hive  from  any 
cause,  it  should  be  removed  promptly,  and  the  bottom- 
board  should  be  exchanged  for  a  clean  one  at  once.  If 
any  drops  of  honey  fall  about  the  Apiary,  it  is  best  to 
cover  them  up  with  earth  promptly.  In  short,  no  honey 
should  be  left  exposed,  where  bees  can  plunder  it. 



Comb  Fouxdatiok. 

674.  The  Inyentioii  and  IntrodiiolkMi  of  Modli  fond^ 
tfon,  with  the  use  of  mormble  frionai  (SS0),  OMriDid  n 
important  step  in  the  progress  of  pvaothnl  bee  sally  it. 
The  main  drawback  to  the  perfect  snnnses  of 
frame  hives  was  the  diffiooltj  of  aiwajB  obliifiing 
combs  in  the  frames  (818).  Although  the  bsifded  top 
bar  (819)  often  secured  this  object,  jet,  In  maiij 
the  bees  deviated  from  this  guide  and  fastened  their 
from  one  frame  to  another;  and  if  the  matter  wae  act 
promptly  attended  to,  the  combs  of  the  hive  heenM  ss 
immovable  as  those  >Df  box  hives.  One  frame  sUghtibf  oat 
of  place  was  a  sufficient  incentive  for  the  bees  to  fMen 
two  frames  together.  In  the  management  of  four  large 
Apiaries,  previous  to  the  introduction  of  comb  fonadattoa, 
we  found  that,  in  spite  of  our  efforts,  a  certain  nomber  of 
colonies  would  so  build  their  combs,  that  only  a  part  of  the 
frames  were  movable  without  the  use  of  a  knife.  Even  the 
combs  that  were  built  in  the  right  place  were  made  some- 
what waving,  or  bulged  in  spots,  and  were  thus  rendered 
unfit  for  such  interchanges  as  are  daily  required  In  ordinary 

675.  Another  drawback  to  success  was  the  building  of 
drone  comb  (225).  We  have  had  colonies  in  which  nearly 
one-fourth  of  the  combs  were  drone-comb.  In  such  hives  the 
number  of  drones  that  might  be  raised  would  be  sufficient 
to  consume  the  surplus  honey.  To  be  sure,  with  movable- 
frame  hives,  such  combs  can  be  removed,  but  the  difficulty 

ItiTentor  of  Comb- Foundation, 

UiAplirlat  l*nimt[oiiedpige*  isi  and  atn 


consists  in  procuring  straight  and  neat  worker-combs  to 
replace  them ;  for  if  we  simply  remove  the  drone-combs,  the 
bees  often  replace  them  with  the  same  kind  (233). 

076.  Good  straight  worker^combj  not  too  oldy  is  the  moat 
valuable  capital  of  the  Apiarist  (442).  For  years,  be- 
fore the  introdaction  of  comb-foundation,  we  had  been 
in  the  habit  of  baying  all  the  worker-comb  from  dead  col- 
onies that  wc  could  find,  but  we  never  had  enough. 

The  consideration  of  the  above  important  points,  and  of 
the  great  cost  of  comb  to  the  bees  (223),  had  long  ago 
drawn  the  attention  of  German  Apiarists  to  the  possibility 
of  manufacturing  the  base,  or  foundation,  of  the  comb. 

677.  In  1857,  Johannes  Mehring  invented  a  press  to 
make  wax  uxifers^  on  which  the  rudiments  of  the  cells  were* 
printed.  Those  only,  who  experienced  the  obstacles  whicl^ 
this  industry  presents,  can  form  an  idea  of  the  energy  and 
perseyerance  that  were  required  to  succeed  as  he  did. 

The  foundation  made  by  him  then,  was  far  from  being 
eqoal  to  what  is  now  made.  The  projections  of  the  cell- 
walls  were  too  rudimentary,  sometimes  not  printed,  and  the 
bees  often  built  drone-cells  instead  of  worker-cells;  but 
these  imperfect  efforts  were  the  beginning  of  an  industry 
which  has  proved  of  immense  advantage  to  bee-keepers,  and 
has  spread  like  wild-fire  wherever  bees  are  kept. 

078.  Another  Apiarist..  I'cter  Jacob,  of  Switzerland, 
improved  on  the  ^fchring  press,  and  in  1865,  some  of  his 
foundation  was  imported  to  America,  by  Mr.  H.  Steele,  of 
Jersey  City  {Am.  Bee- Journal,  Vol.  2,  page  221),  and  tried 
by  Mr.  J.  L.  Hubbard,  who  reported  favorably  upon  it.  In 
1861,  Mr.  Wagoner  had  secured  a  patent  in  the  United 
States,  for  the  manufacture  of  artificial  honey  comb-founda- 
Hon  by  whatever  process  made.  His  patent  was  never  put 
to  use,  and  rather  retarded  the  progress  of  this  industry  in 

670.  The  first  comb-foundation  made  in  America,  was 

mumtutnred  In  1876,  by  a 
probably  on  an  imported 

r.  F.  W«in,T 

Hr.  A.I.Boot,toiA 

■U-  lu. 

Tns  ORICIN'AI.  "  HOOT  "  MILI. 
(Fraiu  Boot'*  "A.  B.  C") 

the  credit  is  due*  of  populariziiig  the  invenUon  the  world 
over  manufactured  a  large  roller-mill,  in  February,  1876, 

*  Sani«  people  tblak  that  when  a  man  baa  maila  moiie]rIi]r|mtt)iiglapraeUM 
tbaldeadofaiiotber.  be  la  nolentmeil  toaaj  crolltftirlt.  Bat  ba,  «baa*  In- 
qvl*ltlvgne«H  hM  diaoareml  the  valnsof  ao  lotantloii,  and  wboaa  OMrgrhai 
patlllntopraetJoc,  lialaMalianeccaaanraodBMfliltatlHvaridMtkanlf' 



with  the  help  of  a  skilled  mechanic.  A.  Washbome.    He 
aold  hundreds  of  these  mills  afterwards. 

680.  In  the  practical  ose  of  comb-foandation,  the  most 
sanguine  expectations  were  realized : 

1.  Every  comb  that  is  built  on  foundation  is  as  straight 
as  a  board,  and  can  be  moved  from  one  place  to  another, 
in  any  hive,  without  trouble. 

2.  The  combs  built  on  worker-foundation  are  exclusively 
worker-combs,  with  the  exception  of  occasional  patches, 
when  the  foundation  sags  slightly. 

3.  All  the  wax  produced  by  the  bees,  and  gathered  by 
the  Apiarist  from  scraps,  old  combs,  or  cappings,  is  returned 
to  the  bees  in  this  shape,  instead  of  being  sold  at  the  com- 
mercial value  of  beeswax,  which  is  several  times  less  than 
its  actual  cost  (223).  The  cost  of  foundation  for  brood- 
combs  is  not  very  great,  especially  if  we  consider  that  this 
capital  is  not  consumed,  but  only  employed ;  as  the  wax 
contained  in  the  combs  represents  at  least  one-half  of  the 
primary  value  of  the  foundation,  and  can  be  rendered  again, 
after  years  of  use,  none  the  worse  for  wear. 

681.  Different  machines  are  in  use  in  the  United  States. 
The  flat-bottom  foundation  has  the  reputation  of  being  the 
most  regular,  and  thinnest ;  its  main  defect  being  the  un- 
natural flat  base  of  the  cells,  which  renders  it  easier  to 
manufacture,  but  objectionable  to  the  bees,  who  have  to 
remodel  its  base  in  using  it  (213).  It  is  manufactured 
with  or  without  wires  imbedded  in  it,  to  help  fasten  it  in 
the  frames. 

The  Pelham-mill  also  makes  an  unnaturally-shaped  foun- 
dation, the  base  of  the  cells  being  two  instead  of  three- 
sided.  This  mill  has  the  advantage  of  being  very  cheap, 
and  is  more  easily  manipulated  than  some  of  the  others. 

682.  The  Given-press  makes  foundation  similar  to  that 
of  the  old  Eoropean  presses.     It  has  been  highly  praised  by 




»  ntiinher  of  Apiarists.  As  it  ib  the  easiest  working  of  >]I 
(oundut  ion -machines,  a.  great  many,  who  could  not  >ac- 
uaod  \a  making  fonndation  on  the  mills,  siicccuded  on  this 
pr(>sB.  Anotlicr  ndvantage  claimed  (or  it,  is  that  it  can 
make  foundation  in  wired-frames  by  pressing  it  right  over 
the  wires.  But  a  press  has  the  disadvantage  o(  leading  in 
the  sheets  all  the  irregularities,  which  they  may  have,  when 
dijipud;  while  in  the  rollGr-mills,  these  irregularities  are 
"laminated  out."  Hence,  pressed-fouudation  can  never  b« 
as  regular  as  rolled  •foundation. 

083.  Pia3t«r  moulds  and  other  utensils  have  been  tried 
for  foundation-making,  but  these  cheap  Implements  ars 
almost  entirely  discarded. 

684.  The  Root-mills, — the  most  piactical — have  been 
improved  upon  io  different  ways,  by  C.  01m,  by  Mrs.  Dun- 
ham of  Wisconsin,  and  by  J.  Vanderrort  of  PeiuuylTUiia. 
The  latter  gentleman,  one  of  America's  eminent  maohuuMs, 
makes  most  superior  mills  for  any  grade  of  fooadstioa. 


68ff.  The  wax  osed  tor  thin  surplus-foundation  is  a  se- 
lected grade.  Wax  from  cappinga  (772)  and  Southern 
wax  are  the  best  for  this  purpose.  In  every  case,  whether 
the  fonndatioD  is  to  be  used  for  surplus  (728),  or  for 
brood-combi  (223),  the  wax  should  be  iboroughly  cleaned 
bj  heating  it  to  a  high  temperature  and  allowing  it  to  cool 
slowly  in  flaring  vessels,  from  which  the  cold  wax  can  be 
easily  removed.  Wax,  that  is  allowed  to  retain  impuritieit, 
has  less  consistency,  and  will  sag  more  readily.  The 
method  used  by  wax-bleachers  of  purifying  with  ncids 
should  not  be  resorted  to,  as  the  bees  have  a  dislilve  for  any 
disagreeable  smell  or  taste. 

686.  Nothing  but  pure  vtaxsliould  be  used  in  any  grade  of 
foundation.  Parafflne,  ceresine,  etc.,  have  been  tried  willi 
disastrous  results.  Aside  from  the  fact  that  tlicsc compounds 
melt  at L a  lower  degree  than  beeswax*   and  break  doivn  in 

•'■rwvMMBdt* Mils* ratal.,  BMivuitUt."— (Bloiun'iCbciiilsUr.) 

any  oburp  knUS.  Hats  »  pattom  o<  the  aize  of  the  i^mm 
wanted,  made  of  bard  wood.  Take  six  or  eight  ifaeeta  at 
one  time,  arranged  in  an  even  pile.  Lay  your  patters  <» 
them,  hoidiog  it  down  firmly;  dip  your  knife  in  strong 
■oap-suds,  and  if  the  wax  is  at  the  proper  temperature,  yon 
will  cut  the  eight  pieces  at  one  stroke  of  the  knife.  If  the 
sheets  have  a  tendency  to  slip  from  under  the  pattern,  yon 
may  nail  cleats  on  three  sides  of  it,  to  encase  the  pile  as  is 
a  bos. 

606.  Are  there  a  right  and  a  wrong  way,  to  suspend 
foundation  in  the  frames?  Or,  in  other  words,  should  two 
of  the  six  sides  of  the  cell  be  perpendicular  or  horizontal? 
Huber,  and  Cheshire  after  him,  call  our  attention  to  the 
fact,  that  the  bees  always  bnild  their  combs,  with  two  dde* 
of  the  cells  perpendicular.  Hr.  Cheshire  explains,  at  length, 
the  adaptation  and  advantages  of  thla  natnral  fact,  and  il« 
bearing  on  the  strength  of  the  comb.  Prom  his  explana- 
tions, it  results  that  foundation  suspended  thus:  ^^*S 
f.  e.  with  two  perpendicular  sides,  would  be  properly  K,^^ 
fastened,  while  if  suspended  thus:  ^~^i  i.«.intb 
two  horizontal  sides.  It  would  be  \  X  Imprope 

Uost  of  the  machines  that  are  made  turn  oat  fonnd«tion- 
•heeta',  which  are  to  be  hung  horizontaUy ,  when  Uw  oaDi 

improperly  taa- 

HOW    FASTENED.  877 

are  in  the  proper  position.  The  Dunham-machine,  how- 
ever, makes  sheets  which  should  hang  vertically,  if  the 
proper  position  is  wanted.  As  the  sheets  principally  used, 
are  for  frames  of  the  Langstroth  pattern  (299),  from  eight 
to  ten  inches  in  depth,  and  sixteen  to  eighteen  inches  in 
length,  and  as  the  machines  are  all  under  fourteen  inches  in 
width,  the  Dunham  foundation-sheets  must  be  cut  in  two, 
or  else  must  be  fastened  wrong  in  the  frames,  owing  to 
the  position  of  the  cells  in  the  rollers.  In  ninety-nine  cases 
out  of  every  hundred,  the  latter  method  has  been  followed, 
and  as  the  Dunham  heavy-brood  foundation  has  given  uni- 
versal satisfaction,  it  proves  that  the  position  of  the  cells 
cannot  have  a  great  importance,  practically,  whenever  a 
heavy  grade  is  used.  It  is  well,  however,  to  place  founda- 
tion in  the  correct  position,  whenever  practicable,  espe- 
cially with  the  light  grades  for  sections,  which  are  more  in 
danger  of  stretching  under  ordinary  circumstances. 

007.  It  is  astonishing,  as  well  as  pleasing,  to  see  how 
quickly  a  swarm  will  build  its  combs,  when  foundation  is 
used.  The  enthusiasm,  with  which  it  is  used  by  bee-keep- 
ers, is  only  exceeded  by  that  of  the  bees,  *'  in  being  hived 
on  it.*'  This  invention  certainly  deserves  to  rank  next  to 
those  of  the  movabU-framei  (282)  and  of  the  honeys 
mrattot.  (749.) 

A  new  process  has  lately  been  deviseil  by  Mr.  E.  B.  Weed 
for  sheeting  wax  in  endless  Hheets. 

This  invention  produces  sheets  of  beeswax  more  iiiiilleable 
tb^M*  the  dipping  boards  aud  seems  destined  to  revolutionize 
the  making  of  comb  foundation,  especially  as  an  endless 
sheet  may  be  run  through  the  mills  at  the  mininuim  of  cost. 

This  process,  being  pateuted,  a  description  of  it  would  be 
out  of  place  in  this  work. 

FunrDKAOB  asd  OnBmooKnra. 

••S.  TIm  <|nutlity  otBMtox  yifttded  bj  dUtsmit  flow* 
variw  «oatid«t«bl; ;  smm  |^  to  Uttt»,  tluit  «  bee  has  to 
vlatt  hundreda  to  fill  ber  MOk,  wbile  ttw  oi»idle  of  othan 
oreriloira  with  it. 

In  the  Ticioity  of  tin  Cape  of  Qood  Hope,  tlien  ia  t 
blossom,  the  Protea  metti/era,  which  probably  surpasses 
all  others  in  the  abuodance  of  its  nectar.  Indeed,  so 
abundant  is  it.  that  it  is  said,  the  natives  gather  it  by 
dipping  it  from  the  flowers,  with  apoone.  Hr.  De  Planta, 
in  a  lengthy  and  sctentiQc  article  published  In  the  RevM 
ItUemationale  d' Apiculture,  gives  an  account  of  his  anal- 
ysis of  some  samples  of  this  honey,  which  be  bad  received 
through  the  "Moravian  United  Brothers."  He  reports 
it  to  have  the  scent  and  the  taste  of  ripe  hananaa,  and  con- 
aiders  it  very  sweet  and  good. 

690.  The  same  plants  yield  nectar  in  different  qaantities 
in  diScrcDt  countries.  The  Caucasian  Comfiey,  from 
which  the  bees  reap  a  rich  harvest  in  Eur<^,  Is  of  little 
account  here. 

TOO.  Every  bee-keeper  should  carefully  acquaint  him- 
self with  llie  honey -resources  of  his  own  neigh  borhoo<l. 
We  will  mention  particularly  some  of  the  most  important 
plants  from  which  bees  draw  their  supplies.  Since  Dzier- 
zon's  discovery  of  the  use  which  may  be  made  of  Boor, 
early  blossoms  producing  pollen  only,  are  not  ao  important. 


AQ  the  Tsristiea  of  willow  tbound  In  both  pollen  and 
honey,  uid  their  early  blossoming  gives  them  a  apeolai 

"  First  tbs  grar  willow's  glonj  pearls  they  steal. 
Or  rob  tliB  hazel  of  Us  golden  meal, 
Wblle  tbe  gay  orocos  and  the  violet  blue, 
Yield  to  their  fleztble  tninks  ambrosial  dew." — Evans. 

The  sugar-maple  {Acer  lacckariniu)  yields  a  large  supply 
of  delicious  honey,  and  its  blossoms,  hanging  in  graceful 
fringes,  will  be  alive  with  bees. 

Id  some  sections,  the  wild  gooseberry  is  a  valuable  help 
to  the  bees,  as  it  blossoms  very  early,  and  they  work  eagerly 
on  it. 

Of  the  fruit  trees,  the  apricot,  peach,  plum,  cherry  and 
pear,  are  great  favorites ;  but  none  fumbhes  so  much  honey 
as  the  apple. 

The  dandelion,  whose  blossoms  furnish  pollen  and  honey, 
iriien  the  yield  from  the  fruit  trees  is  ue&rly  over,  ia  worthy 
ol  Tank  among  honey-producing  plants. 

BI4>3SOU  or  TUUP  TKIE. 

TtotoBptne  (.Ltriodendron}  (Fig.  121),   la  ou  of  tbi 

patnkfesMTfmdMiactnMmtkt world.  AsitolilMMMM 

iBTCsfaaMtUBMmMflloBe.    Tl*hiMej,aoaghdaik,uol 
B  good  Inw.    Hm  tne  flOaa  attataa  k  height  of  orer  om 


Tlie  wniicPii  loc:«  (Fig,  122),  U  •  Twy  deaumble  tree 
for  the  1  icinitv  of  ui  Apivy.  jriclding  moch  hooej  wbn 
it  it  pecnlivlj  needed  bj  the  beea. 

Tha  wild  cbcnj  blooms  aboal  the  mb»  ttaM. 

701.  Of  ftll  the  souroes  from  Trliich  bees  derive  th^ 
KippUes,  vhite   clover  (Fig.  123),   ia   usuall;  the  most 

WHm  cLovnt. 

important.  It  yields  large  qaantities  of  very  pure  wliite 
boney,  and  wherever  It  abouDds,  the  bee  will  find  a  rich 
barreat.  In  most  parts  of  this  couDtry  it  seems  to  be  the 
chief  reliance  of  the  Apiary.  Blossoming  at  a  season  of 
the  year  when  the  weather  is  usually  both  dry  and  hot,  and 
the  bees  gathering  ita  honey  after  the  sun  has  dried  off  the 
dew,  it  is  ready  to  be  sealed  over  almost  at  once. 

It  is  ftt  the  blossoming  of  this  important  plant  that  the 
main  crop  of  honey  usually  begins,  and  that  the  bees  prop- 
agate in  the  greatest  number. 

The  flowers  of  red  clover  (Qg.  124)  abo  produce  a  large 
quantity  of  nectar ;  unfortunately  ita  corollas  are  usually 
too  deep  for  the'tongue  of  our  bees.  Yet  sometimes,  in 
Summer,  they  can  reach  the  nectar,  either  because  its 
corollas  are  ahorter  on  account  of  dryness,  or  because  they 
an  man  ooplooaly  filled. 


702.  The  linden,  or  bu»>wood  ( Tilia  Am&rioa$ta,  fig. 
125),  yields  white  honey  of  a  strong  flavor,  and,  aa  it  blos- 
soms when  both  the  swarms  and  parent- colonies  are  uauallj 
populous,  the  weather  settled,  and  other  bee-forag«  aoarn, 
its  value  to  the  bcc-kecpcr  is  great. 

"  Here  tbeir  delicious  task,  the  fervent  beet 
In  swarming  millions  tend :  around,  athwart, 
Thrmigb  the  soft  air  the  busj  nations  Ay, 
Cling  to  the  bud,  and  with  inserted  tnbe. 
Suck  its  pure  essence.  Its  etherlal  aonl."— Tnoitaow. 

Tliia  majestic  tree,  adorned  with  beautiful  oluateis  nl 

fragnut  bloMoms,  is  irell  worth  attention  as  an  ornamental 
shade-tree.  By  adorning  our 
villages  and  country  residences 
with  a  fair  allowance  of  tnlip, 
linden,  and  such  other  trees  as 
are  not  only  beautiful  to  the  eye, 
but  attractive  to  bees, the  honey- 
resourcea  of  the  country  might. 
Id  process  of  time,  be  greatly 
increased.  In  many  districts, 
locust  arid  bass-wood  planta- 
tions would  be  valuable  for  their 
timber  alone. 

703.  W^e  have  also  a  variety 
of  clover  imported  tromSweden, 
which  grows  as  tall  as  the  red 
clover,  benrs  many  blossoms  on 
a  stalk,  in  size  resembling  the 
white,  and,  while  it  answers 
admirably  for  bees,  is  preferred 
by  cattle  to  almost  any  other 
kind    of  grass.     It  is  known 


by  the  name  of  Alsike  or  Swedish  clorcr  (Fig.  186). 
The  objection  made  to  this  clover  is  that  its  et«m  Is  k 
light  that  it  falla  to  the  ground.  This  ia  remedied  by  Bowing 
it  with  timothy.  The  tatter  helps  it  to  etand.  It  is  hs  good 
for  hooey  as  white  clover. 

704.  The  raspberry  furnisheB  a  most  delicious  boney. 
In  flavor  it  is  superior  to  that  from  the  wbit«  clover.  The 
Bides  of  the  roads,  the  borders  of  the  fields,  and  the  past- 
ures of  much  of  the  "hill-country"  of  New  England, 
abound  with  the  wild  red  raspberry,  and,  in  eut-h  favored 
locations,  numerous  colonies  of  bees  may  be  kept.  Wbeo 
it  is  in  blossom,  bees  hold  even  the  white  clover  in  light  es- 
teem. Its  drooping  blossoms  protect  the  honey  from  moist- 
ure, and  they  can  work  upon  it  when  the  weather  is  eo  wet 
that  they  can  oblaiii  nothing  from  ihe  upright  blossoms  of 
the  clover.  As  it  furnishes  a  succession  of  flowers  for  some 
weeks,  it  yields  a  supply  almost  as  lasting  as  the  white 
clover.  The  precipitous  and  rocky  lands,  where  it  most 
abounds,  might  be  made  almost  as  valuable  as  some  of  the 
vine-clad  terraces  of  the  mountain  districts  of  Europe. 

The  borage  {Borago  officituUis),  (Fig.  143),  blossoms 
continually  from  June  until  severe  frost,  and,  like  the  rasp- 
berry, is  frequented  by  bees  even  in  moist  weather.  The 
honey  from  it  is  of  a  superior  quality. 

The  Canada  thistle,  the  viper  bugtoia  yield  good  honey 
after  white  clover  has  begun  to  fail.  But  these  plants  arc 
troublesome,  for  they  cannot  easily  be  gotten  rid  of. 

705.  Melilot,  or  sweet  clover  (flgs.  127  and  136),  which 
grows  on  any  barren  or  rocky  soil  without  cultivation,  is 
one  of  the  most  valuable  honey-plants.  It  will  not  thrive, 
however,  where  cattle  can  graze  on  it,  as  they  soon  destroy 
it.  If  cut  early  to  be  used  as  forage,  it  blooms  later  than 
white  clover  and  till  frost.     It  is  a  biennial. 

The  different  varieties  of  smart-weeds  {Pentcaria),  golden 
rod,  buckwheat,  asters,  Irou^weed,  Spaniah-ncedlei  Id  low 


and  marshy  places,  give  a  very  abimdaQt  honey-crop 
Ifttter  part  of  the  Slimmer.     They  form  the  bulk  of 

is  called  the  "Fall  crop"  in  this  latitude. 

California  the  sage,  in  Texas  the  horse-miat.  In  Flor- 

e  mangrove,  form  the  main  honey -harvests  of  those 


B.  We  here  present  a  list  of  the  flowers  known  as 
visited  by  the  bees  for  their  nectar  or  for  their  pollen. 

ITS  grouped  them  in  Families,  and  we  give  engraving 

ir  most  prominent  types,  in  order  to  help  the  Apiarift 



In  bis  tavesUgfttioDB.     But  out  list  is  far  from  being  com 
plete,  and  every  day  bringa  some  new  discovenea. 

Composilce; — Dandelion,  Thistle, Chamomile,  (Fig.  128), 
SuuQower,  Ox-eye  Daisy,  Goldenrod  (!''■£■  l''9)>  Cor«opsi>> 


Lettuce,  Chicory,  Boneset,  Iron-weed,  Indi&n  PlBnUin,  Fin- 
weed,  Aater  (ligures  130-131),  Burr- Marigold,  Spauish 
Needles,  Coneliower,  Star  ThbtJe,  Thoroughwort,  But- 
ter weed,  Sneeze- wort.  Blue  Bottle,  Ragweed,  several 
varieties  ot  EchiDops,  one  ot  which,  tbe  Sph«rocephaliu, 
waa  introduced  here  by  Mr.  Chapman.  The  Echinopa  ritro 
(smaller  in  size)  (Fig.  132),  is  cultivated  in  Europe  od  ao> 


coDDt  of  Its  beautiful  blue  heada.  This  family  includeB  also 
the  Helenium  tenuifoliunt  (Fig.  133),  whose  honey  Is  poison- 
ottt.— (Dr.  J.  P.  H.  Bbowk.) 

LeguminoKt: — Judas  tree  (Fiji.  134),  which  IiUmuih  very 
early,    Locust   tree,    Honey    Locust   (Kip.    Ki.>),  Wiststria, 


Wit-  W.    (Pram  L'ApleolUm.) 

white,  red 

■  or    Alfalfa, 
(Fig.   137). 

i;t«>,  s..^... 

Ciiliiip.  Sl< 

Pcai'li,  A| 
berrj',     Ki 

and  alsike  Clover,  Uelilot  (Fig.  186),  Lucent 

Pens,  BeaDs,  VetclieB,  Lentils,   F&]ae-Indi|;o, 

pea.  Wild   senna,    Milk   Tetch,    Yellow-Wowi, 

1%    of  Tc-xos,  Cleome-integrifolia,  and  pungens 

: — (fri)in  I.iiUhim.  n  lip.)  GrouDd  Ivy  (Fi([. 
;  (I'-ig.  i;i!>),  -Mint  (Fig.  140),  Horehound. 
Ihcnvort,  IIorse-Miiit,  Hasil,  Hyssop,  ber^anmt. 
Tliytne,  Mdiss.i,  Dend  Nettle,  Bmnella,   I'eniiy- 

;  — Wild  Rose,  Cherry  (Fig.  142),  Plum, 
ricot,  Apple,  I'ear,  Quince,  Hawthorne,  Blaik- 
s|)berry,     Strawherrj-,    Juneberry,     CiDquetoil, 



BowmAnsroot,  Qumd  of  tbe  Prtim,  Meadow  Swe«t,  P^^ 

ife/yyoKHciE;— (Knot-Weed)  Buckwheat,  Lady  Thumb, 
Bhubarb,  Sorrel,  and  &  variety  of  Knot-Woeds  or  Per- 
f/canu  (Fig.  141). 

nsoncA  omct»*u»' 


Bora yiwrt cw -■— Borage  (Fig,  143),  Viper-buploss,  Cora- 
trty,  I'haceUa,  Virginia  Lungwort,  Hound  toQg:iie,  Gro»- 
well,  Falne  Gromwell, 

ScropltutariactO! : — Sctui>hulariaao<Io8a(Siin)>son'8lidi]e^ 


plant),   Veronicas  (Fig.    144),  Yellow  Jessamine  of  tbt 
SouUi.  whose  hoaej  is  poisonous.  (Db.  J.  P.  H.  Browx.) 

Asdepiadacea : — The  commoa  Hi  Ik- 
weed  (Fig.  U6),or  Silkweed,  AMlepiaa 
Syriaca,  is  much  frequented  by  bees, 
but  these  risiU  are  often  fatal  to  tbem. 
All  the  grains  of  poUenof  the  Silkweed, 
in  each  anther,  are  collected  in  a  com- 
pact mass,  inclosed  in  ■  sack;  these 
aacks  are  united  in  paira  (a.  Fig.  147) 
by  a  kind  cl  thread,  terminated  by  » --„„'!l[;  Ji„,„ 
•mall,  nscous  gland.  Theae  threads  ■,  ^^  ^  psiiM  ■■ 
•Uck  to  the  feet  (6.  Fig.  147)  and  often  CSiii.'SifiSi.''" 
to  the  labial  palpi  (46)  of  the  beea,  who 
csnnot  easily  get  rid  of  them,  and  per- 
Isb.   In  MHBS  parts  of  Ohio  and  W«8Mim 

of  the  common  Und,  the  Ahdepitu  SvUivantii,  does  not 
present  to  bees  these  diffloultieB  to  the  same  degree.  We 
have  seen  bees  gathering  honey  freel;  on  four  or  five  diller- 
.:at  varieties  which  grow  in  our  neighboihood,  and  especially 
on  the  Tnberosa  or  Pleorisj  root  (Fig.  145),  fitly  recom- 
mended by  James  Heddoo.  This  kind  Is  noticeable  by  its 
orange  flowers. 

Crucifenez—Rape  (Fig.  148),  Mustard  (Kig.  149), 
Cabbage,  Eadish,  Candy  Tuft,  Stock,  Wall-Flower,  Moon- 
wort,  Sweet  AlyssuiD,  Cress. 

Erieaeece: — This  family,  on  the  Old  Continent,  includes 
the  namerons  varieties  of  Heath,  on  nliicb  bees  reap  a 
large  harrest  of  inferior  honey,  so  thick  that  it  is  impos- 
sible to  extract  it.  Blueberry,  Sour  Wood,  Laurel,  Clcthra 
alnilolia,  Cowberry  (Fig.  150),  Huckleberry.  Whortle- 
berry, Qaoltheria  FrocumbeoB,  or  Creeping  niutcrgrccn. — 
which  Ifl  indicated,  by  some  English  bee-keepers,  as  pre- 



venting  bees  from  stinging  tbe  hands  wben  they  «rp  nibh 
with  its  leaves, — belong  to  this  family. 

Valerianacece : — Valerian  (Fig.  161),  Corn  salad  oi 
lettuce,  belong  to  this  family. 

Onagraceoe;  ^(Evening 
Primrose  family)  Gaura, 
Fuscbia,  CEnotliera  (Fig. 
162)  Epilobium  (Wiltow 
Herb,  Fig.  153). 

Liliaceae: — Lilies  C^^'g- 
154),  Asparagus,  Wild 
Hyaeiiith(Fig.  155),  Star 
of  Bclhlehem,  Lily  of  the 
VaUey  (Fig.  156),  Solo- 
moo's  Seal  (Fig.  167), 
Dog's-tooth  Violet,  throe- 
lieaded  Nigbt-sbade,  Gar- 
lic, Onion,  Crocus. 

Malvacea:  — Common 
Mallows,  aD<J  olliers,  Hol- 
lyLocJi,  Coltoa(Fig.  158), 

CapTifoHaceat:—  Honeysuokto,  Snow  uid   Coral  beiiiM, 
At  row- wood. 

VKit  IM  — MKLUN. 


•urbitaeect: — Cucumber,  Meloa  (Fig.  Ifift),  Squash, 

OiHifteUiftra:— Parsley,  Angelica,  Lovage,  Fennel  (Fig. 
160),  Parsnip,  Coriander,  Covr-parsnip. 



Caryophyltaceix; — Rnk  (^.  161),  LIchnu,  Chidnraed, 

We  con  name  also:  Bib-Gran,  or  Plantain  (Fig.  163), 
Goosefoot,  Blue-eyed  gprasa,  Corn-flag,  Buckthorn,  Barben; 
(Pig.  163),  Sumac,  Grape-Tine,  Polanysia,  Button  weed. 
Mignonette,  or  Beseda  (Fig.  164),  Teasel,  Skunk  cabbagt. 

Wftterleaf,  Hemp,  Touch-me-not,  Amaranth,  Crowfoot.  St. 
John's  wort,  and  among  the  trees :  Willow  (Figs.  165-166), 
Poplar,  which  have  tlieir  sesiial  organs  on  different  trees; 

Oak  (Fig.  107).  Walnut,  Hickory,  Beech,  Birch,  Alder, 
Elin.  Il:i/e!-iiiit  (l^'iy;.  1G8),  Maple  whose  organs  of  repro- 
duction are  sc[>arate(i,  although  on  the  same  tree. 

Horae  dicstniit.  Persimmon,  Gum-tree,  Dogwood,  Button- 
buab,  Cypress,  Liqiiidambar,  Linden. 


We  Bhonld  mention  also,  Ailanthus  gtandulosus  (Varnish 
tree  of  Chitu),  t  large,  omuuental  tree,  which  gives  on 
abnadance  of  honey  to  bad  ia  taste,  as  to  compel  the  bee- 
keepers who  have  some  in  their  neighborhood  to  extract 
it  aa  soon  as  it  is  gstbercdi  that  it  may  not  injure  the 
quality  of  their  crop. 

Bees  also  visit  some  of  the  plants  of  the  grass  family, 
Mich  as  oorn  and  sorghum.  A  plant  of  this  family,  the 
Setaria,  or  bristly  fox-tail  grass,  ia  known  in  France  under 
the  name  of  accroche-abeiUei,  (bee- catcher).  Its  curved 
hairs  grasp  the  bees'  legs,  and  the  poor  insects,  unable  to 
free  ihemaelTes,  are  soon  exhausted,  and  die. 


risniiuaB  axo 


707.  It  the  opiaions,  entertained  by  some,  as  to  Um 
danger  of  overstocklug  were  correct,  bee-keeping  In  thit 
countrj,  would  alirays  have  been  lui  iDeignlflcaat  pnniiit. 

It  is  difiicult  to  repress  a  smile  when  the  owner  of  a  few 
hivoa,  in  a  district  where  hundreds  might  be  made  to  pro^ 
por,  gravciy  Imputes  his  ill-success  to  the  fact,  that  too 
many  bees  axe  kept  in  hia  vicdnlty.  If,  In  the  Spring,  a 
colony  of  bees  is  prosperous  and  healthy,  it  will  gather 
abundant  stores,  in  a  tavorahle  season,  even  if  many  eqa&Ily 
BtroD);  are  in  its  immediate  vicinity ;  while,  it  it  Ea  feeble,  it 
will  bu  of  little  or  no  value,  even  if  it  is  in  "  a  land  flowing 
with  milk  and  honey,"  and  that*  la  not  anothei  colony 
within  a  dozen  miles  of  it. 

As  the  great  Napoleon  guned  many  of  hia  vlotoriea  by 
having  an  overwhelming  force  at  the  right  place,  in  the 
right  time,  so  the  bee-keeper  moat  have  strong  colonies, 
when  numbers  can  be  turned  to  the  best  accooot  II 
they  become  strong  only  when  they  can  do  nothing  but 
consume  what  little  honey  hsa  been  previously  gathered,  he 
is  like  a  farmer  who  suffers  hia  crops  to  rot  on  the  ground, 
and  then  hires  a  set  of  Idlers  to  eat  him  out  of  houae  and 

708.  Although  bees  can  fly,  in  search  of  food,  over  three 
miles,  still,  if  it  is  not  within  a  circle  of  about  tuo  mife>  la 
every  direction  from  the  Apiary,  they  wiU  be  able  to  ttort  hvi 
little  surplus  honey.'     If  pasturage  abounds  within  a  quar- 

•-' Jo.lglnir  from  the  fWHp  Chit  beet  take  fram  tta  ltd*  ■!<■  laUnad  tialB  l> 
matlon.  wa  nhoiild  eaUmata  thalrpaoe  St  *1x>Dt  tUitj  Bdli*  aa  bovi.    lU* 

woqU  gl\  e  tham  fnnt  mlDOtM  to  nacti  tha  aitnmlty  flf  Ihilr  eamn^B  n^«. " 
-Lmlaii  ^artvly  Xnttv. 


ter  of  a  mile  from  their  hives,  so  much  the  better ;  there  is 

no  great  advantage,  however,  in  having  it  close  to  them, 

unless  there  is  a  great  supply,  as  bees,  when  they  leave  the 

hive,  seldom  alight  upon  the   neighboring  flowers.      The 

instinct  to  fly  some  distance  seems  to  have  been  given  them 

to  prevent  them  from  wasting  their  time  in  prying  into 

flowers  already  despoiled  of  their  sweets  by  previous  gath- 

*'  Mr.  Kaden,  of  Mayence,  thinks  that  the  range  of  the  bee*8 
flight  does  not  usually  extend  more  than  three  miles  in  all  direc- 
tions. Several  years  ago,  a  vessel,  laden  with  sugar,  anchored 
off  Mayence,  and  was  soon  visited  by  the  bees  of  the  neighbor- 
hood, which  continued  to  pass  to  and  from  the  vessel  from  dawn 
to  dark.  One  morning,  when  the  bees  were  in  full  flight,  the 
vessel  sailed  up  the  river.  For  a  short  time,  the  bees  continued 
to  fly  as  numerously  as  before ;  but  gradually  the  number  dimin- 
ished, and,  in  the  course  of  half  an  hour,  all  had  ceased  to  follow 
the  vessel,  which  had,  meanwhile,  sailed  more  than  four  miles." 
— Bitnenaeiiung^  1854,  p.  83. 

Our  own  e;cperience  corroborates  the  statements  of  Kaden. 
We  have  known  strong  colonies  of  bees  to  starve  upon  the 
hills  in  a  year  of  drouth,  while  the  Mississippi  bottoms, 
less  than  four  miles  distant,  which  bad  been  overflowed  dur- 
ing the  Spring,  were  yielding  a  large  crop.  It  is  evident 
that  districts,  where  the  honey  blossoms  are  scarce,  can  be 
much  more  readily  overstocked  than  those  rich  bottom 
lands  which  are  covered  with  blossoms,  the  greater  part  of 
the  Summer.  A  great  amount  of  land  in  cultivation,  is  not 
always  a  hindrance  to  honey  production,  for  culiivated 
landa  often  grow  weeds,  which  yield  an  abundance  of  honey. 
Heartsease  and  Spanish  needle  grow  plentifully  in  corn- 
fields and  wheat  stubble  in  wet  seasons.  Pasture  lands 
abound  with  white  clover. 

709.  It  is  impossible  to  give  the  exact  number  of  colo- 
nies that  a  country  can  support  profitably.  In  poor  loca- 
tionBi  a  f^w  hives  will  probably  harvest  all  the  honey  to  be 


found,  while  some  districts  can  support  perhaps  a  hundred 
or  more  to  the  square  mile.  The  bee-keeper  must  be  hii 
own  judge,  as  to  the  honey  capacity  of  his  district. 

**  When  a  large  flock  of  sheep,  says  Oettl,  is  grazing  on  a 
limited  area,  there  may  soon  be  a  deflciency  of  pasturage.  Bat 
this  cannot  be  asserted  of  bees,  as  a  good  honey-district  cannot 
readily  be  overstocked  with  them.  To-day,  when  the  air  Is 
moist  and  warm,  the  plants  may  yield  a  superabundance  of 
nectar;  while  to-morrow,  being  cold  and  wet,  there  may  be  a 
total  want  of  it.  When  there  is  snfScient  heat  and  moisture,  the 
saccharine  Juices  of  plants  will  readily  fill  the  nectaries,  and  will 
be  quickly  replenished  when  carried  off  by  the  bees.  Every  cold 
night  checks  the  flow  of  honey,  and  every  clear,  warm  day  re- 
opens the  fountains.  The  flowen  expanded  to-day  tmai  be  wieUed 
while  open;  for^  if  left  to  wither,  their  storee  are  loMt.  The  same 
remarks  will  apply  substantially  in  the  case  of  honey-dews. 
Hence,  bees  cannot,  as  many  suppose,  collect  to-raorrow  what  is 
left  ungathered  to-day,  as  sheep  may  graze  hereafter  on  the  pas- 
turage they  do  not  need  now.  Strong  colonies  and  large  Apiaries 
are  in  a  position  to  collect  ample  stores  when  forage  sudden Ij 
abounds,  while,  by  patient,  persevering  industry,  they  may  still 
gather  a  sufficiency,  and  even  a  surplus,  when  the  supply  is 
small,  but  more  regular  and  protracted.'' 

Although  we  believe  that  a  district  can  be  overstocked, 
80  as  to  make  bee-culture  unprofitable,  yet  the  above  extract 
gives  a  correct  view  of  the  honey  harvest,  which  depends 
much  on  the  weather,  and  must  be  gathered  when  produced. 

The  same  able  Apiarist,  whose  golden  rule  in  bee-keeping 
is,  to  keep  none  but  strong  colonies,  says  that  in  the  lapse 
of  twenty  years  since  he  established  his  Apiary,  there 
has  not  occurred  a  season  in  which  the  bees  did  not 
procure  adequate  supplies  for  themselves,  and  a  surplus 
besides.  Sometimes,  indeed,  he  came  near  despairing,  when 
April,  May,  and  June  were  continually  cold,  wet,  and  un- 
productive ;  but  in  July,  his  strong  colonies  speedily  filled 
their  jxarnors,  and  stored  up  some  treasure  for  him;  while, 
in  such  seasons,  small  colonies  could  not  even  gather  enough 
to  keep  them  from  starvation. 


710.  Aooording  to  Oettl  (p.  389),  Bohemia  contained 
160,000  colonies  in  1853,  from  a  careful  estimate,  and  he 
thought  the  country  could  readily  support  four  tiroes  that 
number.  This  province  contains  19,822  square  English 

We  say  square  English  miles,  and  we  insist  on  the  word 
English,  for  we  have  read  of  reports  from  Germany,  show- 
ing incredible  figures  as  to  the  number  of  bees,  and  the 
amount  of  beeswax  and  honey  gathered  on  areas  of  a  few 
square  miles;  and  yet,  some  of  these  reports  may  have 
been  true,  for  there  are  different  sized  miles,  in  Germany. 
The  Grerman  geographical  mile  is  equal  to  4.^^^  English 
miles;  the  Grerman  short  mile,  to  ^-^f^^;  and  the  German 
long  mile  to  5.-^^^^,  dec. ;  the  shortest  German  square  mile 
being  as  about  15  of  the  English,  and  the  long  being  about 
equal  to  33  of  our  square  miles.  This  we  glean  from 
*^ Chambers  Encyclopedia." 

According  to  an  official  report,  there  were  in  Denmark, 
in  1838,  eighty-six  thousand  and  thirty-six  colonies  of  bees. 
The  annual  product  of  honey  appears  to  have  been  about 
1,841,800  lbs.  In  1855,  the  export  of  wax  from  that  coun* 
try  was  118,379  lbs. 

In  1856,  according  to  official  returns,  there  were  58,964 
colonies  of  bees  in  the  kingdom  of  Wurtemberg. 

In  1857,  the  yield  of  honey  and  wax  in  the  empire  of 
Austria  was  estimated  to  be  worth  over  seven  millions  of 

Doubtless,  in  these  districts,  where  honey  is  so  largely 
produced,  great  attention  is  paid  to  the  cultivation  of  crops 
which,  while  in  themselves  profitable,  afford  abundant  pas- 
turage for  bees. 

711.  California,  which  seems  to  be  the  Eldorado  of  bee- 
culture,  can  probably  support  the  greatest  number  of  bees 
to  the  square  mile,  and  yet  in  some  seasons  the  bees  starve 
there  in  great  numbers  owing  to  the  drouth. 



We  have  no  olllcial  statistics  of  the  tioncy  crops  of  tbe 
U&lted  Stntes,  but  tiie  following  extract  from  the  Aa^am 
Bee-Journal  (188G),  will  give  an  idea  of  the  iminvuutj' ol 
our  honey  resources,  considering  the  comparatively  nntll 
areas  of  this  country  now  occupied  by  Apiarists. 

"  Tlie  California  Oi-occr  enys  that  the  crop  of  18S5  wag  about 
l.KO.OOO  pounds.  The  foreign  export  from  San  Frsnrlsco  tlur- 
ing  tbe  year  was  npproxlmately  8,B00  cases.  The  Bb1pm«nU 
Sasl  hj  rail  were  3GQ,(XH)  pounilg  frgm  San  Fraocleco,  and  SIO/DO 
pounds  from  Los  An];elcs,  including  both  comb  and  exti«ct«<). 
We  notice  thut  nnotlier  California  pnper  cEtimatcs  the  crop  of 
ISSo  at  2,000,000  pounds,  and  the  crop  of  the  United  Sutea  btr 
18S5  was  put  down  at  3a,fl0().000  pounds.  We  do  not  think  lb«M 
figures  are  quite  large  enough,  though  it  was  on  ezce«ditigly 
pogr  crop." 

But  former  years  have  ^ven  etJU  better  reBulta.    ntroogta 

the  courtesy  of  Mr.  N.  W.  McLun,  of  the  D.  S.  Apicultnral 
Station,  we  have  received  the  following  statiatica  from 
"The  Resources  of  California,  1881": 

The  honey  shipped  from  Venti»a  County,  California, 
during  1880  amounted  to  1,050,000  lbs.  Tbe  Pacific  Coaat 
Steamship  Company  of  San  Diego  shipped  1,191,800  pound* 
of  honey  from  that  county  in  the  same  year. 

The  crop  of  tbe  five  lower  counties  in  California  that 
year,  was  estimated  by  several  parties  at  over  three  mlUioD 

According  to  a  report  of  S.  D.  Stone,  Clerk  of  tbe  Me^ 
chncts'  Exchange  of  San  FraneiBCO,  the  actual  amount  of 
honey  shipped  to  that  city  from  different  parts  of  California 
in  the  sixteen  months  ending  May  1,  1881,  was  4,340,400 
pounds,  equal  to  two  hundred  and  seventeen  car-loads. 

One  hundred  tons  of  honey,  in  one  lot,  were  shipped  during 
tbe  same  year,  from  Los  Angeles  to  Europe  on  tbe  French 
bark  Papillon.  This  had  ail  been  purchased  from  Los 
Angeles  Apiarists. 

712.  In  the  excellent  season  of  1888,  tbe  honey  crop  of 


Hancock  County,  Illinoig,  was  estimated  at  about  200,000 
pounds,  which  made  an  average  of  less  than  half  a  pound 
per  acre.  36,000  pounds  of  this  was  our  own  crop,  and 
the  county  did  not  contain  one-tenth  of  the  bees  that  could 
have  been  kept  profitably  on  it.  Yet,  at  this  low  rate,  the 
crop  of  Illinois  alore,  with  the  same  percentage  of  bees, 
would  have  been  15,000,000  pounds.  We  cannot  form  an 
adequate  idea  of  the  enormous  amount  of  honey,  which  is 
wasted  from  the  lack  of  bees  to  harvest  it. 

713.  In  our  own  experience  in  the  Mississippi  Valley, 
we  have  found  eighty  to  oue  hundred  colonies  to  be  the 
number  from  which  the  most  honey  could  be  expected  in 
one  Apiary.  Dr.  C.  C.  Miller  in  his  interesting  work  ''A 
Year  Among  the  Bees/'  says  also  that  one  hundred  colonies 
is  tlie  best  number  in  one  location.  Mr.  Heddon  strongly 
urges  bee-keepers  not  to  locate  within  any  area  already 
occupied  by  an  Apiary  of  one  hundred  colonies  or  more. 
The  extensive  experience  of  both  these  Apiarists  confirms 
ours,  but  we  must  remember  that  locations  differ  greatly. 

714.  In  all  arrangements,  aim  to  save  every  step  for 
the  bees  that  you  possibly  can.  With  the  alighting-board 
properly  arranged,  the  grass  kept  down,  or  better  still, 
ooal-ashes  or  sand  (568)  spread  in  front  of  the  apron- 
board  (343),.  bees  will  be  able  to  store  more  honey,  even 
if  they  have  to  go  a  considerable  distance  for  it,  than  they 
otherwise  could  from  pasturage  nearer  at  band.  Many  bee- 
keepers utterly  neglect  all  suitable  precautions  to  facilitate 
the  labors  of  their  bees,  as  though  they  imagined  them  to 
be  miniature  locomotives,  always  fired  up,  and  capable  of 
an  indefinite  amount  of  exertion.  A  bee  cannot  put  forth 
more  tlian  a  certain  amount  of  physical  effort,  and  a  large 
portion  of  this  ought  not  to  be  spent  in  con  lending  against 
difficulties  from  which  it  might  easily  be  guarded.  They 
may  often  be  seen  panting  after  their  return  from  labor, 
and  so  exhausted  as  to  need  rest  before  they  enter  the  hive. 


lis.  With  proper  management,  at  least  fifty  pouoda  ot 
surplus  honey  may  be  obtained  from  each  colony  that  is 
winteri?d  in  good  condition.  This  ia  not  a  *'  guess  "  esti- 
mate, it  13  the  average  of  our  crops  daring  a  period  of  oia 
twenty  years  in  diHerent  localities. 

Such  an  average  may  appear  small  to  experienced  bee- 
keepers, but  v&  think  it  large  enough  when  we  connder 
that  we  have  very  few  linden  trees  in  our  neighborhood. 

A  careful  man,  who,  with  Langstroth  hives,  will  be^a 
bee-keeping  oq  a  prudent  scale,  enlarging  his  operatioDs  u 
his  skill  and  experience  increase,  will  succeed  in  any  region. 
But,  in  favorable  localities,  a  much  larger  profit  may  be 

Itee-kcepers  cannot  be  too  cautious  in  entering  largely 
upon  new  systems  of  management,  until  they  have  aaoer- 
tained,  not  only  that  they  are  good,  but  that  they  can  make 
a  good  use  of  them.  There  is,  however,  a  golden  mean 
between  the  stupid  conservatism  that  tries  nothing  new,  and 
that  rash  experimenting,  on  an  extravagant  scale,  whiofaH 
so  characteristic  Of  many  people. 




710.  History  does  not  mention  the  first  discovery  of 
honey,  by  homan  beings.  Whether  it  became  known  to 
primitiye  man  by  accident,  from  the  splitting  of  a  bee-tree 
by  lightning,  or  by  his  observation  of  the  fondness  of  some 
animals  for  it, — certain  it  is  that  when  he  first  tasted  the 
thick  and  transparent  liquid,  the  fear  of  stings  was  over- 
come, and  the  bee-hunter  was  born.  Since  that  time,  the 
manner  of  securing  honey  has  undergone  a  great  many 
changes,  improving  and  retrograding,  as  we  can  Judge  from 
writings  now  extant. 

Killing  bees  (270)  for  their  honey  was,  unquestionably, 
an  invention  of  the  dark  ages,  when  the  human  family  had 
lost — in  Apiarian  pursuits,  as  well  as  in  other  things  —  the 
skill  of  former  ages.  In  the  times  of  Aristotle,  Varro, 
Columella,  and  Phny,  such  a  barbarous  practice  did  not 
exist.  The  old  cultivators  took  only  what  their  bees  could 
spare,  killing  no  colonies,  except  such  as  were  feeble  or 

The  Modern  methods  have  again  done  away  with  these 
customs  among  enlightened  men,  and  the  time  has  come 
when  the  following  epitaph,  taken  from  a  German  work, 
might  properly  be  placed  over  every  pit  of  brimstoned 






BT  IT4 




To  the  epitaph  should  be  appended    Tbomsoa's  versa: 
"  Ab,  eee,  where  robbed  and  mardered  In  that  pit. 
Lies  the  elill  heaving  hive!  at  evening  anatcbed,' 
Beneath  ttae  cloud  of  guilt-concealing  night. 
And  nxcd  o'er  sulphur !  while,  not  dreaming  ill. 
The  happy  people,  in  their  waxen  cells. 
Sat  tending  public  cares. 
Sudden,  the  darit,  oppressive  stenm  ascenda. 
And.  used  to  milder  scents,  the  tender  race. 
By  thousands,  tnoible  Trom  their  honied  dome 
Into  aguir  or  blue  sulphureous  name!" 

717.  The  present  methods  are  as  far  ahead  ot  XktoU 
wajs,  as  the  steel  rail  is  ahead  of  the  miry  road;  ai  tht 
palace  car  is  ahead  df  the  stage  coach. 

ll  is  to  the  production  of  surplus  honey  that  all  the  eOorti 
of  the  bee-keeper  tend,  and  the  problem  of  Apiculture  is, 
how  to  raise  the  most  honey  from  what  colonies  ire  have, 
with  the  greatest  prollt. 

718.  In  raising  honey,  whether  comb  or  extracted,  the 
Apiarist  should  remember  the  following: 

1st.  His  coioniea  should  be  strongest  in  bees  at  the  time 
of  the  expected  honey  harvest  (S6S). 

2d.   Each  honey  harvest  usually  lasts  but  a  few  weeks. 
It  a  colony  is  weak  in  Spring,  the  harvest  may  come  and 
pass  away,  and  the  bees  be  able  to  obtain  very  little  from  it. 
During  this  time   of  meagre  accumulations,   the  orchud* 
and  pastures  maj'  present 

"One  boundless  white  empurpled  ihower 
Of  mingled  blossoms;" 
and  tens  of  thousands  of  bees  from  stronger  colonies  may 
be  engaged  all  day  in  sipping  the  fragrant  sweets,  so  that 
every  gale  which  "fans  its  odoriferous  wings "  about  their 
dvtellinjrs,  dispenses 

"N;itive  perfumes,  nnd  whisper*  whence  they  stole 
Those  balmy  spoils."* 

COMB  HONBT.  409 

Bj  tlie  time  the  feeble  colony  becomes  strong — if  at  all 
—the  honey  hairest  is  over,  and,  instead  of  gathering 
enough  for  its  own  use,  it  may  starve,  unless  fed.  Bee- 
keeping, with  colonies  which  are  feeble,  except  in  extraor- 
dinary seasons  and  locations,  is  emphatically  nothing  but 
*'  vexation  of  spirit." 

3rd,  Colonies  that  swarm  (400)  cannot  be  expected  to 
furnish  much  surplus,  in  average  localities  and  seasons. 
(See  Artificial  Increase  409.) 

4ik.  A  hive  containing  or  raising  many  drones  (189) 
eaimoi  save  as  much  surplus  as  one  that  has  but  few,  owing 
to  the  cost  of  production  of  these  drones,  who  do  not  work 
and  are  raised  in  place  of  workers  (190).  We  have  in- 
sisted on  this  point  already,  but  it  is  of  such  importance, 
that  we  cannot  refrain  from  recalling  it.  The  hives  should 
be  overhauled  every  Spring,  and  the  drone  comb,  cut  out 
and  replaced  by  neat  pieces  of  worker  comb,  or  of  comb 
foundation  (074).  Every  square  foot  of  drone  comb,  re- 
placed with  worker  comb,  represents  an  annual  saving,  in 
our  estimation,  of  at  least  one  dollar  to  the  colony. 

Comb  Honet. 

719.  Although  the  production  of  comb  honey  is  less 
advantageous  than  that  of  extracted  honey  (746),  yet  a 
newly  made  and  well  sealed  honey  comb  is  unquestionably 
most  attractive,  and,  when  nicely  put  up,  will  find  a  place 
of  honor,  even  on  the  tables  of  the  wealthy.  White  comb 
honey  will  always  be  a  fancy  article,  and  will  sell  at  paying 

Dark  honey  in  the  comb  never  finds  ready  sale.  Hence, 
the  bee-keepers,  in  districts  where  white  honey  is  harvested, 
are  mostly  producers  of  comb  honey ;  while  those  in  the 
districts  producing  dark  honey,  in  the  South  mainly,  rely 
mox%  on  extracted  honey. 


TM.  Wahsn  not  tbe  ipsee  to  describe  the  difl«mt 
•votaisas,  tknH^  vUcfa  Uw  prodoction  of  comb  hoaej 

hm  [iMBedibM)elMK4$i«liaMs;  prodacdoninlargefnouft, 
!■  g,lM  liiiiii.  ill  liialiliiii.  «Ce. 

Honej'  is  luge  bsmes  dries  oot  ^eP.  Tell.  ■.□'1  cannot  be 

««lfcBSB«ttitbMiiriKBdnaanhaaviB«  l»rg«  box, 
am  is  wwoi— n«M«  ^MM  vdted  <»|»a^  te  Ite 


•d  br  a  noted  Apiarist,  u 
r  (741).  Ftactiei^.  them  k  moic 
hbor  for  tbe  bees  in  BnuQ  nc^Udes,  as  the  joinU  ud 
eomers  of  tbe  ocmbs  reqnjre  more  time  and  more  wax. 

7S1.  Bat  to  produce  salable  OMnb  boaey,  we  have  do 
choice.  We  wtMJt  prodace  it  in  aa  smaU  a  receptacle  •• 
possible.  The  Adair  section  boxes,  which  we  used  as  esilj 
AS   IS&d,  marked  tbe  first  progresslTe  step,  so  far  ss  we 

These  sections  forming  a  caae  by  tbe  oTerlapping  of  their 
top  and  bottoo)  bars,  and  funisbed  with  glass  at  each  end, 
were  much  admired,  and  we  sold  sereral  tons  of  honey,  id 
this  ship«.  in  Si.  Louis,  at  tbe  now  fabalons  prices  of  from 
25  to  3#  cents  per  pound. 

722.  Bu[  the  one  and  two  pound  sections,  as  now  made, 
have  been  universally  adopted  of  late  years. 

The  one  po^iid  sections  sell  best,  but,  at  tbe  difference  ol 
onlv  one  cent  per  pound,  we  woold  prefer  to  Dse  tbe  two 
pound  sections. 

com   BOMXT. 

These  sectdooB  are  msde  of  two  tdndi,  dovetuled  In  four 
(docMt  or  ID  one  piece  and  bent.     The  first  caa  be  made 

of  any  Und  of  white  wood,  while  the  latter  are  made  of  base 
wood  only.  When  the  one  piece  sections  are  made  by  the 
BpUtttng  procesi,  they  are  less  apt  to  break  in  bending,  but 
sawed  sections  can  be  safely  put  up  by  wetting  the  V 
notches,  before  bending  them. 

723.  Sections  are  usually  made  )  inch  thick  and  H  to  8 
incbea  wide.  The  standard  section  for  Latigstroth  hives  la 
4i  X  4}  inches,  with  openings  at  the  bottom  and  top. 

784.  They  are  given  to  the  bees  ia  the  upper  story,  like 
tlie  extracting  oases  (flg.  178).  Storage  room, on  the  sides  of 
tkM  brood  chamber,  has  been  periodically  advised  by  inven- 
tors of  new  hives,  but  bees  never  fill  and  seal  seclions  placed 
•t  the  side  as  fast  as  if  put  above  the  biood  chamber.* 

■  HiKt  n«  (kw  noMd  bn-keapsn  who  %it  inccounil  vlto  ■  combloanoB 
•f  lop  BDd  rite  (tonm.    W*  will  dU  OD*  of  the  let^lan  or  Anxricu  Apicat- 


SectiooB  are  either  crated,  in  cases  (fig.  170),  or  bong  Id 
broad  fromeB  (ng.  171),  ol  full  depth,  or  half  depth.     Botii 



waye  have  their  fiiendB,  and  both  are  good,  as  long  tbe  tnaia 
principlea  are  adhered  to. 

726.  These  principles  are  based  on  the  difficulties,  that 
have  to  be  overcome  in  comb-honey  production,  as  follows: 

Ist.  Inducing  the  bees  to  work  in  small  receptacles; 

2d.  Forcing  them  to  build  the  combs  atxaight  and  even, 
without  bulge,  so  that  the  sectiona  oaa  be  interchanged 
without  being  bruised  againat  ods  aootbar,  when  taken  off 
and  crated  for  market; 

Sd.  Keeping  the  queen  in  the  brood  f^Mstment,  and  pre- 
venting her  from  breeding  In  the  Beottona ; 

4th,  Preventing  swarming  as  much  aa  possible ; 

Gth.  Arranging  the  sections  so  as  tohave  as  little  propolis 
put  on  them  as  possible  (237  ) ; 

6th.  Gettiug  the  greatest  number  of  sectiooa  thoroughly 
sealed,  as  unsealed  honey  Is  unsalable. 

720.  1st.  Inducing  bkes  to  woek  »  small  ebcxpti.cues. 

Bather  than  work  in  small,  empty  receptacles,  the  b«ea 
tometirriM  crowd  their  honey  in  the  brood  chamber,  till 
the  queen  can  And  no  room  to  lay  in,  and  swarming,  or  a 
smaller  crop  of  honey,  is  the  consequence.  To  remedy 
this  eTil,  some  of  our  leading  bee-keepers  hare  resorted  to 
anold, discarded,  French  practice,  "rerersiDg."  Beversiog 
oonaista  in  turning  the  brood  chamber  npdds   down  aitd 


00MB   HOKBT. 


placiug  hives  oontaining  empty  combs,  whose  bees  died  the 
preceding  Winter,  or  empty  supers,  over  it.  The  honey 
contained  in  the  brood  chamber,  which  is  always  placed 
above  and  behind  the  brood,  safe  from  pilfering  intruders,  is 
now  at  the  bottom,  near  the  entrance. 
The  cells  are  wrong  side  up  (fig. 
172),  and  the  most  watery  honey  is 
in  danger  of  leaking  out.  Hence  an 
aproar  in  the  hive,  and  the  immediate 
result  is,  that  the  bees  promptly  oo 
cupy  the  upper  story,  and  store  in 
it  all  this  ill-situated  honey.  The 
result  is  so  radical,  that  ^'  reversing 
bee-keepers  **  admit  that  their  bees 
have  to  be  fed  in  the  Fall,  as  too  little 
honey  is  left  in  the  brood  chamber  for 
the  hives  to  winter  on.*  In  the  box- 
hive  times,  the  following  was  already 
the  almost  unanimous  report  of  bee- 
keepers on  the  results  of  "  revers- 
ing." The  recruiting  and  feeding 
for  Winter  of  reversed  colonies  being 
considered  too  costly  and  risky, 
the  Apiaries  were  supplied  every  year  with  new  colonies 
bought  from  bee-keepers  whose  business  was  to  raise 
•warms  to  sell. 

**  If  yon  want  the  greatest  quantity  of  honey,  reverse  your  col- 
onies; but  if  reversing  was  practiced  everywhere,  we  would 
diminish  the  number  of  our  colonies,  and  would  finally  even 

Tig.  172. 


•  III  reflBieiM^  to  this,  Mr.  Shack  Myt :  ' '  Thli  1b  doI  necessarily  true.  Stop 
iBTerilog,  and  th«  fhkmas  flU  Jait  the  same  as  they  do  In  any  non-lnvertible 
IiIt0,  of  oonrse.  I  attach  Importance  to  the  system  In  preparation  for  the  har- 
▼Mt,  aad  gtttiiig  tiM  workers  started  ri^ht.  After  that,  the  hire  may  be  used 
m  a  Don-liiTarter.  If  yoa  practice  inversion  weekly,  the  whole  gather  it 
UUtf  to  ba  In  tha  rapcn,  and  yoa  wlU  be  obliged  to  feed  for  Winter.  If  yoa 
SMaatATVtiBf  about  tha  middJa  of  baaswood,  yoa  will  have  sarploa,  and  tha 
haai  wlUhava  Wlator  itona,  provldad  the  flowers  yield  honey. " 



dMtro^  the  rmce  of  beet,  for  u  br  u  tw  r^rodutHam  Is  eoneatMi 
the  '  riPtrvins' .j^narwf  >  reubea  ttte  uma  TCsnlt  M  the    ~ 
ApiarUt.' "— FTench  Apiarian  CongTMi,  ParU,  1881. 
Volime  6,  page  17ft. 

In  the  ]iri'S('iit  sialp  of  progrosa  Id  bee  culture,  "  re»er«- 
inj;  "  is  Ifss  ilniiiapng,  but  its  disadvantages  to  the  bees 
cannot  ovi'rlmlnncc  it9  advantages,  unlesa  it  ia  practiced 
very  csutiously  and  B\iaT\Qgly. 

cxnn  Bonr.  4U 

79T.  Tet  tidi  pnctice    la   sniBcieiitly  entidng — m  it 
fonMS  tfa«  bflM  to  ooonpy  the  sapera  to  qnickiy  —  to  have 
I  the  inveation  of  ft  ntimbet  of  reversible  hlvea  or 

frunea.  If  our  readers  desire  to  try  "  revcrsihle  hives," 
they  will  have  but  to  choose  among  the  innny.  The  most 
popular  rereraible  hives  of  Ihe  [)rc3CDt  day  are  the  Shiu^lc 


W  4ie 

■  and  tbe  UeddoD,  both  patented.     The  former  has  (rameiof 

I  tbe  same  size  as  the  regular  Langstrotfa  pattern,   and  li 

I  quite  popular  in  Iowa. 

I  7S8.  Reversing  during  the  harvest  does   not  cause  tb« 

I  bees  to  gather  any  more  honey;    nay,  they  harvest  ev«D  * 

I  little  less,  owing  to  the  time  occupied  id  transporting  (he 

I  hooey,  but  it  is  all  placed  in  the  surplus  apartmeTtt  at  the 

I  mercy  of  their  owner. 

I  A  much  safer  method  to  induce  the  beea  to  work  in  the 

f  supers,  is  to  place  in  them,  nearest  the   brood,  a  few  un- 

finisbed  sections  from  the  previous  season.*  The  super* 
should  be  located  as  near  the  brood  apartment  as  possible, 
with  as  much  direct  communicatioQ  as  can  be  conveniectl; 

720.  But,  with  the  greatest  skill,  it  is  impossible  to 
attract  tbe  bees  into  the  supers,  u  long  as  there  sre  empty 
combs  in  the  brood- chamber. 

If  the  queen  is  unable  to  occupy  aH  the  combs  with 
brood,  the  empty  ones  should  be  removed  at  the  beginning 
of  the  honey  harvest,  and  either  given  to  Bwarms  or  divided 
colonies,  or  placed  outside  of  the  divisiou  board  (349). 
This  is  called  "contraction."  We  would  warn  our  readers 
against  excessive  contraction,  tor,  after  the  honey  season 
is  over,  a  hive  which  has  been  contracted  to,  say,  two- 
thirds,  of  its  capacity,  has  become  dwarfed  in  honey, 
brood,  and  bees,  and  will  run  some  risks  through  the  Win- 
ter. Besides,  that  part  ot,  the  super,  which  is  above 
the  empty  space,  is  but  reluctantly  occupied  by  bees. 

"If  the  reader  has  ever  conatracted  a  hive,  whose  surploi 
department  was  wider  than  the  brood  chamber.  Jutting  out  over 
the  Barac.  he  has  noticed  the  partial  neglect  paid  hy  the  bees,  to 
the  surplus  boit^s  which  rested  over  wood  Instead  of  combt. 

•TlilgUwtiaiI>T  C.  C.  Ulllercalli  a  "biJt."  Tbse  DnSaliheiJ  »c«tJou 
tiaiB  bean  emptied  of  tbeli  boo*;  bf  tbe  •xtntstol,  and  eUaoad  by  lb*  b*M 
tba  pravloiu  FbII. 

00MB   HONBT.  All 

**  Now  this  same  difference  made  by  the  bees,  between  wood  and 
oomb,  they  will  also  make  between  combs  of  hpney  and  ^ombs 
of  brood,  and  with  our  8-frarae  Langstroth  hiye,  we  notice  far 
less  neglect  of  the  side  surplus  combs  than  we  noticed  when 
using  the  10-frame  hives.  This  is  one  objection  to  the  method 
of  contracting  by  replacing  the  side  combs  of  brood  chambers 
with  fillers  or  dummies." — J.  Heddon  **  Success  in  Bee-Culture.*' 

7 SO.  A  method  which  avoids  contraction,  and  makes  the 
best  honey-producing  colonies  still  better,  consists  in  taking 
brood  combs  from  colonies  that  are  not  likely  to  yield 
any  stirplos,  and  exchanging  them,  for  empty  combs  from 
the  best  colonies,  just  before  the  honey  harvest.  This 
method  requires  too  many  manipulations  to  be  very  advan- 
tageous, and  prevents  the  poorest  colonies  from  becoming 

781.  2d.  Sbcurino  straight,  even  combs,  in  sections. 
With  thin  comb  foundation,  in  strips  filling  i  to  i  of  the 
section,  the  combs  are  always  straight,  but  their  surface, 
when  sealed,  is  not  always  even.  Some  cells  are  built  longer 
than  others,  and,  in  packing  the  honey,  these  bulged  combs 
might  come  in  contact  with  one  another  and  get  bruised. 
To  prevent  this  occurrence,  many  Apiarists  use  '^separa- 
tors,"  made  of  tin,  wood,  or  coarse  wire  cloth,  placed  be- 
tween the  rows  of  sections,  as  in  fig.  171.  This  invention, 
claimed  by  Mr.  Bet8inger,.of  New  York,  was  first  tried  in 
the  brood  chamber,  by  Mr.  Langstroth  in  1858.  It  was 
suggested  by  Mr.  Colvin.     (See  former  edition,  page  374.) 

Let  the  reader  bear  in  mind  that  these  separators  although 
useful,  are  not  indispensable.  They  are  to  a  certain  ex- 
tent an  annoyance  to  the  bees.  Some  Apiarists  of  ability, 
among  whom  we  will  cite  Mr.  Geo.  H.  Beard,  of  Missouri, 
manage  to  secure  very  nice  honey  in  sections  without  thera  ; 
but  if  we  were  to  produce  large  quantities  of  comb  honey, 
we  should  use  them,  and  would  give  the  preference  to  those 
made  of  tin. 


418  HOF 

7313.    3d.    KjtY.PTUG     THE     QUEEN     Dl    TBK     BROOD    APART- 

UKM.     If  the  supers  have  beea  put  on  just  prertous  U>  t^ 
opeaiag  o(  the  honej  crop,  with  BufBcient  bait  to  attract  tlit 
beea  \a  them,  there  will  be  but  little  daoger  of  the  queen's  . 
moving  up  into  them,  unless  her  breeding  room  is  too  mudl 
cramped  by  honey,  or  by  the  exiguity  of  the  brood  tiewL 

The  condition  of  the  hooey  crop  has  something  to  ils 
with  her  propensity  to  move  out  of  the  brood  apu-tnMot. 
Wlien  the  honey  crop  is  heavy,  and  of  short  duration,  ther» 
is  no  danger  oo  this  Btoro,  as  the  honey  combs  are  filled  m 
fkst  913  they  are  built,  and  the 
queen,  should  she  move  to  the 
eupeT,  would  soon  leave  it,  owing 
to  her  inability  to  lay  there.  In 
localities  where  the  crop  is  lasting 
and  intermittent,  much  advantage 

a  I"'. 


e<l  fro 

.  the 


rig.  ITS. 
rauoKATiai  SEKC. 

mRoM'a  "OImdI^i.") 

the  Collin  perforated  zino  (101). 
The  only  obstacle  to  its  use,  is 
that  it  hinders  ventilation  and  free 
kccess  tor  the  bees. 

733.    4th.     SWARUIKO     WITH     OOKft-HOMET      PRODUCTIOM. 

As  the  directions  given  by  tu  elsewhere  (495)  do  not 
altogether  prevent  swarming,  when  comb-honey  ia  raised, 
uid  as  the  swarming  of  a  colony  usually  ends  its  surplus 
production  for  the  season,  it  has  been  found  advisable  to 
give  the  surplus  cases  to  the  swarm,  instead  of  leaving  them 
on  the  old  hive.  To  further  strengthen  the  awarro,  which 
is  thus  dept'udod  upon  for  surplus,  it  is  placed  oo  the  stand 
of  the  old  hive,  and  the  latter  is  removed  to  a  new  location. 
This  i.t  a  I'tTv  practical  method.  It  is  due  to  Messrs. 
Heddon  aud  llutchiusou.  —  at  least  (A«y  have  popularized 
it.  but  the  prudent  Apiarist,  who  follows  this  course,  wiU 
keep  a  vi<;  eye  on  the  old  colony,  thus  deprived  of  all 
its  working  force,  and  will  help  it,  if  needed. 

COMB  HOmCT.  419 

784.    6th.    PBBrSlfTINO  THE  BESS  FBOM    '' PROPOLTZINO.' 


**  Propolis  on  sections  is  a  nuisance,  be  the  same  little  or 
mach,  and  a  plan  which  will  allow  of  the  filling  of  the  section 
with  nice  comb  honey  without  changing  the  clean  appearance 
which  they  present  when  placed  upon  the  hive,  will  be  heralded 
with  delight  by  all,  and  give  great  honor  to  him  who  works  out 
the  pUn."— O.  M.  Doolittle, ''  Gleanings,''  page  171.   18S6. 

We  have  shown  (238)  that  bees  ''propolize"  every 
crack,  and  daub  with  this  yellowish  or  brownish  glue  every 
thing  inside  of  their  hire.  This  is  very  bard  to  clean,  and 
it  can  never  be  removed  sufficiently  to  restore  to  the  sec- 
tions their  original  whiteness. 

**  All  Ibnr  sides  of'  the  sections  are  scraped  clean  of  propolis, 
and  the  edges  as  well.  It  is  not  a  difiicult  job  for  a  careful  hand, 
but  a  very  disagreeable  one.  The  fine  dust  of  the  bee-glue  is 
vezy  unpleasant  to  breathe.  A  scraper  should  be  a  careful  per- 
son, or  in  ten  minutes'  time  he  will  do  more  damage  than  his 
day's  work  is  worth.  Even  a  careful  person  seems  to  need  to 
spoil  at  least  one  section,  before  taking  the  care  necessary  to 
avoid  injuring  others.  But  when  the  knife  makes  an  ugly  gash 
in  the  face  of  a  beautiful  white  section  of  honey,  that  settles  it 
that  care  will  be  taken  afterward."— Dr.  C.  C.  Miller :  '*  A  Year 
Among  the  Bees." 

To  prevent  propolizing,  the  sections  should  be  fitted 
tightly  together,  and  as  little  of  their  outside  as  possible 
exposed  to  the  bees.  The  honey  should  be  removed  promptly, 
when  sealed,  before  the  bees  have  time  to  do  much  gluing 

735.  6th.  Securing  sealed  comb  honey.     For  this  pur- 

•pose  no  more  cases  should  be  given  than  the  bees  are  likely 

to  fill.     The  second  case  should  not  be  added  until  the  first 

is  nearly  filled.     The  outside  sections,  beinir  the  last  filled, 

may  not  be  sealed  at  all,  unless  the   bees  are  somewhat 

crowded  for  loom.     To  remedy  this,  many  bee-keepers  are 

«TlilAWord  " pfopolizing "  is  auanthorized  by  Welistcr,  lut  it  Is  neotled 

in  the  habit  ol  "^itering  cut,"  instead  o(  "tiering  ^i" 
that  is.  they  put  the  empty  or  unAniefaed  epctiona  to  tbc 
middle  of  the  super,  removing  all  that  are  filled,  ot  placing  ] 
them  oa  the  outside.  This  is  aa  increase  of  labor,  but  Bomt  I 
hold  I  hat  it  pays.  Mr.  Doolittle,  in  Uia  practJc&l  pampblct, 
"My  Management,"  explains  that,  at  the  close  of  the  honty 
season,  ha  reduces  the  number  o(  secliona  on  tlie  hive,  by 
narrowing  up  the  surplus  room,  with  a  divuton  board,  which 
he  calls  a  '<  follower."  Air.  Doolittla  usea  both  aide  and 
top-storing  in  his  hives. 

••Attteoana  anraJwditoHtlMaUlM  aC  tUa  «!■■,  tha  lot 
tower  la  mortd  np,  ao  ■■  to  ilnit  fli«  bM»  cM  of  half  tta  Ma 
oaiai,  naleH  ^  eaie  of  aoiiM  axtnoMlr  p^sloos  oolany.  tf 
thla  mean*  th«  working  ftnM  li  fltrown  Into  a  sum  oBipiBl 
■pace,  the  remit  of  irtitoh  la  a  tendensy-  toirard  oomplotlBg  Oa 
Motions  they  liave  oommenoed  irork  In,  rather  than  bnlUlag 
comb  In  more.  After  a  week  I  go  otct  the  whole  yard  again,  thii 
time  shutting  the  bees  out  of  the  Bide  boxes  entirely,  whlck 
throws  the  full  force  of  the  bees  Into  the  top  boxes,  and,  althoogb 
the  honey-season  may  now  be  over,  by  getting  this  force  of  beta 
atl  together  they  will  cap  the  partly-filled  boxes,  where  they 
otherwise  wonid  not.  Tblsglvea  sections  lighter  In  weight,  bat 
makes  much  more  of  onr  crop  in  a  salable  form." 

736.  It  very  often  bappena  that  the  beea  fasten  the  oomb 
only  at  the  top  of  the  aectioD.  For  safe  transportation  it 
is  very  important  that  it  should  be  fastened  to  the  section 
wall,  atl  around.  To  secure  this,  not  only  do  Apiariats  use 
foundation  (674),  but  some  bvn  devised  "reversible" 
section  cases.  When  the  sectioos  are  turned  over,  Um 
empty  space  now  at  the  top,  seems  unnatural  to  the  bees, 
and  they  hasten  to  fill  it,  making  a  solid  comb  in  the  sec- 
tion.    But  this  is  not  the  only  method. 

"Years  ago  my  sections  were  always  filled  so  full  by  the  beet, 
that  iliej  carried  very  securely  In  transportation.  Afterwardi  I 
began  to  have  trouble  fiorTi  combs  breaking  down.  It  was  dec, 
perhaps,  matnly  to  tlie  bees  having  too  mnota  surplus  room. 
Some  aections  would  be  fllled  with  a  oloe  comb  of  honey,  not 

COMB   HONET.  421 


Tei7  stronglj  attached  at  the  top,  yery  little  at  the  side,  and  not 
at  idl  at  the  bottom.  Aside  from  depending  upon  crowding  the 
^ees  to  mal^e  them  fill  the  sections,  I  wanted  a  plan  whereby  I 
eonld  be  sore  of  haying  the  sections  fastened  at  the  bottom  as 
well  as  at  the  top.  I  tried  to  take  partly  filled  sections  out  of 
the  supers  and  reversing  them,  and  went  so  far  as  to  invent  a 
reTersible  super,  I  abandoned  this  however,  and  adopted  the 
plan  of  putting  a  starter  in  the  bottom  as  well  as  at  the  top  of 
the  section."    (**AYear  Among  the  Bees.") 

Dr.  Miller,  who  is  an  authority  on  comb  honey  produc- 
tion, further  states  that  he  uses  a  foundation  ^ ^starter"  one 
inch  wide  at  the  bottom,  and  wide  enough  at  the  top  to 
lemve  only  i  inch  of  room  between  the  two.  This  allows 
for  the  slight  stretching  usual  in  comb  foundat'on. 

787.  To  prevent  the  building  of  bridges  between  the 
upper  and  lower  stories,  sonae  Apiarists  use  the  Heddon 
■keleton  or  slatted  honey  board  (fig.  76),  which  is  separated 
from  both  the  super  and  the  brood  chamber  by  a  bee  space. 
And  in  which  the  slats  breaJc  the  joints  or  passages  of  the 

bees  thus  — EZZ—lZ" 

This  honey  board  answers  its  purpose,  but  we  object  to 
it,  because  it  places  the  supers  in  less  direct  communi- 
eation  with  the  brood  chamber. 

We  will  now  consider  a  few  of  the  various  cases  and 
erates  osed  in  the  production  of  comb  honey. 

788.  The  dkep  broad  frames  (fig.  171),  have  the  deci- 
ded advantage  of  allowing  the  Apiarist  to  use  sections  in  a 
fall  size  upper  story.  In  limited  comb  honey  production, 
tliey  can  probably  be  used  with  satisfaction.  They  also 
allow  of  a  side  storage  as  practiced  by  Mr.  Doolittle. 

Thr.half  story  broad  frames,  are  superior  to  the 
former,  — though  they  require  special  cascj^,  — because  the 
bees  can  be  confined  to  a  shallow  space,  and  when  the  crop 
is  limited,  or  the  weather  cool,  the  sections  are  better  and 
more  promptly  finished.  We  prefer  half  story  corah  honey 
supers,  for  the  same  reason  we  do  half  story  extracting 

aotnct  pnoDDCTtoR. 

supers.  Apiarists,  who  vill  follow  out  methods  torextnci* 
iug  and  raise  but  little  comb  honey,  will  see  ibe  boQcflt  ol 
using  the  same  cases  for  both  grades. 

Mr.  Heddon'a  Invertible  broad  (tames,  in  invertibk  »r:> 
tioa  CHses,  are  undoubtedly  a  good  thing,  espi^iallj  as  Ihaj 
are  crowded  together  by  the  pressure  of  screws  or  oSmU. 

730.  The  sectios  crate,  invertible  or  not,  is  now  lued 
by  tbe  majority  of  specialists.  Messrs.  Miller,  Shuck,  Arm- 
strong, Maiium,  Foster,  all  comb  houey  producera,  hsTt 
each  a  particular  style  of  erale.  Mr.  C.  C.  Miller  plavet 
hid  seclions  in  crates  witbo^it  top  or  bottom,  threi)-«tglilli* 
of  an  iucb  deeper  than  the  sections.  To  support  the  sec- 
tions in  these  boxes,  be  nulls,  under  both  ends,  a  strip  of 
tin,  which  projects  one  fourth  inch  inside.  Strips  of  tin. 
bent  in  the  form  of  an  L  and  soldered  back  to  back,  to 
form  three  inverted  T's  (fig.  170),  are  supported,  across  tha 
box,  by  six  small  pieces  of  sheet  tioo,  aailed  at  regular 
intervals  under  the  sides  of  the  box.  Hr.  A.  I.  Root  im- 
proved these  T  as  seen  in  the  figure.  These  crates  holding 
28  or  32  sectioDS,  can  be  piled  upon  one  another,  leaving  a 
bee  space  between  them,  while  a  aimilar  bee  space  is  pr» 
Tided  between  the  sections  and  tbe  slata  of  the  skeleton 
honey  board  (lig.  76),  by  the  shape  of  the  latter. 

740.  Another  way  was  contrived  by  Hr.  Manum,  of 
Bristol,  Vermont,  whose  success  in  raisiDg  comb  honey  it 
well  known. 

He  also  uses  a  box  without  top  or  bottom,  and  holding 
only  one  row  of  2-lb.  sections,  or  two  TOWS  of  I  lb.,  eight 
to  I  lie  row.  These  bones,  too,  have  strips  of  tin  nailed  under 
both  sides  and  a  band  of  sheet  iron,  for  a  cross-piece,  run- 
ning from  end  to  end.  A  thumbscrew  placed  at  one  end, 
and  acting  on  an  offset,  presses  the  sections  against  each 
other,  and  keeps  the  separators  in  place.  Hr.  Manum 
baa  used  these  clamps  for  several  years  and  U  well  aatiafled 
with  them. 

COMB   HOWKT.  42  S 

B;  the  use  of  the  M&num  clunpi,  the  eectioiui  are  placed 
BO  closely  that  the  bees  cuiDOt  put  any  propolis  between 
their  edge*.     But  their  other  parts  are  Dot  protected. 

741.  To  oar  mind,  the  implements  invented  by  Ur. 
Oliver  Foster,  of  Mount  Vernon,  Iowa,  are  worthy  of  notice 
and  his  conceptions  of  the  general  management  of  sections  are 
ao  well  explained,  that  we  could  not  do  better  than  copy  a 
-few  pages  of  his  Hinall  pamphlet. 

"There  shonid  b«Jrtt  eonuntmieatiim  between  tbe  seatiofls  In 
■Mry  dtreetioh.  They  should  have  deep  slots  on  all  8  edges  as 
shown  In  FIk-ITSbo  that  bees  can  pass  freely  over  the  combs  from 
end  to  end  of  the  ease,  bs  well  as  from  side  to  tide,  and  ftom  top 
to  bottom. 

to  BMh  Oamb  Honef.") 

*'Toa  may  not  appreciate  the  Importance  of  this  nntU  yoa 
baTe  tried  Ibem. 

"  mmnetiakait^eon^iiUraiion  that  t)u  objed  onlhe part  of  Vtebea, 
im  itorittf  1^  hona/  in  Summer,  ia  to  have  it  acceiiiiU  fur  Winltr  eon- 
manptum,  attd  tAal  irt  fVitlin;  the  beta  eotUet  in  a  round  ball,  at  nearly 
»  pouibU,  ia  a  temi-tarpid  ataJe  aith  but  littU  if  any  motion,  exctpt  that 
gradual  momng  of  bea  from  Iht  center  to  the  surface  and  from  the  tur- 
foot  ia  tJu  center  of  Ihii  ball,  ae  may  imngine  hum  untcelcurTU  it  ia  to 
titem  to  i*  obliged  to  divide  their  tloria  bet-wcm  four  leparale  npartmenit, 
■ocA  of  wAieA  it  fiur  inehei  tguare  and  taelve  inches  lung,  loilh  no  cob^ 
mmmioatian  Mw«n  these  apartments" 

The  italtoa  are  ours.      This  passage  is  most  important. 

Boxer  PKoavcTvyK, 

T43.  "The  esse  U  made  of  fonr  plane  bouds,  B,  B,  C,  C,  (flg. 
177).  TbeT  are  cut  I-IG  in.  narrower  ttaan  ib«  senttoti*  ara  hlnb. 
A  fildc  and  an  end  are  nailed  together  in  Uic  form  of  a  l»n«r  1. 
Wlien  two  of  these  L  shaped  McCioaa  aro  pUc«<t  togctbvr,  t^ 
form  Ihe  reclangular  case,  «pen  at  two  oppoDlte  comcim  dUgofr 
.A.  SMtloaB 

B.  rUoRn*  ftililsJ  dat«art 

F.  TID  wedjH  whlrJi  baU 

«Ra  eJimjiliur. 
J.  J.  tiOB  damp  bj  «U«b 
"le  nun  1i  ^ram  tl(M  M 

H.  Hudi  or  nail*  itmraft 

O,    O,    Tin 


P,  SaiTow  tin  ■mpa  «Bp- 

Fif  m. 

ally.  The  boards  are  mitred  together  at  these  open  cornen  and 
are  clasped  together  bj  the  tin  angle  plate  D.  TheM  comer 
plates  are  also  bent  L  shape. 

"  They  are  as  high  when  folded  as  tJie  aectlona,  and  3}  Incliee 
from  the  corner  to  each  end.  They  have  a  soiall  flange,  bent 
outward  on  each  end,  Y,,  and  a  doable  fold  bent  inward  on  each 
side,  which  forms  sockets  |  Incb  wide  in  which  the  end  of  the 
boards  slide  in  and  out,  thus  expanding  or  contracting  the  case  la 
length  and  width. 

>'  The  folded  side  edges  of  the  tin  slide  in  saw  grooves  cot  io 
the  ed^es  of  the  boards,  are  shown  In  the  small  Ogures,  and  the 
case  is  held  rigid,  whether  opeo  or  closed.  A  small  nail  ladrlTeo 
through  each  of  tbc  slots  I,  Into  the  wood,  to  prevent  the  case 
Itoni  opening  farther  about  }  Inch  larger  each  way  than 

"Tlic  case  when  closed  Is  a  little  smaller  than  the  tier  of  Mo- 
tions to  he  used. 

"To  ml  the  case  it  is  placed  on  a  leTel  board  and  opened  oat. 
The  sections  are  then  carelessly  arranged  Inside,  and  then  drawn 
Into  position  by  pressing  the  case  together.  A  wronght  Iron 
elamp,  J,  la  then  allpped  over  the  case,  and  b7  operattng  the 

COMB   HONET.  425 

screws,  M,  the  case  is  drawn  so  tight  on  the  sections  that  all 
cracks  between  them  are  closed  up,  thus  protecting  the  surface 
of  the  boxes  firom  being  soiled. 

'^  To  prevent  the  spreading  of  the  case  when  the  clamp  is 
removed,  four  simple  tin  wedges,  F,  F,  are  slipped  under  the 
flange,  and  the  nail  head. 

*^  This  bottomless  case  of  sections  is  then  placed  on  the  hive  on 
a  slotted  honey  board,  which  is  level  on  top  and  has  slots  to  cor- 
respond with  those  between  the  sections,  save  that  the  slots  in 
the  board  are  a  little  narrower,  to  secure  perfect  protection  to  the 
sections.  Ifseparators  are  used,  thej  are  simply  dropped  in  be- 
tween the  rows  of  sections  as  each  row  is  put  in.  (See  O,  fig.  177). 
They  rest  on  the  edges  of  two  narrow  strips  of  tin,  P,  P,  that 
pass  across  each  end  of  the  case  between  the  rows  of  sections  at 
the  bottom.  These  strips  are  movable,  and  securely  held  in 
place  while  handling,  like  the  sections,  by  the  lateral  pressure 
of  the  case.  The  iron  clamp  is  not  a  necessity,  but  it  is  very 
convenient  where  several  colonies  are  kept.  The  case  is  equally 
adapted  to  use  with  or  without  separators.  It  can  be  used 
with  or  without  an  outer  case.  It  can  be  *  tiered  up  \  *  reversed ', 
(inverted)  or  placed  on  end  or  on  one  side  for  *  side  storing '." 

743.  In  removing  the  cases  from  the  hive,  apply  the  clamp 
and  lift  all  together,  or  open  the  case  and  take  out  one  box  at  a 
time,  using  a  little  smoke,  and  shaking  and  brushing  off  the 
bees.  Nearly  all  of  the  bees  can  be  shaken  from  a  single  case- 
fall  before  opening  it ;  but  the  neatest  way  to  get  them  out  is  to 
place  the  cases  in  an  empty  hive  a  little  to  one  side  of  the  front  of 
the  hive  from  which  they  were  taken.  Fasten  a  wire  cloth  tube 
over  the  only  opening  at  the  entrance  of  this  empty  hive.  Make 
the  tube  6  inches  long,  |  inch  in  diameter  at  the  small  end,  and  1^ 
inch  at  the  end  attached  to  the  hive.  Place  the  hive  in  position 
so  that  the  point  of  the  tube  will  touch  the  front  end  of  the  hive 
containing  the  colony.  In  a  few  moments,  the  bees  will  be  march- 
ing *'  double  quick  *  out  through  the  tube,  and  in  an  hour  or  so 
every  bee  will  be  out."  (Oliver  Foster,  "  How  to  Raise  Comb 
Honey."  1886.) 

We  advise  every  bee-keeper  to  procure  this  small  pam- 

744.  In  support  of  what  Mr.  Foster  wrote  in  behalf  of 
the  open-side  sections,  we  may  add  that  bees  seem  to  con* 
dder  *  row  of  these  sections  as  formed  of  a  single  comb. 


and  that,  in  coneequeQce,  they  attach  each  small  comb  U 
the  sides,  giviog  them  more  solidity.  For  the  same  tcmou 
beea  are  also  less  inclined  to  make  bulged  combs,  and  separ- 
ators may  be  set  aside  with  less  risk  of  lack  of  uaitormity 
Another  and  very  important  point,  in  favor  of  the^  sec 
tions,  is  the  increased  facility  to  ripen  honey  by  erapors 
tion,  foi  tbe  air  can  easity  circulate  from  side  to  side,  tnatew 
of  from  top  to  bottom  only,  as  when  closed-side  Mctiont 
are  used.  To  drive  beea  out  of  sections  see  Bee  Escape  7«0- 

745.  Before  closing  our  chapter  on  the  prodaction  of 
oomb-honey,  in  which  we  have  tried  to  give  our  readers  somo 
of  the  best  known  methods,  we  must  warn  Ibem  against  using 
too  many  contrivances,  nhenever  they  can  possibly  help  It. 
All  improvements  that  are  made  must  be  based  on  a  full  cid- 
aiderationof  the  instincts  ol  ibebees.  Like  Mr.  Hufctiinwn 
("Production  of  Comb-Honey"  p.  18),  we  "have  seen  bees 
eulk  for  days  during  a  good  honey  flow,  simply  because  the 
present  condition  of  things  was  not  to  their  liking."  Use 
OS  targe  sections  as  your  market  will  allow.  If  you  use 
separators  and  honey-boards,  at  all,  let  them  be  light  and 
perforated.  In  a  word,  make  your  bees  feel  as  natural  and 
as  much  "at  home"  as  possible. 

£xTBACTKD  Homr. 

746.  To  separate  the  honey  from  the  wax,  the  be^ 
keepers  of  old  used  to  melt  or  break  the  comb  and  drain 
the  honey  out. 

Beesnax,  a<^  a  sweet-scented  tuminiferoas  substance,  far 
superiorto  oils  or  the  crude  grease  of  aoimals.was  greatly 
a[>predatcd  by  the  priests,  and  placed  among  the  best  offer- 
ings required  to  pkase  the  gods.  The  custom  of  offering  wax, 
or  wax  candles,  continued  to  this  day  by  some  churches, 
especially   by  the  Greek  am^   Roman  Catbolio   ob-irches. 


caused  for  centuries  the  levy  of  heavy  taxes,  payable  in 
beeswax,  in  countries  where  the  inhabitants  kept  bees. 
Some  countries,  in  Europe,  had  to  pay  to  the  church,  every 
year,  several  hundred  thousand  pounds  of  beeswax.  Such 
taxes  compelled  the  bee-keepers  to  separate  the  honey  from 
the  wax  with  as  little  waste  as  possible. 

Different  grades  of  honey  were  harvested  by  the  careful 
Apiarists.  The  light-colored  combs  produced  a  light-colored 
and  pure  honey ;  the  combs  which  had  contained  brood  pro- 
duced turbid  honey  of  inferior  quality. 

747.  These  primitive  methods  were  afterwards  greatly 
ameliorated,  as  for  instance,  in  the  French  province  of  Ga- 
tinais,  where  the  bee-keepers  used  the  heat  of  the  sun  to 
melt  the  combs,  and  separate  the  honey  from  the  melted 
wax.  The  choice  honey  obtained  in  Gatinais,  from  the 
sainfoirij  cannot  be  excelled  by  our  best  extracted  clover 
honey,  as  to  color  and  taste,  and  it  is  sold  in  Paris  alto- 

Owing  to  these  causes,  strained  honey,  of  different  grades, 
was  a  staple  in  Europe.  But  the  demand  being  ahead  of 
the  supply,  especially  when  the  season  was  unfavorable 
for  bees,  Europe  imported  strained  honey  from  Chili,  and 
Cuba,  and  lately,  extracted  honey  from  California. 

748.  These  causes  did  not  exist  in  this  country.  Bees 
were  scarce  here  at  first.  The  American  settlers  bad  too 
much  work  on  hand  to  care  much  for  bees.  The  few  who 
owned  a  limited  number  of  colonies,  briinstoued  one  of  them 
occasionally,  and  consumed  the  honey  at  home.  The  more 
extensive  bee  owners  could  sell  some  Irokeii  combs  to  their 
neighbors,  or  a  few  pounds  of  strained  honey  to  the  drug- 
gist, who  was  not  very  hard  to  please,  being  accustomed  to 
buy  Cuba  honey,  harvested  with  the  most  slovenly  careless- 
ness. By  and  by,  however,  owing  to  very  favorahle  condi- 
tions, the  wild  woods  swarmed  with  bees  in  the  **  hollow 
trees,"  and  the  bee-hunter  made  his  appearance.     Thoua- 


ondB  of  trees  fell  uoder  his  ax,  to  yield  the  sweets  that  they 
contained.  This  rough-and-ready  bee-keeping,  ot  rather 
bee-kilJing,  produced  comparatively  large  quantities  ol 
honey  ;  but,  as  this  houey  n-aa  nearly  always  ba<lly  broken  up 
and  mixed  with  pollen,  dead  bees,  and  rotten  wood,  it  bo- 
came  customary  to  boil  the  honey,  so  as  to  force  the  intpuri- 
ties  and  the  was  to  rise  on  top  with  the  scum.  Hence  tbe 
cheap,  liquid,  dirty  and  opaque  strained  honey,  dark  in 
color  aod  strong  in  tai^te.  By  the  side  of  this  unwholesome 
article,  a  little  fancy  comb  honey  was  sold,  that  led  to* 
national  preference  for  comb  honey. 

But  Id  view  of  the  coat  of  comb  to  the  beea  (223),  in  honey, 
time  and  labor,  it  was  earnestly  desired  by  progressive  bee- 
keepers, especially  after  the  invention  of  the  movable  framm, 
that  some  process  be  devised  to  empty  the  boney  oat  of  tie 
combs  without  dam.iging  the  Intter,  so  that  they  could  bo 
returned  to  tbe  bees  to  be  filled  again  and  again. 

749.  In  1865  the  late  Major  de  Hruschka,  of  Dolo,  near 
Venice,  Italy,  invented  " /i  Smelalore,"  the  honet  ki- 
te act  or. 

It  happened  in  this  wise:  He  had  given  to  bis  son,  a 
small  piece  of  comb  honey,  on  a  plate.  Tbe  boy  put  the 
plate  in  bis  basket,  and  swung  the  basket  around  htm, 
like  a  sling.  Hruschka  noticed  that  some  honey  had  been 
drained  out  by  tbe  motion,  and  concluded  that  combs  could 
be  emptied  by  centrifugal  force. 

This  invention  was  hailed,  in  the  whole  bee-keeping  world, 
as  equal  to,  and  the  complement  of,  tbe  invention  of  mova- 
ble frames ;  and  it  fully  deserved  this  honor. 

750.  As  soon  as  ne  heard  of  the  discovery,  we  had  s 
machine  made.  It  was  not  so  elegant  as  those  which  are 
now  offered  by  our  manufacturers.  It  was  a  bulky  and 
cumbersome  affair;  four  ft-et  in  diameter  and  three  feet 
high ;  yet  it  worked  to  our  satisfaction,  and  we  became  con- 


Tinced,  by  actual  trial,  of  the  great  gain  which  could  be 
obtained,  by  returning  the  empty  combs  to  the  beies. 

751.  Let  us  say  here,  that  the  profit  was  greater  than  we 
had  anticipated ;  but  we,  together  with  a  great  many  others, 
first  committed  the  fault  of  extracting,  before  the  honey 
was  altogether  ripened  by  evaporation.  Like  **  Novice," 
who  thought  of  emptying  his  cistern  to  put  the  overflow  of 
his  extracted  honey,  we  had  to  go  to  town  again  and  again, 
for  jars  and  barrels,  to  lodge  our  crop.  But  experience 
taught  us  that  we  cannot  get  a  good  merchantable  article, 
onlesB  the  honey  is  ripe. 

752.  If  we  give  to  bees  empty  combs,  to  store  their 
honey,  we  will  find,  by  comparing  the  products  of  colonies 
who  have  to  build  their  combs,  with  those  of  colonies  who 
always  have  empty  combs  to  fill,  that  these  last  produce 
at  least  twice  as  much  as  the  others. 

A  little  consideration  will  readily  show,  to  the  intelligent 
bee-keeper,  the  great  advantages  given  to  the  bees  by 
fornishing  them  with  a  full  supply  of  empty  combs.  To 
iUustrate  all  these  advantages,  let  us  compare  two  colonies 
of  bees,  of  equal  strength,  at  the  beginning  of  the  honey 
season ;  one  with  empty  boxes,  the  other  with  empty  comb 
in  the  boxes. 

The  two  colonies  have  been  breeding  plentifully,  and 
harvesting  a  large  quantity  of  pollen,  and  a  little  honey, 
for  several  weeks  past.  The  brood  chamber  is  full  from 
top  to  bottom.  After  perhaps  one  rainy  day,  the  honey 
crop  begins.  The  bees  that  have  been  given  empty  combs 
can  go  right  up  in  them,  and  begin  storing,  as  fast  as 
they  bring  their  honey  from  the  fields.  Not  a  minute 
is  lost;  and  as  they  have  plenty  of  storing  room,  there  is 
DO  need  of  crowding  the  queen  out  of  her  breeding  cells. 

In  the  other  hive,  there  is  indeed  plenty  of  empty  space 
In  the  upper  story ;  but  before  it  can  be  put  to  any  use,  it 
has  to  be  first  partly  filled  with  combs,    l^^lox^  ^\i^  ^"^ 


Is  oyer,  the  greater  part  of  the  bees  hsve  barreBled,  ud 
brought,  to  their  newly-hatehed  coroianions.  all  the  faoney 
that  the  latter  tao  poseibly  bokl  in  tbeir  sacks.  What  shall 
they  do  witb  the  surplus?  They  have  to  go  ialo  tbat  uppef 
story,  and  hang  there  (SOS)  for  hours,  waiting  for  the 
honey  to  be  transtormed  into  beeswax,  by  the  wonderful  sc 
tioD  of  these  admirable  little  stomachs,  whose  work  mau  can- 
not imitate,  despite  hisscieoce.  But,  while  this  Blow  trao*- 
formation  iB  going  on,  while  the  small  scales  of  wax  an 
emerging  from  under  the  rings  of  the  abdomeu  (201  )o( 
eauh  iudustrious  little  worker ;  while  tboir  sisters  arc  slowl; 
but  busily  carrying,  mouldidg  and  arranging  the  warm  little 
pieces  of  wax  in  their  respective  places,  in  order  to  build 
the  trail  comb  (^OO)  ;  iluring^  !ill  this  time,  the  honey  li 
flowing  in  the  blossoms,  utd  the  Other  colony  is  tastincreas- 
lug  iis  snj>plj  of  sweets.  Meanwhile,  the  ferw  be«c,  wliieL 
have  found  a  place  for  their  load,  go  back  after  more,  and, 
finding  no  room,  they  watch  for  the  appearance  of  each 
hatching  bee,  from  its  cell,  and  at  once  fill  that  cell  with 
hooey ;  thus  depriving  the  queen  of  her  breeding-room, 
and  forcing  her  to  remain  idle,  at  a  time  when  she  should 
be  laying  most  busily. 

The  loss  is  therefore  treble.  First,  thia  colony  loses  the 
present  work  of  all  the  bees  which  have  to  reroaJD  inside  to 
help  make  was.  Secondly,  it  loses  the  honey  of  which  thia 
was  is  made.  Thirdly,  it  loses  the  productioQ  of  thousands 
of  workers,  by  depriving  the  queen  of  her  breeding- room, 
in  the  brood-chamber.  All  this,  tor  what  purpose?  To 
enable  the  owner  to  eat  his  honey  with  the  wax  (710); 
when,  as  every  one  well  knows,  wax  is  tasteless  and  in- 

One  word  more  in  regard  to  the  loss  of  production,  bj 
the  crowding  of  the  queen.  This  loss  ia  two-fold  in  itself. 
When  the  bees  find  that  the  queen  is  crowded  out  of  her 


breediDg-room,  they  become  more  readily  induced  to  make 
preparations  for  swarming  (406). 

It  is  then  that  a  large  number  of  young  bees  would  be 
necessary  to  make  up  for  the  loss  which  the  colony  will  sus- 
tain, in  the  departure  of  the  swarm ;  and  yet  the  dimi- 
nished number  of  eggs  laid  produces  exactly  the  reverse 
of  the  desired  result. 

There  is  perhaps  a  fourth  item  of  loss,  in  failing  to 
furnish  empty  combs  to  this  colony,  and  that  when  the 
season  is  not  very  favorable.  Many  practical  bee-keepers 
have  noticed  that,  in  rather  unfavorable  seasons,  it  is  diffi- 
cult to  induce  bees  to  work  in  an  empty  surplus  box, 
which  they  would  work  in  readily  if  it  were  furnished 
with  combs.  It  is  a  question  which  may  remain  doubt- 
ful, whether  the  bees  do  not  sometimes,  in  such  cases, 
remain  idle  for  a  day  or  two,  rather  than  begin  building 
comb  in  a  box  which  they  do  not  expect  to  be  able  to  fill. 

753.  In  view  of  the  above /acte,  and  after  an  experience 
of  twenty  years  with  the  honey  extractor,  we  strongly  urge 
all  beginners  to  produce  extracted  honey  in  preference  to 
comb-honey,  wherever  they  can  sell  it  readily  for  half  as 
much  as  comb  honey.  We  have  shown  the  advantages  of 
its  production  to  the  bees;  let  us  now  show  the  advantages 
to  the  Apiarist. 

754.  Ist.  He  can  control,  and  take  care  of,  a  much 
greater  number  of  colonies.  The  manipulations  of  an  Apiary, 
run  for  extracted  honey,  occupy  less  than  one  half  of  the  time 
required  for  the  production  of  comb-honey.  Our  largest 
comb-honey  producers  acknowledge  that  one  man  cannot 
handle  more  than  two  hundred  colonies  successfully,  when 
run  for  comb-honey  (710),  while  as  many  as  live  hundred 
colonies,  located  in  different  Apiaries  (582),  are  managed 
successfully  by  one  Apiarist,  when  run  for  extracted  honey. 
During  extracting  time,  of  course,  additional   help   is  re- 


quired,  but. this  needa  not  be  abilled  labor,  which  Ib  alwtyi 
hard  to  find. 

7S5.  2d.  By  the  production  of  extracted  honey,  tb« 
surplus  combs  are  saved,  and  given  to  the  bees  at  theopeo- 
ing  of  the  following  harvest.  This  virtually  does  away  with 
natural  Bwarming,  and  enables  the  bee-keeper  to  control 
the  increase  of  his  colonies  to  suit  his  desires.  One  of  the 
most  successful  comb-honey  prodncers,  Mr.  Hanam,  of  Ver- 
mont, who  sold  some  15  tons  of  comb-honey  in  1885, 
acknowledged  to  ub,  that  with  his  management  in  the  pro- 
duction of  comb-honey,  it  was  nearly  impossible  to  control 
swarming,  and  that  the  time  was  not  far  distant  when  ha 
would  have  too  many  bees.  He  owned  seven  hundred 
colonies  at  the  time. 

750.  The  farmer,  or  merchant,  who  keeps  only  a  few 
hives,  to  produce  honey  for  his  own  use,  will  find  it  much 
preferable  to  produce  extracted  honey.  With  three  colonies 
of  l>ees  and  an  extractor,  in  a  very  ordinary  location,  from 
l.iO  to  300  Iba.  of  honey  can  be  produced  on  an  average, 
every  season. 

7C7.  For  lln'  jinidiKtioii  of  extracted  honey,  we  use  half 
stories  or  ■Tiscti  (li_u'-  1"^^)  "illi  frames  6  inches  deep,  and 
of  the  same  leiij,'ili  ,is  tlic  frjiuics  of  the  lower  story.  We 
a/so  use  fiill-slory  mi\hta,  \iv\\,  oqVj  oq  standard  Langstroth 

Inventor  of  the  Honey  Extractor. 


hives,  and  we  decidedly  prefer  the  half-story  supers,  for 
several  reasons,  after  having  used  both  kinds  on  a  large 
scale  for  years. 

The  frames  of  the  half-story  supers  are  more  easily  hand- 
led when  full,  and  the  combs  are  less  apt  to  break  down 
from  heat  or  handling.  The  half-story  super  is  better 
suited  for  the  use  of  an  average  colony,  and  in  cool  weather 
is  more  easily  kept  warm  by  the  bees,  than  a  full-story. 
Very  strong  colonies,  in  extraordinary  seasons,  can  be 
readily  accommodated  with  two  and  even  three  of  these 
cases  successively. 

758.  With  the  full-story  supers,  the  queen  and  the  bees 
are  more  apt  to  desert  the  lower  story  altogether,  in  poor 
honey  seasons,  and  establish  their  brood- nest  in  the  upper 
story,  especially  when  the  combs  of  the  lower  or  brood 
chamber  are  old,  and  those  above  are  new.  The  sole  ad- 
vantage of  the  full-story  super  is  that  the  frames  in  it  are 
exactly  of  the  same  size  as  those  below,  and  can  be  inter- 
changed with  them  if  necessary ;  but  with  large  hives  it  will 
never  be  required  to  use  upper  story  combs  for  feed- 
ing, and  even  if  the  queen  should  breed  in  these  shallow 
cases,  at  times,  she  is  soon  crowded  out  of  them  by  the  sur- 
plus honey. 

759.  The  upper  story  frames  are  filled  with  comb  found- 
ation (674),  or  even  with  old  worker  comb,  and  can  be 
used  indefinitely,  since  the  honey  is  extracted  from  them, 
and  they  are  returned  unbroken  to  the  bees^  We  have  now 
several  thousands  of  these  combs,  some  of  which  have 
already  passed  fifteen  or  twenty  times  throunrh  the  extractor 
and  are  now  as  good  as  at  first,  nay,  even  better ;  for  some, 
which  were  very  dark,  are  lighter  in  color  now,  on  account 
of  the  dark  cells  having  been  shaved  by  the  honey  knife 
and  mended,  by  the  bees,  with  new  wax.  These  supers  are 
given  to  the  bees,  a  few  days  previous  to  the  opening  of  the 
honey  crop. 


The  mat  {362),  «nd  cloth  (363),  «rc  removed  and  lh« 
upper  story  is  placed  immediately  over  the  frames  (flg.  68). 

7GO.  Ooe  gve»t  advsDtage  of  this  style  of  eupera,  liee  in 
the  laciHty,  with  which  the  bees  can  reach  the,  tipper  story  " 
from  any  eomh,  or  from  any  part  of  a  comb,  either  to  de- 
posit their  honey  or  tor  ventilation,  duriug  hot  weather. 
Bees  show  their  preference  for  these  large  receptacles  rerj 
de«idedljr.  For  comparison,  let  two  or  three  broa<l  frame* 
(&09}-^Ued  with  MCtiona  which  are  of  more  difficult  venli- 
UtioD  and  uoess  —  be  placed  in  the  center  of  one  of  thcM 
supers  with  some  extracting  frames  on  each  side,  all  equally 
filled  with  strips  of  found&tioD  (674),  and  the  small  sec- 
tiona  (722)  will  be  filled  last  almost  in  every  inBtaiiec.even 
allhwiL;:!   :  '.I  ■■   1  :.■  :^-.:^-t  U-  the  center  ot  Hit  l.ri->a-in'9[. 

Mr.  Langstroth  was  the  first  to  call  the  attentioD  of  Apia- 
rists to  the  loss  incurred  by  compelling  bees  to  store  the 
surplus  honey  in  small  receptacles.  The  bee-keeper  cannot 
afford  to  sell  honev  stored  in  small  sections,  except  at  a 
considerable  advance  over  its  value  in  large  frames. 

701.  Colonies,  which  do  not  have  the  breeding  apart- 
ment ni'srly  full  of  broml,  honey  and  pollen,  need  not  be 
supplied  Kiih  supers  (757),  till  they  show  a  marked  prep- 
ress. Aftff  the  oi>oning  of  the  honey  crop,  which  is  very 
easily  noticed  by  the  greater  activity  of  the  bees  and  the 
wkilening  of  the  upper  cells  of  their  comba,  a  regular  inspec- 
tion of  their  progress  is  necessary.  The  season  is  abort, 
but  the  daily  yield  is  sometimes  enormous. 

762  Mr.  A.  Braun  stated,  in  the  Bienenxeitnng ,  Sep. 
tember.  1S54.  that  he  had  a  mammoth  hive  furnished  with 
combs  containin<;  at  least  184.230  cells,*  and  placed  on  a 
platt  jrm  scale,  that  its  weight  might  readily  be  ascertained 







btundi.    H 


VB  or  l«< 

-■  on  ft  tnb 



thrOQgh  tb 





or  ho 



at  stated  periods.  On  the  eighteenth  of  May  it  gained 
eighteen  pounds  and  a  half.  On  the  eighteenth  of  June,  a 
awarm  weighing  seven  pounds  issued  from  it,  and  the  follow- 
ing day  it  gained  over  six  pounds  in  weight.  Ten  days  of 
abundant  pasturage  would  enable  such  a  colony  to  gather  a 
large  surplus,  while  five  times  the  number  of  equally  favor- 
able opportunities  would  be  of  small  avail  to  a  feeble  one. 

The  largest  yield  of  extracted  honey,  ever  harvested  by 
the  colonies  of  one  Apiary  under  our  control,  was  13,000 
pounds  in  about  fifty  days,  the  most  protracted  honey  crop 
we  ever  knew.  This  was  harvested  by  eighty-seven  colonies, 
making  a  daily  average  of  three  pounds  a  day  per  colony  of 
evaporated  honey.     Such  seasons  are  scarce. 

As  some  colonies  harvest  much  more  than  others,  they 
9eed  more  attention. 

763.    To  $€cure  the  greatest  possible  amount  of  extracted 
honey i  the  colony  should  never  be  left  without  some  empty 
.  comb. 

As  soon  as  the  combs  of  one  of  these  supers  are  about 
three-fourths  full,  we  put  another  rack  under  the  first,  and 
sometimes  a  third  under  the  second.  All  this  without  wait- 
ing for  the  honey  to  be  sealed ;  but  we  never  remove  the 
honey,  to  extract  it,  until  the  crop  is  at  an  end,  for  we  want 
to  get  our  honey  entirely  ripened. 

Honey  is  evaporated,  or  ripened,  by  the  forced  circula- 
tion of  air,  caused  by  the  fanning  of  the  bees  through  the 
hive,  in  connection  with  the  great  heat  generated  by  them. 
As  honey  evaporates,  it  diminishes  in  volume,  and  as  long 
as  the  bees  continue  their  harvest,  they  constantly  bring  in 
unripened,  or  watery  honey,  which  they  store  in  the  partly 
filled  cells  that  contain  honey  already  evaporated.  It  is  for 
this  reason  that  unsealed  honey,  after  the  crop  is  over,  is  as 
ripe  as  honey  sealed  during  the  crop,  and  sometimes  riper. 
If  the  crop  is  abundant,  they  often  seal  their  combs  too 
Boon,  and  the  honey  thus  sealed  may  afterwards  ferment  in 
the  cell  and  hxmt  the  capping. 


7G4.  Some  ApiurUts  extract  tbc  honey  kb  fut  Mith 
harvested  by  the  bees,  and  afterwards  ripen  it  aitificiallj hf 
exposiDg  it  lo  heat  in  oi>on  veeseb.  We  do  not  Uke  tbu 
metliod,  and  prefer  to  extract  Uie  whole  crop  at  onc«.  It 
is  much  more  economical,  for,  with  our  system,  onu  ridlled 
man  attends  to  aa  many  as  five  or  six  Apiaries  tltiring  the 
hooey  crop,  sod  extracts  at  leisure  afterwards,  with  ntntost 
aoy  kind  of  cheap  help.  Since  honey  now  has  to  coni[>cb: 
in  price  with  the  cheapest  sweets,  the  question  o(  «eon(n»- 
icai  production  is  not  to  be  disregarded. 

"  He  who  produces  at  maximum  cost  will  fall.  He  who 
produces  at  minimum  cost  will  succeed." — (Jas.  Ueddoa.) 

765.  As  some  colonies  do  not  begin  work  in  the  sapen 
until  very  late,  and  do  not  fill  all  the  space  given  them,  the 
surplus  of  other  colonies  can  be  given  them  in  such  a  man- 
ner that  all  will  be  equally  filled.  This  can  be  done  witboot 
brushing  the  bees  off  (48fi).  i 

The  equalizing  of  empty  combs  in  the  surplas  atoriea  of 
different  colouiea,  towards  the  end  of  the  crop,  will  >an 
time  in  extracting,  as  the  supers  will  be  found  more  evenlf 
full.  The  giving  of  a  few  combs  of  honey  to  a  colony  that 
has  not  yet  begun  work  in  the  supers  also  acts  as  an  [ndacfr  i 
ment,  and  gives  the  bees  new  energy. 


766.  The  extracting,  to  be  done  swiftly,  requires  tbs 
work  of  four  persons :  three  men  and  a  boy.  This  work 
is  done  at  a  time  when  the  bees  have  ceased  to  make 
honey,  and  the  greatest  care  has  to  be  exercised  not  to 
leave  any  honey  within  the  reach  of  robber  bees.  The  work 
of  opening  the  hives,  removing  the  combs  and  brushing  ofl 
the  hees,  must  be  done  quietly,  but  swiftly  and  car^ 
tully.      The    iecept&c\«a  tot  combs  should  each   hare  ■ 


coyer,  and  the  hive  should  be  closed  and  its  entrance  re- 
duced, as  promptly  as  possible.  In  this  way,  there  is  not 
the  least  danger  of  robbing ;  but  if  robbing  is  once  begun « 
by  some  carelessness  or  forgetfulness  of  the  operator,  the 
work  has  to  be  stopped  until  it  has  subsided.  A  basin  of 
water  and  a  towel,  placed  near  at  band,  are  found  to  be  very 
convenient,  when  the  hives  are  very  full ;  as  the  operator 
and  his  help  sometimes  get  their  fingers  sticky  with  honey. 

767.  The  utensils  needed  for  neat  extracting  on  a  large 
scale  are :  In  the  Apiary,  —  a  good  smoker  (382),  one  or 
two  brushes  made  of  asparagus  tops,  or  some  other  light 
fibrous  material,  a  wood  chisel  to  loosen  the  cases,  two  tin 
pans,  described  farther  on  (770),  one  comb  bucket,  and 
two  strong  linen  or  cotton  ^^  robber  clotTia^"  which  can  be 
carbolized  beforehand  by  the  Ray  nor  process  (384). 

768.  The  ** robber  cloths",  so  named  by  Dr.  C.  C. 
Miller,  are  used  to  cover  the  cases  to  keep  away  robbers. 
They  are  made  of  very  coarse  cloth  or  gunny,  about  a  yard 

**  Take  two  pieces  of  lath,  each  about  as  long  as  the  hive,  and 
lay  one  upon  the  other,  with  one  edge  of  the  cloth  between 
them.  The  cloth  is  longer  than  the  lath,  allowing  0  inches  or 
more  of  the  cloth  to  project  at  each  end  of  the  lath.  Now  nail 
the  laths  together  with  1)  inch  wire  nails,  clinching  them. 
Serve  the  opposite  end  the  same  way,  and  the  robber  cloth 
Is  complete.  You  can  take  hold  of  the  lath  with  one  hand,  lift 
the  cloth  from  a  hive  or  super,  and  with  a  quick  throw,  instantly 
cover  up  again  your  hive  or  super  perfectly  bee  tight."  ("A 
Tear  Among  the  Bees,"  1886.) 

The  operator  opens  a  hive,  removes  the  super, 
places  it  in  a  tin  pan  (770),  and  covers  it  with  a  robber 
cloth.  He  then  examines  the  brood  chamber,  from  which 
one  or  two  combs  may  be  removed  if  advisable.  We  usually 
leave  all  the  honey  in  the  lower  story,  unless  the  bees  are 
crowded  out  of  breeding  room,  which  will  not  happen,  if 
tbcy  have  plenty  of  room  above. 

76».   Tlie  re- 

,1  of  ihi'  liw* 

(flg.  170). 

implement    » 

placed  in  a  boaiJ 

}  inch  in  thickness,  and  of  the  size  of  the  top  of  the  brooii- 

chamber  and    so    dcttted    that,    when   placed  between  U« 

brood  cbamber  and  the  §uper,  there  will  be  a  full  Bee-spaL-e 


both  ftbore  and  below  it.  The  bole  tor  the  Escape  should 
be  made  near  the  center  of  the  board  by  boring  two  1  i  inch 
holea,  2}  incheB  from  center  to  center  and  cutting  the  wood 
between  them.  Ooe  Escape  to  the  board  is  sufficieut.  It 
tiiere  is  no  brood,  or  queen,  in  the  super,  and  the  Escape 
put  OQ  the  day  betore,  the  bees  will  practically  be  all  out 
the  next  morning,  and  sometimes  within  two  to  six  hours 
after  it  has  been  placed  on  the  hive. 

770.  Id  the  honey  house,  there  should  be  au  extractor, 
•  capping  can,  (fig.  183)  a  boney  Icnife,  a  funnel  with  sieve, 
apMl,  a  barrel,  and  two  tin  pans  like  those  used  io  the 
Apiary.  Tbe  floor  may  be  covered  with  painted,  or  oil-cloth 
or  strong   eu&inel^cloth,  in   case  any  honey  is  spilled ;  each 

Fl«.  181. 



person  may  be  provided  with  a  good  enamel-cloth   apron, 
and  all  the  vrindows  furnished   with  wire  cloth  netting,  to 



allow  th«  bees  to  escape  (586).  The  tin  pans  abore  men- 
tJoned  are  shallow,  in  the  ehape  of  bread  pans,  large  enough 
to  receive  one  of  the  supers  freely,  to  keep  the  leddng 
honey  from  daubing  anytluDg,  or  ftom  attracting  robben 
(606).      They  are  supplied  with  strong  handles. 

771.  We  have  said  that  we  do  not  nsuaJIy  take  howf 
from  the  broad  chamber,  but  in  an  emergency  we  somellmm 
extract  even  from  combs  containing  brood.  We  never  no- 
ticed any  loas  of  worker  brood  unless  it  was  actually  thrown 
out,  If  a  few  worker  larvs  are  displaced  by  the  rotation, 
the  bees  push  them  back  to  the  bottom  of  the  cells.  In  all 
cases,  when  there  is  brood,  the  crank  must  be  turned  slowiv 


772.  In  the  extracting  room,  a  man,  the  ahaver,  as  we 
call  him,  uncaps  the  combs,  as  fast  as  they  are  brought. 
He  stands  before  the  capping-can  (flg.  183).  The  capping 
can  is  formed  of  a  lower  can  B,  24  inches  wide  and  14  inchei 
high  with  a  slanting  Ijottom,  a  faucet  and  a  central  pivot  C. 


On  this  lower  can  is  placed  ancfther  can  A,  23  inches  wide 
and  22  incites  high,  with  a  coarse  wire  cloth  bottom  resting 
at  the  center  on  the  pivot  C.  The  upper  can  acts  as  a  large 
sieve.  On  the  top  of  it  is  placed  a  wooden  frame  D,  notched, 
so  as  to  fit  on  the  edges  of  the  can.  It  is  on  this  frame  that  the 
combs  are  uncapped,  and  the  cappings  fall  in  the  sieve, 
where  the  honey  drains  out  of  them,  into  the  lower  can. 
Our  capping  can  is  meant  to  hold  the  cappings  of  two 
days'  extracting. 

773.  The  all-metal  extractors,  of  different  makes,  are 
the  only  ones  now  in  use.  Two-frame  extractors  are  the 
most  common,  but  we  use  four-frame  extractors  altoge- 
ther, one  in  each  Apiary.  These  extractors  accommodate 
eight  half-story  frames. 

774.  In  regard  to  the  honey  or  uncapping  knife,  justice 
compels  us  to  say  that,  so  far,  to  our  knowledge,  there  is 
bat  one  which  is  really  practical,  the  Bingham  honey  knife. 

tiff.  181. 

This  knife  does  away  with  the  annoyance  of  having  the 
cappings  stick  to  the  comb  again,  after  having  been  shaved 
off,  because  it  is  made  with  a  bevel,  which  causes  the  shaver 
to  hold  it  in  a  slanting  position,  so  that  the  cappings  cannot 
stick  to  the  comb  again,  unless  purposely  allowed  to  do  so. 

As  fast  as  the  combs  are  uncapped  on  both  sides,  they 
are  put  into  the  extractor,  which  may  be  turned  by  a  boy. 
Care  should  be  taken  that  the  combs,  that  are  placed  oppo- 
site one  another,  be  of  nearly  equal  weight,  as  the  unequal 
weight  causes  the  extractor  to  swing  right  and  left^ 
fatiguing  the  boy  and  injuring  the  machine. 

775.  A  quiet,  regular  motion  is  all  that  is  necessary  to 
throw  the  honey  out,  and,  in  warm  weather,  it  fairly  rains 


nossr  pBcmeoTKM. 

agalnat  the  sides  of  the  oui  «ritb  »  doik  sitniUr  to  thai  of  a 
shower  od  a  tin  roof. 

770.  Now  is  tbe  time  to  invite  the  neighbora  asd  ttuit 
children  to  come  to  see  tbe  tun,  aod  laete  the  golden  at> 
tar.  Aside  from  the  pleasure  of  lookiDg  everybody  ha^ipj, 
the  present  of  a  few  ^ouads  of  honey  proves  an  iodace- 
ment  to  it«  use,  and  an  advertisement  for  tbe  prodooer. 



Extracting-day  should  always  be  uoderstood  to  mean  "  free 
honey  to  all  vi-,itors."  Let  them  visit  the  honey-room,  and 
if  the  ladies  get  their  dresses  a  little  daubed  while  peeping 
in  the  extraetor,  they  will  soon  find  out  that  honey  does 
not  stain  Hkc  grease,  but  will  wa^h  off  in  warm  water. 

777.  After  the  combs  are  extracted  on  one  side,  thej 
are  turned  over  and  extracted  on  tbe  other.  Ur.  Stanley, 
of  New  York,  invented  an  extractor  (figure  185),  in  whidi, 


the  combs  are  tamed  over  by  simply  reversing  the  motion 
of  the  gear.  This  invention  has  not  been  sufficiently  tried 
to  be  proclaimed  decidedly  superior ;  but  it  appears  to  have 
some  advantages,  the  main  drawbacks  being  the  greater  cost 
of  the  machine  and  its  bulk.  Similar  extractors  were  intro- 
duced into  England,  by  Mr.  Cowan,  several  years  ago. 

778.  The  extractor  is  fastened  on  a  high  platform,  so 
that  the  honey  pail  can  be  put  under  the  faucet.  A  barrel 
is  in  readiness,  with  the  large  funnel  and  sieve  over  it.  This 
sieve  should  be  large  enough  to  take  a  pailful  of  honey,  so 
as  to  cause  no  'delay. 

A  mark  is  made  on  the  barrel,  with  a  crayon,  or  chalk, 
as  each  pailful  is  poured  in.  In  this  way  we  know  when  the 
barrel  is  full,  without  having  to  gauge  it,  and  we  avoid 
having  the  honey  run  over  and  waste. 

7  79.  We  would  advise  beginners,  who  extract  for  the  first 
time,  to  go  slowly  and  carefully.  A  little  care,  besides  sav- 
ing time,  will  save  the  waste  of  several  pounds  of  honey,  and 
make  things  more  comfortable ;  for  a  pound  of  honey  wasted 
goes  a  great  way  towards  making  everything  sticky  and 
dirty.  If  a  splendid  crop  and  neat  work  are  pleasurable, 
a  daubed  honey-room  and  cross  bees  in  the  Apiary  irritate 
both  the  Apiarist  and  his  assistants,  who  soon  become  sick 
of  the  work.  When  things  are  rightly  managed,  the  work 
Is  so  delightful  that  more  help  can  be  found  than  is  needed. 

780.  Of  all  manipulations,  extracting  is  that  which  re- 
quires the  greatest  precautions  against  robbing  (664). 
Carefully  avoid  all  unnecessary  exposure  of  comb  or  honey. 
Bobbers  not  only  annoy  the  Apiarist,  but  they  cause  the 
bees  to  get  angry,  and  to  sting. 

781.  All  the  cases,  when  extracted,  are  piled  up  on  the 
oil-cloth  carpet,  till  the  day's  work  is  done.  The  combs  are 
never  put  back  into  the  hive  before  evening,  at  sun  down ; 
to  prevent  too  much  excitement  in  the  Apiary.  In  half  an 
ho«ir,  every  hand  helping,  the  whole  number  is  distributed 



on  Ibe  hlvea ;   tboiigh  we  mny  have  estraoted  as  much  m 
two  tliousaud  pouDiis  in  a  dny. 

Tliiire  are  eensouB,  in  nhich  n  v«ry  slight  continiiatioD  ol 
the  liocioy  crop,  permits  returning  the  combs,  fts  fast  m 
they  arc  extracted.  In  such  seasons  it  c»usea  no  excite- 
meut,  and  is  much  more  convenient. 

783.  Within  two  or  three  days  after  extracting,  the  be« 
have  oleaned  the  combs,  and  repaired  them.  But,  to  pre- 
vent tlie  moths  from  injuring  them,  we  keep  them  on 
the  hives  during  the  whole  summei  i  the  beea  take  care  of 
them,  and  in  the  Winter,  we  pile  up  the  cases,  (larefiillf 
closed,  in  eold  rooms,  where  the  cold  of  Winter  destroya 
the  pgga  of  the  moth  (803). 

In  localities,  where  there  are  two  distinct  crops  of  honey, 
each  crop  should  be  Imrvostod  separately.  Thus,  we  al- 
ways extract  the  the  June  crop  in  July,  and  the  Fall  crop 
in  September. 

Honey  production,  with  the  above  methods,  la  so 
Boocessful  that  the  problem  for  practical  Apiariats  is  no 
longer,  how  to  produce  large  crops  of  toney,  but  how  to 
tell  it  (830).  Estraoted  honey  can  certainly  be  pro- 
duced, at  less  cost,  than  the  cheapest  of  cane  sugar,  and  it 
can  be  truly  said,  that  in  th»  last  thirty  years,  there  has 
been  more  progress  in  bee-culture,  than  in  any  other  brancli 
of  rural  economy. 

78<).  As  the  wax  of  the  cappings  amounts  to  a  little 
more  than  one  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  the  honey  ex- 
tracted, and  a?>  tlio'*e  cappings  after  they  are  well  drained, 
contain  even  a  larger  weight  of  honey  fit  to  be  converted 
into  vinegar  when  separateil  from  the  cappings  by  washing, 
the  expense  of  extracting  is  more  than  compensated. 



Diseases  of  Bees. 

784.  Bees  are  subject  to  but  few  diseases  that  deserve 
special  notice.  We  have  said  (626)  that  we  consider  diar- 
rhea as  the  result  of  an  accumulation  of  foeces  only,  but 
lir.  Cheshire  has  examined  some  of  the  fcuces  of  diarrhea, 
and  found  in  some  of  them  living  organisms,  which  indicate 
that,  sometimes,  the  distension  of  the  abdomen  is  not 
caused  by  the  overloading  of  the  intestines  alone.  These 
organisms,  when  better  known,  will  probably  explain  some 
of  the  losses  of  bees,  after  Winter,  and  the  Spring  dwin- 
dling (659),  which  reduces  so  many  colonies. 

785.  We  have  said  also  (665),  that  those  bees,  who 
are  in  the  habit  of  robbing,  assume  a  smooth,  black  ap- 
pearance. Mr.  Cheshire  thinks  that  this  explanation  of 
glossy  black  bees  is  inaccurate,  and  claims  that  an  examin- 
ation of  such  bees  has  shown,  in  them,  the  presence  of 
living  organisms,  which  he  named  bacilli  gaytoni,  after 
Miss  Gayton,  who  found  some  of  her  colonies  suffering  from 
this  disease,  for  three  years  in  succession.  These  organ- 
isms have  since  received,  in  England,  the  name  of  bacilli 
depilis.  This  last  term  means  hairless,  the  bees  affected 
with  the  disease  losing  aU,  or  nearly  all,  their  hair.  We  do 
not  question  the  accuracy  of  the  examination  of  these  shiny, 
hairless  bees,  but  we  know  that  bees  who  are  habitual 
robbers  lose  their  hair,  and  assume  this  slick,  shiny  appear- 
ance, without  suffering  any  disease;  for  they  belong  to 
healthy  colonies,  and  are  only  a  small  exception  among 
other  beea. 


i>isEAsii:3  or  BEES. 

786.  There  are  other  uaimporUtnt  diseases,  which  hftT« 
not  yet  been  studied,  but  all  are  nothiog,  wfaea  compared  to 
the  dreadful  ooQtagious malady,  already  known  thouBaodsof 
years  ago'  and  commonly  called  foul-brood,  because  it 
shows  ita  effects  mainly  by  the  dying  of  the  brood,  but  the 
denomination  is  improper,  for  the  brood  U  not  alone  dis- 

■■  When  we  remember  that  beea  live  In  the  otoseat  oontaot 
In  very  numerous  colonies ;  that  their  usual  system  of  loter- 
communicatton  Is  byactiiul  touch  ;  thnttbeyhabltunlly  pass  food 
from  one  stomscb  to  anotber.  while  all  tbe  food  they  hare  ha* 
been  ciirrjfd  either  witliin  or  upon  the  bodies  of  tbetr  fellows; 
that  their  very  home  is  formed  of  one  of  their  secretions,  and 
that  their  beds,  cradles  and  larder  are  all  Interchangeable,  we 
shall  admit  that  the  olrcnmstances  are  raoh  u  would  appear  to 
favor  the  development  of  oontaglons  diseases." — (Cheshire.) 

787.  The  scientific  and  indeed  the  trae  name  of  fonl- 

brood  is  dacfflitat  aivei,  "  email  stick  of  bee-hivta"  because 
it  is  composed  of  living  organisms  resembling  small  sticks. 
It  develops  very  rapidly,  and  has  been  found,  by  Schonfeld 
and  by  Cheshire,  not  only  in  the  brood,  but  in  the  bees  and 
queens.  The  rapid  depopulating  of  the  colonies  infested, 
coupled  with  the  fact  that  Hr.  Bertrand  has  known  several 
queens  to  die  in  diseased  colonies,  leaves  no  doubt  as  to  tbe 
accuracy  of  the  microscopical  experiments  made  by  Che- 
shire, on  queens  who  were  found  with  bacilli,  not  only  in 
their  organs,  but  also  in  the  half  developed  eggs  of  their 
ovaries.  According  to  the  English  microscopista,  there  are 
two  kinds  of  bacilli  ^vei,    the   major   and   the   miner,  the 

whleli  laBCcompSTricdlj;*dl«iOi4tln 
llMl  roDl-broxt  wu  conuuaa  more  i 
t  BaciUia,  plarsl  bneidi.  Iramtti 


larger  and  the  smaller  {British  Bee- Journal) ^  but  are  they 
equally  to  be  feared? 

These  imperceptible  *^ sticks"  break  successively  into 
several  parts,  every  one  of  which  forms  a  colony  of  spores, 
that  pass  through  divers  shapes  before  developing  into  new 
bacilli.  We  can  judge  of  the  promptness  of  their  repro- 
duction, and  of  their  minuteness,  when  we  read  in  Cheshire, 
that  a  dead  larva  frequently  contains  as  many  as  one  billion 
of  these  spores  (28). 

788.  In  the  Bulletin  Agricole  du  Dipariement  de  VAube, 
Mr.  Brunet  narrates  the  experiments  made  by  Mr.  Marcel 
Dupont,  to  breed  the  bacilli  of  foul-brood.  Knowing  that 
Pasteur  used  beef-broth  in  this  kind  of  experiments,  Mr. 
Dupont  filled  three  glass- tubes  with  unsalted  beef-broth,  pre- 
pared according  to  the  directions  given  by  Pasteor,  and  after 
sealing  and  boiling  them,  to  kill  any  living  organisms  that 
might  have  existed  inside,  he  introduced  into  two  of  them, 
with  a  fine  needle,  a  small  quantity  of  a  liquid,  in  which 
particles  from  the  body  of  a  diseased  larva  had  been  dis- 
solved. One  week  after,  the  broth  in  both  of  these  tubes, 
was  cloudy  and  full  of  bacilli,  while  the  liquid,  in  the  third 
tube,  had  remained  clear  and  unchanged. 

780.  Description.  As  we  have  never  seen  a  case  of 
bacillus  alvei,  we  will  borrow  from  those  who  have  been  more 
'*  lucky  "  (?)  than  ourselves,  a  description  of  the  disease^ 
for  its  detection  in  hives,  and  the  remedies  recommended 
by  the  best  authorities. 

**  In  most  cases  the  larva  Is  attacked  when  nearly  reaHy  to  seal 
ap.  It  turns  slightly  yellow,  or  grayish  spots  appear  on  it.  It 
then  seems  to  soften,  settles  down  in  the  bottom  of  the  cell,  in  a 
shapeless  mass,  at  first  white,  yellow,  or  grayish  in  color,  soon 
changing  to  brown.  At  this  sta|2:e  it  becomes  glutinous  and  ropy ; 
then,  after  a  varying  length  of  time,  owing  to  the  weather,  it 
dries  up  into  a  dark  coflee-colored  mass.  Usually  the  bees  make 
Qo  attempt  to  clean  out  the  Infected  cells,  and  they  will  sometimes 

*  «ns  win  afkn  Aty  cp  musmIt.  wUkiiih 

aari  K  k  aot  n«tl  tte  iBmhk  ka 

Fig  [(«.     (rroRiCowKB.) 

tbkt  anj  DCQgual  smell  would  be  noticed  bj  moat  penotti.  Ib 
the  last  !t3^e§.  wben  sometLmes  half  ormore  of  tha  cells  In  Oit 
hive  are  filled  wiih  rotten  hrtod.  the  odor  hecomea  Biifflcl«ntlT 
pmnounceil.  but  the  nose  is  not  to  be  relied  on  to  decide  whether 
a  colony  has  foul  brood  or  not.  Long  before  It  can  be  detected 
bj  the  Gcn$e  of  smt'll.  the  C0I0D7  Is  in  a  condition  to  communi- 
cate the  disease  to  others. 

The  eye  alone  can  be  depended  on,  and  It  mnst  be  a  sharp  and 
trained  eye  too,  ifany  hendivay  is  to  be  made  in  curing  the 
disease.    fJ.  A.  Green,  in  "Gleanings,"  Januuj  18S7. 

TOO.  "Foul-brood  can  be  detected  In  the  Spring,  either 
through  an  unusual  spreading  of  the  brood,  resulting  from  an 



annotlced  preyious  infection,  of  an  indefinite  number  of  cells, 
which  contain  sick  or  dead  larvae,  or,  if  the  disease  is  Just  begin- 
ning, bj  the  presence,  among  the  brood,  of  sick  or  rotten  larvae. 
The  larvae  die  and  rot  either  befdre  or  after  sealing.  It  is  only 
when  the  disease  has  lasted  for  some  time,  that  the  cappings  are 
punctured,  and  that  the  brood  has  an  offensive  odor. 

*'  The  spreading  of  brood  in  the  Spring  is  not  always  caused 
bj  foul-brood.  A  defective  queen,  some  old  pollen  in  the  cells, 
Ac,  may  also  cause  it.  The  brood  may  die  (we  do  not  say  rot) 
by  o^her  causes  also,  and  we  should  regret  to  see  our  bee-keepers 
become  unduly  frightened,  and  make  a*  useless  inspection  of 
all  the  brood  in  their  hives,  for  such  work  is  not  an  agree- 
able pastime.  But  if  foul-brood  has  already  appeared  in  the 
neighborhood,  or  in  the  Apiary,  it  is  well  to  drive  the  bees  from 
the  brood-combs  and  to  inspect  the  latter  with  a  scrutinizing  eye. 
We  have  sometimes  diagnosticated  foul-brood  In  hives  which  had 
but  two  or  three  sick  larvae,  barely  turning  yellow.  When  the 
disease  has  already  spread.  It  strikes  the  eye.  The  brood  Is 
shapeless,  yellow,  brown,  black,  and  the  cappings  change  color 
and  8lnk."--^Bertrand,  Revue  Intemationcde  (T Apiculture.) 

791.  Cure.  Several  methods  of  cure  for  foul-brood  have 
been  given,  with  more  ot  less  successful  results.  Mr.  D.  A. 
Jones,  has  written  a  small  pamphlet,  in  which  he  gives  his 
method.  He  removes  all  the  broodless  combs,  from  the 
Infected  colony,  drives  (473)  or  shakes  the  bees  into  a 
box  covered  with  wire-cloth,  leaving  enough  bees  in  the 
hive  to  take  care  of  the  brood,  if  it  is  worth  saving ;  and 
puts  the  driven  bees. in  a  dark  cellar  for  three  to  six  days, 
turning  the  box  on  its  side  so  as  to  see  the  bees  through 
the  wire-cloth.  He  keeps  them  thus  till  he  sees  some  of 
them  dying  from  starvation.  Tlien,  he  puts  them  into  a  clean 
hive,  on  comb-foundation,  and  feeds  them  with  the  honey 
that  has  been  removed  from  tlieir  combs,  after  liaving  boiled 
it  with  one-fifth  of  water.  The  bees  that  hatch  from  tlie 
brood  receive  the  same  treatment  l)eft)re  beinor  returned  to 
their  colonies;  all  the  combs  are  melted,  and  the  hives. 
frames,  Ac,  arc  boiled  for  ten  minutes  before  being  used 
again.  Although  Mr.  Jones  has  been  successful  with  this 

450  DtsEABKS  or  BKKa. 

method,  it  has  Dot  proved  effective  in  ererj  case,  for,  sinc« 
the  bees  and  the  queeo  may  be  contautiaated  in  th«ir  or- 
gans (708),  thediseaae,  afteratjme,  may  reappear.  Every 
means  should  be  used  to  kill  all  the  spores  of  the  badllL 
Mr.  Oheeliire  has  kept  some  tit  them  in  a  glass  tube  ("Beet 
and  Iteekeepiag,"  page  .^60),  and  exposed  them  on  several 
occasions  to  a  temperature  below  frost,  and  they  were  all™ 
jift«r  sisUicD  and  ii>half  months.  l^Ir.  Jonea  reporU  banog 
kept  toul-brood  combs  exposed  a  whole  winter  to  >  U 
ature  of  35«  below  zero,  —  in  CaDa<ia.  —  without  s 
ing  In  killing  the  sporea.  ("GleaQingainBee-Ciilliir«,"l8S4, 

70S.  We  will  now  give  the  method  of  Hilbert,  as  prac- 
ticed by  Cbas.  P.  Muth  and  described  in  his  "Practical 

"In  April,  I  discovered  two  obtonles  la  my  Apiary,  airect«d 
with  the  disease.  1  brimBtoned  the  bees  the  same  eveniog, 
bnrned  up  the  combB  and  fhiiiiM,  and  disinfected  the  hlvet. 
Another  colony  showed  it  In  Uay.  Feeling  sorry  to  kill  a 
beantiful  queen,  besides  a  very  atroDg  colony  of  pare  Italians,  I 
brushed  them  ou  ten  frames  of  comb-foundation.  Into  a  clean  hive, 
and  placed  over  them  a  Jar  with  food,  aS  I  shall  describe  hereaf- 
ter. The  old  combs  and  frames  were  bnrned  np,  and  the  hives 
disinfected.  This  feeding  was  kept  np  nutll  all  the  sheets  of 
comb-foundation  were  built  out  nloel7  and  filled  with  brood  and 
honey.  It  was  a  beautiful  colony  of  bees  about  foor  weeks  after- 
wards, full  of  healthy  brood,  and  with  combs  as  regular  as  can 
only  be  made  by  the  aid  of  comb-foandatlon.  Four  more  colonies 
were  iliacovered  Infected,  one  after  another.  All  went  through 
the  8;imc  process,  and  every  one  la  a  healthy  colony  at  present. 
I  was  so  convinced  of  the  completeness  of  this  cute,  that  I  intro- 
duced Into  one  of  these  colonies  my  first  Cyprian  queen  sent  me 
by  friend  D.idnnt. 

'■  All  are  doinp  llncly  now,  and  no  more  foul-brood,  Should, 
however,  nnothcr  one  of  my  colonies  show  signs  of  the  disease. 
Itwoiild  not  l>c  because  it  had  cauf^bt  it  from  Its  neighbor  which 
I  had  iitteinpted  to  cure,  but  because  the  germ  of  fool-brood  was 
hidden  somewhere  in  the  hive, and  of  late  had  oome  In  contact 
with  a  larva. 

FOUXr-BROOD,  451 

**  The  fonnnla  of  the  mtxtore  is  as  follows  :  . 

16  gr.  salicylic  acid 
16  gr.  soda  borax, 
1  oz.  water. 

**  1  keep  on  hand  a  bottle  of  this  mixture,  so  as  to  he  always 
ready  for  an  emergency ;  also  a  druggist's  ounce  glass,  so  that  1 
may  know  what  I  am  doing.  My  food  was  honey,  with  about  25 
per  cent,  water  added.  But  we  may  feed  honey  or  sugar  syrup, 
adding  to  every  quart  of  food  an  ounce  of  the  above  mixture. 
Bees  being  without  comb  and  brood,  partake  of  it  readily,  and 
by  the  time  their  comb-foundation  isbuilt  out,  you  willfind  your 
colony  in  a  healthy  and  prosperous  condition. 

*'  Thus  you  see  foul-brood  can  be  rooted  out  completely,  and 
without  an  extra  amount  of  trouble,  provided  you  are  sufficiently 
impressed  with  its  dangerous,  insidious  character,  and  are  pre- 
pared tp  meet  it  promptly  on  its  first  appearance. 

*^  Wlien  an  atomizer  is  used  on  combs  and  larvse  the  medicine 
should  be  only  half  as  strong  as  given  in  the  formula.'^ 

793.  Since  our  friend  Muth  wrote  the  above,  Hilbert 
improved  the  method,  by  dispensing  with  soda  borax,  and 
adding  to  his  treatment  fumigations  with  evaporating  sali- 
cylic acid.  We  give  this  new  method,  for  it  has  been  used 
sacceasfolly  by  Mr.  Bertrand  and  several  of  his  neighbors 
in  a  number  of  different  apiaries. 


SokUianNo.  i, 

Crystallized  salicylic  acid   1  oz. 
Pure  alcohol,  8  oz* 

With  this  jnixture  prepare : 

Solution  No.  2,  for  washing  or  sprinkling  the  combs  with 
an  atomizer,  20  drops  of  solution  No.  1,  mixed  with  7 
ounces  of  tepid  rain  water,  or  200  drops  in  a  pint  of  water. 

Solution  No.  3y  to  be  used  in  the  food  of  the  bees,  about 
220  drops  of  solution  No.  1  in  a  quart  of  syrup  or  honey 
boiled  with  about  a  fifth  of  tepid  water.  To  avoid  the 
trouble  of  counting  the  drops  every  time,  it  is  advisable  to 
put  them,  the  first  time  in  a  graded  vial,  or  in  a  small  bottle 
in  whioth  a  mark  can  be  made  for  the  repeated  measurement 



of  the  solution.  Tho  water  caa  be  measured  in  tb«  Bum?  vij. 
Describing   the  Hilbert  prot-ess,    Mr.    Cawaa,    who  hu 
&]so  succeeded   ia  curing  n  number  of  cases,  writes: 

T91.  "One  or  the  Blmpleat  nnd  moat  rapid  wavs  of  curing  Ihc 
disease  fa  by  flilbert's  fumigating  proeeHS.  as  llie  fiitiies  of  uDi:;- 
Uo  acid  have  the  power  of  penelnillng  everytlitng  in  tils  bire  loit 
destroTing  nil  the  germs  of  foul-brooiJ.  The  apparatus  lued  for  Ihii 
porpoBe  la  the  fiiuilgnlor  Improved  by  Mr.  Ed.  Bertrand,  (fig.  iO^ 


It  consists  of  a  cylinder  A,  to  which  Is  hinged,  at  D,  aeoTerB, 
baring  a  nozzle  at  C.  llils  ts  5  Inches  by  1 },  so  as  to  be  easily  in- 
serted between  bire  and  floor  board,  and  It  la  kept  in  position  by 
the  fastening  E.  A  spirit  lamp  H,  baa  the  flame  so  regulated  that 
the  add  placed  in  the  nietnl  dish  I,  aboTO  it,  la  gently  evaporated. 
The  hive  to  be  operated  upon  Is  not  removed  from  its  stand,  but 
UraUed  up  at  the  back  off  Its  Qoor-board  b^  means  of  blocks  ol 
wood,  and  wedgea  are  Inserted  at  the  sides,  so  as  to  leave  only 
space  for  the  insertion  ot  nozzle,  C,  of  fumlgator.  With  hives  on 
legs,  the  floor-board  cnn  be  lowered.  Fifteen  and  a  half  grains  of 
salicylic  acid  are  then  placed  in  the  dish  I,  and  the  flame  of  the 
lamp  BO  regulated  that  the  acid  Is  gently  evaporated.  Too  much 
flame  will  c.iuse  It  to  boil  over,  and  waste  ;  too  little  would  not 
vett  It,  so  that  just  the  right  amount  is  found  ont  by  experiment. 
The  nozzle  of  the  fumigator  in  operation  Is  now  lnurted  In  the 


opening  at  the  bottom,  and  the  comers  of  the  quilt  tamed  np,  so 
as  to  allow  the  vapor  of  the  acid  to  circulate  freely.  The  fumlgft- 
tlons  should  be  performed  early  In  the  morning,  or  In  the  evening, 
when  all  the  bees  are  at  home.  The  entrance  of  the  hive  need 
not  be  closed.  Any  portion  of  the  hive  not  reached  by  the  fumes 
of  the  acid,  the  alighting-board  and  ground,  near  the  hive,  should 
be  washed  or  syringed  with  salicylic  acid  1  oz ,  soda  borax  1  oz., 
water  2  quarts,  or  solution  No.  3.  It  would  be  much  better  if  the 
firames  could  be  transferred  to  a  clean  hive  after  fumigation,  and 
the  infected  hive  scalded  and  painted  over  with  the  same  solution, 
and  with  this  view  I  have  adapted  my  hives  for  easy  separation 
and  purification.  Many  hives,  however,  cannot  be  taken  to  pieces 
so  readily,  therefore  they  must  be  disinfected  on  the  spot  as  well 
as  possible,  by  the  expenditure  of  a  little  more  of  the  solution. 
Elach  hive  should  be  fumigated  from  four  to  six  times,  at  intervals 
of  six  days.  The  bees  must  receive  every  other  evening  a  quarter 
ofa  pint  ofsyrup  containing  30  to  50  drops  of  solution  No.  1.  A 
foul-broody  hive  should  be  fumigated  b  fore  being  opened,  as  few 
firames  left  as  the  bees  can  well  occupy,  and  if  possible,  the  bees 
should  be  forced  to  build  fresh  combs,  and  rapid  brood-rearing 

"All  the  hives  in  the  Apiary  should  be  fed  wfth  syrup  contain- 
ing salicylic  acid  while  the  disease  lasts. 

**  The  honey  from  the  infected  combs  can  be  removed  and  boiled 
to  a  short  time,  and  by  adding  salicylic  acid  to  it,  can  be  used  at 
food  for  the  bees.  All  combs  should  be  fumigated  before  being 
stored  away,  and  sprayed  with  spray  diffuser,  on  both  sides  and 
round  the  edges  before  being  used  again,  with  solution  No.  1. 

**  All  hives,  floor-boards,  frames,  and  utensils,  used  about  an 
Apiary  should  be  scalded  and  thoroughly  cleansed  when  done 
with,  and  all  woodwork  painted  over  with  the  saiicylic  solution, 
to  prevent  the  disease  spreading  aii}'  further. 

**  If  the  treatment  above  given  be  adopted  in  time,  it  will  effect 
a  core,  but  if  the  disease  is  neglected  and  allowed  to  assume  the 
worst  type,  much  more  trouble  will  be  experienced  in  its  eradica- 
tion. Some  advise  destroying  the  hives,  but  I  never  found  any 
necessity  to  do  this,  as  salicylic  acid  is  sufllcient  to  destroy  any 
germs  of  the  disease  which  may  have  adhered  to  the  hive.*' 
(British  Bet-Ktepiri  GuiUt  Book.) 

795.  Mr.  Cheshire,  in  turn,  findinnr  this  process  of  evap- 
orating salicylic  acid  long  and  tedious,   contrived   a   new 

method  [b  wfatch  be  aaea  csrboGe  lod,    oUiwin    called 
phenol,  after  tbe  mggestioa  of  aq  Iriah  Apiarist,  Mr.  K. 


Ah  bee*  atroDglj' lUsliks  carbolic  add,  naoe  it  iiiMvd  to 
frigliUiri  them  (670).  tbe  qu&otity  has  to  t>e  rcrf  HiaQ,  or 
tbcy  will  dot  touch  tbe  food  contaioing  it.  The  doas  iMm4 
by  Hr.  ChRshire,  in  the  food,  U  about  on«  oiii>ce  for  tortf 
poundi  of  iynip,  nraountjng  to  l-filOtJi,  b<it  UiU  lueportiaa 
may  bo  chan|*0(l  accorrting  to  circa nuttanten.  When  iben 
la  no  boncy  id  llii:  fleMa,  Itc  says  that  t)i«  proportJoa  taar 
be  roducisd  to  l-750t1i. 

"  The  oarbollc  acid  sbonld  be  added  to  tfae  tyrnp  «rh»ti  tb« 
Utter  i*  cool  and  Ptioally  tnlxad  hy  ranful  stirring. "—fCbMhlR. 
Pnfre  «»!.) 

Whnn  lb«  h<■v^  refuHfJ  to  touch  tlje  f.jf.d  llm;  prcpareii, 
Mr.  CliGHliire  succeeded  in  compelling  them  to  use  it,  b; 
pouring  it  into  the  combs,  in  the  cells  immediately  around 
nn<l  ovi-r  the  brood.  He  advises  the  use  of  one  part  ol 
pliuuol  in  fifty  parts  of  water,  for  spraying  the  infected 
ouinbH  that  arc  removed  from  tbe  beea,  but  in  no  case  does 
hu  spray  tlie  inside  of  the  brood-nest  of  the  diseased  col- 
ony with  this  soltition.^-(Brt(isA  Bea  Journal,  1887,  page 
3<J7. ) 

7t)U.  For  our  part,  we  should  prefer  the  Bert  rand- Cow  an 
motliod  of  applying  Hilbert's  recipe,  to  all  others.  It  b 
most  Likelj',  however,  that  either  of  these  methods  will  be 
BUi-<-t'<tsfiil  if  the  Apiarist  is  careful  and  perscTerant,  but  if 
ho  in'tjh'ctn  the  miimtest  precautions,  for  instance,  washing 
hix  liHti'ls  ill  11  solution  of  phenol  or  of  salicylic  acid,  before 
fitUiii  to  Kcinii'  other  hive,  after  handhng  a  sick  colony. 
or  it  ho  <liioH  not  apply  a  preveotive  treatment  to  all 
tiix  colonics  during  .and  after  the  treatment  of  the  sick  oiic:<. 
he  ui;iy  rduin  Ilic  discise  in  his  Apiary  indefinitely,  for  il 
but  n  fiMv  of  Iln'  spori'3  escape,  they  will  soon  spread  ilie 
Oontngion  again. 

FOUI/-BROOP.  455 

707.  This  reminds  oar  Senior  of  an  incident  that  hap- 
pened in  his  younger  days,  while  he  lived  with  his  father, 
who  was  a  physician.  A  laborer  had  come  to  the  old  doc- 
tor  for  an  ointment  to  cure  the  **  itch  ".  He  had  caught 
this  —  now  uncommon  and  ever  disgraceful  —  contagious 
■kin  disease,  while  working  as  a  harvest  hand,  in  the  coun- 
try. Directions  were  given  him  for  using  the  ointment, 
and  he  was  told  that  his  wife  should  anoint  with  it  also,  as 
a  preventive.  But  the  woman,  who  did  not  have  the  dis- 
ease, refused  to  use  it,  and  two  weeks  afterwards  the  man 
came  back  for  more  ointment.  He  was  cured,  but  his  wife 
had  the  itch  in  her  turn.  The  doctor  gave  him  some,  and 
told  him  that  he  should  use  it  too,  or  he  might  catch  the 
disease  again;  but  he  did  not  mind  the  warning,  and  two 
weeks  later,  he  had  to  call  for  more.  **  Well,"  said  the 
old  doctor,  *'I  hope  that  these  two  experiments  will  con- 
vince you  of  the  necessity  of  a  thorough  treatment  for  both, 
with  a  disease  that  is  transmitted  so  readily,   by  contact." 

The  case  is  exactly  the  same  ^Yith  the  bacillus.  While 
we  are  treating  one  colony,  a  few  spores  may  be  transmit- 
ted to  a  neighboring  hive,  by  the  contact  of  a  single  bee, 
and  the  disease  is  spread,  unknown  to  us,  while  we  are  con- 
gratulating ourselves,  in  the  firm  belief  that  we  have  eradi- 
cated it. 

798.  The  cure  may  be  delayed,  and  may  even  fail  alto- 
gether, if  the  queen  is  infected.  Then  the  only  resource  is 
to  kill  her  and  give  the  colony  another  from  a  healthy  hive. 

709.  When  an  Apiarist  finds  out  that  foul-brood  exists 
A  his  vicinity,  his  best  plan  is  probably  to  feed  his  bees 
regularly  on  salicycated  food.  A  lump  of  camphor,  placed 
inside  of  the  hive  on  the  bottom-board,  is  advised  by  some. 
Salt  (274),  which  improves  the  blood  of  all  animals,  by 
decreasing  the  number  of  white  globules,  shows  its  effects 
on  the  general  health  of  all  beings,  and  renders  them  more 

capable  of  battling  against  any  disease,  whether  contagicm 
>r  not. 

800.  Foul-brood  is  transmitted  from  one  hive  to  Bsotlner 
— like  Asiatic  cholera  among  men, — by  different  meana. 
Robbing  (664)  is  probably  one  of  the  main  helps  to  con- 
tamination, as  the  robber  bees  may  take  the  bacillus  hone, 
amoDgtheir  hair,  unawares.  Working  bees  may  even  gather 
the  scourge  from  some  swecUscented  blo§aom  contaminated 
by  previous  visitors.  The  transportation,  or  shipping,  ol 
bees,  from  one  part  of  the  country  to  another.  Is  of  ten  a 
mean  of  spreading  the  (lisease,  anil  some  of  our  Stale  legis- 
latures have  made  very  stringent  laws  on  the  subjuol. 

Contagious  diseases  were  once  the  scourge  of  the  laoil. 
Who  has  not  heard  of  the  plague,  the  dread  disease  of  the 
dark  ages  ?  According  to  Chambers'  Encyclopedia,  the 
plague  of  11)65  destroyed  seventy  ihousaod  people,  in  I^o- 
don  alone.  Earlier  still,  In  1348,  according  to  Sismondi, 
the  plague  destroyed  three-fifths  of  the  entire  population  of 
Europe,  extending  even  up  into  Iceland.  It  was  during 
that  terrible  scourge  that  the  city  of  Florence  lost  over  one 
hundred  thousand  people.  U  those  dreaded  diseases  are 
now  but  little  feared,  we  owe  it  to  scientific  discoveries. 
The  microscope  has  shown  that  nearly  all  contagious  dis- 
eases, which  men  or  animals  are  subject  to,  are  caused  by 
living  organisms,  and  medical  science  now  teaches  how  they 
may  be  avoided  by  inoculation,  or  other  means.  More  dis- 
coveries are  daily  made,  and  we  can  hope  that  the  day  is 
not  far,  when  tlie  advancement  of  science  will  have  put  an 
end  to  all  these  ills,  and  the  bacillus  alvei  will  be  a  thing 
of  the  past. 

801.  Aside  from  foul-brood,  accidents  may  cause  the 
brood  to  di?,  and  even  to  rot  in  the  cells,  without  special 
damage  to  the  bees.  Sudden  and  co^d  weather,  in  a  promis- 
ing Spring,  when  the  bees  have  been  spreading  their  brood, 
and  are  compelled  to  leave  a  part  of  it  uncovered  ;   the  ne- 

FOUI/-BROOD.  457 

gleet  of  the  Apiarist,  or  his  mismanagement,  in  placing 
back  the  brood,  —  after  an  inspection,  —  out  of  the  reach 
of  the  cluster ;  or  even  the  suffocation  of  a  colony  by  heat 
(367),  or  by  close  confinement  (368),  may  cause  the 
death  of  the  brood. 

These  accidents  have  none  of  the  malignance  of  foul- 
brood,  and  nothing  need  be  done  in  such  occurrences  be- 
tUm  remoying  the  dead  brood,  and  burying  it  carefully. 

EHKIUKS   OF    BE£3. 



Ei^KMi^s  OF   Bees. 

SOS.  The  Bee- Sloth  (Tinea  mellonetla)  ie  laeatieuad)^ 
ArisUitle,  Virgil,  Columella  and  Other  aocieut  uitliom,  « 
one  of  the  most  formidable  enemies  of  the  houcy-bec  E«n 
Id  the  first  part  of  tbia  century,  the  bt?e- writers,  slmoat 
frilhout  exception,  regarded  it  as  the  plague  of  their  Apla- 

Swammerdam  speaks  of  two  species  of  the  bee-moth 
(called  in  his  time  the  "  bee-ioolf"'),  one  much  larger  than 
the  other.  Linnieus  and  Reaumur  also  describe  two  kinds 
—  Tinea  cereann  and  Tinea  meUoneUa.*  Most  writers  sup- 
posed the  former  to  be  the  male,  and  the  latter  the  female 
of  the  same  species.  The  following  description  is  abridged 
from  Dr.    Hnrria'  Heport  on  the  Insects  of  Massachusetts: 

803.  "  Very  few  of  the  Tinea  exceed  or  even  equal  it  in  size. 

In  Its  ndult  stntc  it  Is  a  winged  moth,  or  miller,  measiirinfr.  troat 
the  hcnd  to  tlir  tipof  tbeclosed  wings,  from  five-eigfaths  to  three- 
quarters  of  an  Inch  In  ten^th,  and  Its  wings  expand  from  one 
Inch  and  one-tenth  to  one  Inch  and  foor-tenths.    The  fore-wing* 

«  thW*  ipMlCS,  DOT  thtit  naUM.  (BlliBC 

THE   BEE-MOTH.  459 

■hat  together  flatly  on  the  top  of  the  back,  slope  steeply  down- 
wards at  the  sides,  and  are  turned  up  at  the  end  somewhat  like 
ttie  tail  of  a  fowL  The  female  is  much  larger  than  the  male,  and 
much  darker-colored.  There  are  two  broods  of  these  insects  in 
the  course  of  the  year.*  Some  winged  moths  of  the  first  brood 
begin  to  appear  towards  the  end  of  April  or  early  in  May —  ear- 
lier or  later,  according  to  climate  and  season.  Those  of  the 
second  brood  are  more  abundant  in  August ;  but  some  may  be 
found  between  these  periods,  and  even  much  later.'* 

No  writer  with  whom  we  are  acquainted  has  givea  such  an 
exact  description  of  the  differences  between  the  sexes,  that 
they  can  always  be  readily  distinguished.  The  wood-cuts 
of  the  moths,  larvae,  and  cocoons,  which  we  present  to  our 
readers,  were  drawn  from  nature,  by  Mr.  M.  M.  Tidd,  of 
Boston,  Mass.,  and  engraved  by  Mr.  D.   T.   Smith,  of  the. 

same  city.     Mr.  Tidd  seems  first  to  have 
noticed  that  the  snout  or  palpus  of  the  /e- 
malej  projects  so  as  to  resemble  a  beak, 
fif .  Uj0.— Female,      while  that  of  the  male  is  very  short. 
While  some  males   are   larger  than  some  females,  and 

some  females  much  lighter-colored  than 
the  average  of  males,  and  occasionally 
some  males  as  dark  as  the  darkest  females, 
the  peculiarity  of  the  snout  of  the  female  is 
*"  **  so  marked,  that  she  may  always  be  distin^ 
guished  at  a  glance. 

804.  These  insects  are  seldom  seen  on  the  wing,  unless 
started  from  their  lurking  places  about  the  hives,  until  to- 
wards dark.  On  cloudy  days,  however,  the  female  may  be 
noticed  endeavoring,  before  sunset,  to  gain  entrance  into 
the  hives. 

**  If  disturbed  in  the  daytime,**  says  Dr.  Harris,  **  they  open 
their  wings  a  little,  and  springer  glide  swiftly  away,  so  that  it  is 
very  difficult  to  seize  or  hold  them.*' 

*Prof.  CookU  of  o|>inion  (OalJe  pa/e  .11.'))  that  thei-e  may  l»e  thi*ee  brooda 
hi  a  year  aad  we  believe  be  la  con-ect.  We  have  seen  them  mo«t  oomerooa  ia 
Mot  October  weatber.  ^ 


Thej   are  surprisingly   sgile,   both  on  foot  and   on  1 
wing,  the  motion  of  a  bee  being  very  slow,  in  compariw 
"They    are,"    says    Reaumur,     "the    most    nimble-footM 
creatures  that  I  know." 

In  the  eTeniug,  they  take  wing,  when  the  bees  are  at  reat, 
and  hover  around  the  hive  till,  baviiig  found  the  door,  Utejr 
go  in  and  lay  their  eggs. 

"  It  Is  curiouB,"  says  lliiber, ''  to  observe  how  artfully  the  mntli 
knows  bow  to  protit  by  the  disad vantage  of  the  beta,  which 
require  much  light  for  seeing  objects,  and  tbe  preCBuilooi 
taken  by  the  latter  In  reoonnoU«ring  and  expelling  so  daageroni 

>■  Those  that  are  prevented  from  getting  within  the  blve.  lay 
their  eggs  in  the  cracks  on  the  outside;  and  the  little  wonu-!ik« 
osterpillors  hatched  therein),  easily  creep  into  tbe  hive  through 
the  cracks,  or  gnaw  a  passage  Tor  themeelvea  onder  tbe  edtfe*  uf 
it."  — Dr.  Harrli. 

One  afternoon,  about  tweaty-flTe  years  ago,  otir  Seizor  . 
saw  a  female  bee-moth  on  the  front  of  an  eke  hive  (278), 
and  noticed  that  she  was  laying  Id  the  crack,  between  two 
ekes,  through  which  the  propolis  could  be  seen;  the 
ekes  being  rabetted  to  receive  the  comb-bars,  their  thick- 
ness there  was  reduced  to  about  three-eighths  of  an  inch. 

The  moth  laid  about  ten  eggs,  then  walked  about,  seem- 
ing satisfied  with  her  work,  and  came  back  to  lay  about  the 
same  number,  repeating  the  maaceuver  several  times. 

This  shows  that  moths  may  lay  eggs  iii  the  hive  from  the 
outside,  if  propolis  ia  a  food  for  their  just-hatched  larvie. 
One  of  our  objects,  in  preserving  the  strip  around  the  hive 
to  support  the  cap  (tig.  68),  and  in  incasing  the  bottom 
(343),  was  to  hinder  the  moth. 

80!t.  ■' Assoon  as  hatched,  the  worm  enoloeea  Itself  In  a  eaae 
of  white  silk,  which  It  spins  around  Its  body ;  at  flnt  It  Is  like  a 
mer«  tliread,  but  gradually  Increases  in  slie,  and,  during  its 
growth,  feeds  upon  the  cells  around  it,  for  which  purpose  It  baa 
ODlf  to  put  f(^h  Its  bead,  and  And  iU  wants  supplied.    It  de- 


man  Iti  food  with  great  avldltj,  and,  ooosequf  ntif ,  Inoreasei  k 
mQcb  in  bulk,  tbat  ita  gallery  soon  beconi«B  too  short  and  narrow, 
and  the  creature  Is  obliged  to  tbnut  Itself  forward  and  lengtben 
tbe  gallerf ,  u  well  to  obtain  more  room  as  to  procure  an  addi- 
tional sappty  of  food.  Its  augmented  size  exposing  It  to  attacks 
from  surrounding  foes,  tbe  nary  Insect  fortlfles  its  new  abode  with 
additional  ttroDgth  and  thickness,  by  blending  with  the  Slamenta 
of  its  silken  covering  a  mixture  of  wax  and  Its  own  excrement, 
Ecir  the  external  barrier  of  a  new  ^llery ,*  the  inttriar  and  paitl- 


Tlf.  IM. 

oiLLKBT  or  HOTH  wonu. 

tlonsof  which  are  lined  with  a  tmootb  surface  of  white  silk,  whleh 
admits  the  ocoaalonal  moTemeDlsofthe  Intects,  without  Injury  to 
Ita  delicate  texture. 

"In  perfonning  these  operations,  tbe  insect  might  be  expected 
to  meet  with  opposition  from  the  bees,  and  to  be  gradually 
rendered  more  ssiallable  as  It  advanced  In  age.  It  never,  how* 
ever,  expoees  any  part  but  Its  head  and  neck,  both  of  which  are 
eovered  with  stoat  helmets,  or  scales.  Impenetrable  to  the  sllog 
of  a  bee,  aa  li  the  oompositlon  of  the  galleries  tbat  surround  It."— 

900.   Hie  worm  is  here  givea  of  full  size,  ftad  with  all  its 


pecalisritlM.     The  scaly  head   \s   shown  in   one   of  the 
worms;  while  the   three   pairs  of  claw-lilte  fore  ie<;s,  and 

*  ThU  wpMtmtatlnii  of  Uw  wab.  orgallerr  of  the  worm.  «*b  eopleJ  from 

the  fiT«  pairs  of  hind  ones,  ue  delineated.  'Hie  tul  is  abo 
futnUhed  with  two  of  these  lega.  Tb«  breotbiiig  b^its  vn 
seen  on  th«  b»ck. 

807-  Wax  b  the  chief  food  of  thes«  worma,  but  b.i  Dr. 
Doahoff  B»T3 :  "  Iattic  fed  exclnsirely  oo  pur*  wai  wiB 
die,  WAX  being  s  DOD-nitrogeDous  (SSI)  aubstBi>cv.  >ivl 
Hot  funufthiBg  the  xJimeDL  required  for  their  perftrct  iJcTel- 
opoieot;"  and  bis  atnt^ment  agrees  with  the  fad  thai  tbdr 
lame  prefer  the  brood-comba,  whioh  are  lined  with  tbr  Hkitu 
oast  awmjr  by  the  bee-tame  (167).  and  which,  fn  Cfioto- 
qoence.  are  more  liable  to  be  derotuvd  than  the  nuw  unca. 
la  tact,  thej  eat  pollen  and  propolis,  and  while  inafciD(  their 
eocoons,  Ihej  eren  seem  to  relish  wooily  fibre,  for  tbej 
often  eat  into  the  wood  ot  tbe  frames  or  of  thebivcaln  whlcb 
tber  are  altowed  to  propagate,  while  comb-fouodaUon  re- 
malm  aJmost  antoucbed  by  them. 

808.  When  obliged  to  steal  thetr  lining  among  a  Mtuq^ 
cok>nT  of  bees.  Iher  seldom  fare  well  enongh  to  reai^  the 
sue  which  thej  attain  when  rioting  at  pleasure  among  the  (nil 
eomhs  of  a  diacoursged  population.  In  about  three  weeta, 
the  lame  st'^p  eating,  and  seek  a  suitable  plaoa  for  encas- 
ing thecosclves  in  their  Eilkj  shroad.  Id  hires  where  tbej 
rdgn  unmolested,  almost  any  place  will  answer  their  pur- 
pose, and  they  often  pile  their  cocooits  upon  OM  I 
or  join  them  together  in  long  rows.  They  s 
cupT  the  empty  comb^.  ao  that  their  cocoons  resemble  the 
capping  of  t  be  honey-cells.  In  Fig.  193,  Hr.  TSdd  baa 
given  a  drawing,  accurate  in  size  and  form,  of  a  curious 
in^^taace  of  tbis  kiad.  The  black  spots,  resembling  grains 
of  t:uni>ow<ler.  are  the  excrements  of  the  worms. 

If  the  colony  i*  siroug,  the  worm  runs  a  dangerous  gairit- 
let.  as  it  pas^e*.  ia  search  of  some  crevice,  through  the 
ranks  of  it.<  enraged  foes.  Its  motions,  however,  are  ex- 
ceedingly quick,  and  it  is  full  of  cunning  devices,  being 
able  to  cra<rl  backwards,  to  twist  round  on  itself,  to  curl  up 

Tni  I 



ftliDost  ioto  a  knot,  and  to  flatten  itself  out  Uke  a  pancake. 
If  obliged  to  leave  the  hire,  it  gets  under  some  board  or 
concealed  crack,  spina  its  cocoon,  and  patiently  awaits  its 
traoB  formation. 

800.  The  time  required  for  llic  laryx  to  break  fi>r<1i  ialo 
wioged  insects,  varies  with  the  teiii|i(Tatur«  to  witiuli  they 
are  exposed,  and  the  season  of  the  jcar  when  they  spin 
their  cocoons.      We  have  known  them   to  spin  and  hatch  in 

461  ENEMIKS   or    BEES. 

ten  or  eleTen  days ;  and  they  ottea  spia  ao  late  in  the  Fall, 
&s  not  to  emerge  until  the  easuiog  Spring. 

810.  In  NorlLern  latitudes  where  the  thcnnomrlcr 
ranges  for  days  and  weeks  below  10^  the  bee-moth-" oitb 
tun  winter  only  in  the  hive  near  the  bee-cluBter.  It  i»  k 
fact  worthy  of  notice  that  Apiaries  that  are  wintered  in  l\$ 
cellar  aie  more  annoyed  by  the  moth  during  the  loUowiog 
Summer  than  those  that  are  wintered  out  of  doors,  tiecftuse 
none  of  the  larvm  of  the  moth  perish. 

Dr.  DonhoB  says  that  the  larvte  become  motionless  at  a 
temperature  of  38*  to  40",  and  entirely  torpid  at  a  tower 
temperature.  A  number,  which  be  left  all  Winter  in  hia 
summei-houae,  revived  in  the  Spring,  and  passed  tbrougU 
their  natural  changes.  This  was  in  Germany  where  ll)e 
Winters  are  milder  than  in  our  Northern  and  Middle 

-'  If,  when  the  tliermomet«r  itood  at  10°,  I  dissected  a  ebiyutU, 
It  was  not  frozen,  bnt  congealed  Immediately  sfterwsrdB.  Thii 
ehowB  that,  at  ao  low  a  temperatnre,  the  vital  force  Is  safflcieni  lo 
resist  frost.  In  the  hive,  the  ohiysallds  and  larv»,  in  v&riani 
stages  of  development,  pass  the  Winter  in  a  state  of  torpor,  in  cor- 
ners and  crevices,  and  among  the  waste  on  the  bottom-boards.  In 
March  or  April,  they  revive,  and  the  beet  of  strong  oolooles  com- 
mence operations  for  dislodging  them."  —  Dohboff. 

Some  larvte  which  Mr.  Iiangetroth  exposed  to  a  tempera- 
ture of  6°  below  zero,  froze  solid,  and  never  revived.  Others, 
after  remaining  for  eight  honra  in  a  temperature  of  about 
12°,  seemed,  after  reviving,  to  remain  for  weeks  in  a  crippled 


''The  eggs  of  the  bee-moth  are  perfectly  round,  and  very  smsll, 
being  only  About  one-eighth  of  a  line  In  diameter.  In  tbe  duels  of 
the  ovarium,  thej  are  ranged  together  In  tbe  Torm  of  a  rosarj. 
They  are  not  developed  consecutively,  like  those  of  the  queen  bee. 
but  are  found  in  the  ducts,  fully  and  perfectly  formed,  a  few  daii 
after  the  femuie  moth  emerges  from  tbe  oocoon.  Shedepoelisihem. 
nsDally,  in  little  clusters  on  the  combs.    If  we  wish  to  witness  ibt 

TBS   BKB-HOTH.  465 

dtoeharge  of  the  egga.  It  li  only  neoesaai?  to  Bette  k  fommle  moth, 
two  or  three  dayi  old,  with  finger  and  thumb,  by  the  hewl  —  she 
wUltnftantly  protmdeheroTlpoaltor,  and  the  eggimay  then  b« 
duttnoUy  wen  paaiing  along  through  the  semi-transparent  daet. 


■*  Lut  Snmmer  I  reared  a  bee-moth  larva  In  a  email  box.  U 
■ponft  oocoon,  ftom  which  iMued  a  femule  niuth.  Holding  her  by 
the  head,  I  allowed  her  to  deposit  eggn  on  s  piece  of  honey-cumb. 
Three  weeks  aRerwards,  1  examined  the  comb,  and  found  on  it 
MOM  web  and  two  larvn.    The  eggs  were  all  shrivelled  and  dried 

np,  Ktoeft  a  few  wUdt  wen  perTofitcd.  mnd  ftoin  wbieb.  I  «>i^ 
pM*.  ttw  lame  emerged.  Tfal*  appean  lo  be  a  caae  of  trie  p\> 
tlwogepwia  in  the  bee^noUt."  —  IVoMtlattd  fivm   Dm.  Doxiiorr 

tjS.  WiGSOL 

811.  In  Fig-  194,  ili.  Tidd  has  taithrairjr  delinnled, 
and  3<r.  Smitb  akillfuDj-  eagrsved,  the  blade  mass  of  tan- 
gled webs,  cooDODis.  escrements,  and  perforated  combs,  wbicfa 
nay  be  foond  in  a  bive  where  tbe  worms  bare  completed 
their  work  of  destrnctioa. 

Tbc  entnuice  of  a  moth  into  a  hive  and  the  ravage*  com- 
mitted bj  her  progenj.  forcibly  illuatrate  the  haroc  whkb 
▼ice  often  makes  when  admitted  to  prey  unchecked  on  tbe 
precioas  treasures  of  the  human  heart.  Only  some  tlnjr 
^gB  are  deposited  bj  the  insidious  moth,  which  give  birtb 
to  very  innocenl-Iooking  worms  ;  but  let  them  once  get  the 
control,  and  the  fragrance*  of  tbe  honied  dome  is  soon  ooi^ 
rupted.  the  hum  o(  happy  industry  stilled,  and  everyl'ilng 
useful  and  beautiful  ruthlessly  destroyed. 

As  a  feeble  colony  is  often  nnable  to  cover  all  its  combs, 
the  outside  ones  may  become  filled  witii  tbe  eggs  of  the 
moth.  The  discouraged  aspect  of  the  bees  soon  indicates 
that  there  is  trouble  of  some  kind  within,  aad  the  bottom- 
board  will  be  covered  with  pieces  of  bee-bread  mixed  with 
the  excrement  of  tbe  worms. 

If  a  feeble  colony  cannot  be  arengtkaied  bo  as  to  proteii  ita 
empty  combs,  the  carefid  bee-keeper  %mU  take  them  away  uniif 
the  bees  are  numerous  enough  to  need  tliem. 

813.  Combs  having  no  brood,  from  dead  colonies,  or 
surplus  combs,  with  or  without  honey,  should  be  smoked 
with  the  fumes  of  burning  sulphur,  to  kill  tbe  eg!^  or 
worms  of  the  motli  when  kept  from  the  bees  in  tlie  month  « 
of  June,  July,  August,  and  September.  The  bos.  hive, 
iir  room  in  which  tbcy  are  kept  should  be  tightly  closed 
to  prevent  tbe  gas  from  escaping  till   it  has  done  its  work. 

*  Tb<  odor  of  the  moth  knil  Im  s  !■  Ter;  oSuulv*. 


In  smoking  comb-honey  in  a  room,  the  sulphor  may  be 
placed  on  hot  Coals  in  a  dish,  and  care  should  be  taken 
not  to  use  too  much  of  it,  as  the  gas  has  the  effect  of  turn- 
ing the  propolis  to  a  greenish  color,  quite  damaging  to  the 
looks  of  the  beautiful  sections.  Enough  smoke  to  kill  the 
flieSy  in  a  room,  will  be  found  sufficient.  Dry  combs  kept 
oyer  Winter  in  a  well  closed  room  without  a  fire,  are  not  in 
danger  of  the  moth  the  following  Summer,  unless  they  are 
in  some  manner  exposed.  Combs,  in  which  there  have  been 
moths,  should  be  examined  occasionally,  to  be  smoked  again 
if  any  worms  are  found. 

A  bee-keeper  of  Switzerland,  Mr.  Castellaz,  keeps  his 
combs  in  a  closed  box,  in  which  he  places  some  lumps  of 
camphor.  He  says  that  bees  accept  these  combs,  even  when 
impregnated  with  the  odor  of  camphor. 

In  Italy  where  the  moths  are  very  troublesome,  on  account 
of  the  mildness  of  the  Winters,  some  bee-keepers  pile 
their  combs  flat  in  a  box  in  which  they  have  put  about  one 
inch  of  fine  dry  sand ;  all  the  cells  of  every  layer  of  comb 
are  filled  with  sand,  and  the  last  one  is  entirely  covered  with 
it.  The  sand  is  shaken  out,  before  the  combs  are  melted 
or  returned  to  the  bees. 

813.  Italian  bees,  unless  exceedingly  weak  and  queenless, 
(541^2),  will  defend  a  large  number  of  combs  against  moths. 
One  of  our  neighbors,  who  had,  occasionally,  helped  us  in 
the  Apiary,  after  witnessing  our  success  in  bee  culture, 
bought  a  colony  of  Italian  bees  and  divided  (470)  it  into 
three  swarms,  without  regard  to  the  scantiness  of  the  crop. 
His  swarms  havin'^  dwindled  to  naught,  he  returned  their 
combs  to  the  impoverished  colony,  whose  population  was 
unable  to  cover  more  than  two  or  three  combs.  But  the 
returned  combs  had  not  been  protected  against  moths, 
which  hatched  so  numerous  that  our  neighbor,  surprised  to 
see  about  as  many  moths  as  bees  going  out  of  the  hive, 
came  to  us  for   advice.     On    opening    the    hive,  we  found 

three  combs  of  brood  crowded  with  bees,  and  seveD  others 
that  were  a.  perfect  mass  of  webs,  spotted  with  excremeuU. 
The  bees  were  all  on  Ibeir  combs  and  the  moths  on  Uictrs: 
cot  one  worm  could  be  found  on  either  of  the  three  oomba, 
protected  by  the  Italians.  Both  populations,  the  one  of 
bees,  the  other  of  moths,  seemed  to  dwell  barmoDiouBly 
□ear  each  other. 

814.  The  most  fruitful  cause  of  the  ravages  of  the  molb 
still  remains  to  be  described.  If  a  colony  becomes  kopt- 
legsly  queei^ess  (510),  it  mvst,  un/ess  othencise  lUatroytd, 
inevitat'li/  fait  a  prey  to  the  bee-moth.  By  watching,  in  glu« 
hires,  the  proceedings  of  colonies  purposely  made  queen- 
lesa,  we  have  ascertained  that  they  make  little  or  no  resist- 
ance to  her  entrance,  and  allow  her  to  lay  her  eggs  where 
she  pleases.  The  norms,  after  hatching,  appear  to  hare 
their  own  way,  and  are  even  more  at  home  than  the  dispir- 
ited bees. 

How  worthless,  then,  to  a  hopelessly  queenless  colony, 
are  all  the  traps  and  other  devices  which,  formerly,  hare 
been  bo  much  relied  upon.  Any  passage  which  admits  s 
bee  is  large  enough  for  the  moth,  and  if  a  single  female 
enters  such  a  hire,  she  may  lay  eggs  enough  to  destroy  it, 
however  strong.  Under  a  low  estimate,  she  would  lay,  st 
least,  two  hundred  eggs  in  the  hire,  and  the  second  genera- 
tion will  count  by  thousands,  while  those  of  the  third  will 
exceed  a  million. 

The  fact  that  hopelessly  queenless  stocks  do  not  oppose 
any  effectual  resistance  to  the  moths  or  worms,  has  for  a 
long  time  been  well  known  to  the  Germans.  Ur.  Wagner 
informed  us  "that  their  best  treatises,  for  many  years, 
speak  of  this  as  a  settled  fact,  bo  that  it  has  become  an 
axiom  that,  it  a  colony  is  orerpowered  by  robber-bees,  its 
owner  is  not  entitled  to  compensation,  tu  tt  waa,  in  alt  like- 
lihood, queenless,  and  tvould  certainly  have  been  destroyed  by 
the  moth." 

TUB   BES-MOTH.  469 

In  the  Ohio  Cultivator  for  1849,  page  185,  Micajah  T. 
JohnsQD  says: — ^'  One  thing  is  certain — if  bees,  from  any 
cause,  shoold  lose  their  queen,  and  not  have  the  means  in 
their  power  of  raising  another,  the  miller  and  the  worms 
soon  take  possession.  /  believe  no  hive  is  destroyed  by  worms 
while  an  efficient  queen  remains  in  it." 

This  seems  to  be  the  earliest  published  notice  of  this  im- 
portant fact  by  any  American  observer. 

It  is  certain  that  a  queenless  hive  seldom  maintains  a 
guard  at  the  entrance  after  night,  and  does  not  fill  the  air 
with  the  pleasant  voice  of  happy  industry.  Even  to  our 
doll  ears,  the  difference  between  the  hum  of  a  prosperous 
hive  and  the  unhappy  note  of  a  despairing  one  is  often 
•offidently  .obvious ;  may  it  not  be  even  more  so  to  the 
acute  senses  of  the  provident  mother-moth  ? 

Her  unerring  sagacity  resembles  the  instinct  by  which 
birds  that  prey  upon  carrion,  single  out  from  the  herd  a 
diseased  animal,  hovering  over  its  head  with  their  dismal 
croatdngs,  or  sitting  in  ill-omened  flocks  on  the  surround- 
ing trees,  watching  it  as  its  life  ebbs  away,  and  snapping 
their  blood-thirsty  beaks,  impatient  to  tear  out  its  eyes, 
JuBt  glazing  in  death,  and  banquet  on  its  flesh,  still  warm 
with  the  blood  of  life.  Let  any  fatal  accident  befall  an 
animal,  and  how  soon  will  you  see  them, — 

"First  a  speck  and  then  a  Vulture," 

speeding,  from  all  quarters  of  the  heavens,  on  their  eager 
flight  to  their  destined  prey,  when  only  a  short  time  before 
not  one  could  be  perceived. 

When  a  colony  becomes  hopelessly  queenless,  even  should 
the  bees  retain  their  wonted  zeal  in  gathering  stores  and 
defending  themselves  against  the  moth,  they  must  as  cer- 
tainly perish  as  a  carcass  must  decay,  even  if  it  is  not 
assailed  by  filthy  flies  and  ravenous  worms.  Occasion-' 
ally,  after  the  death  of  the  bees,  large  stores  of  hone^  as^ 

4T0  I  MEuiea  or  dees. 

found  ia  their  hives,  SiuU  instancea,  bowever,  «re  rate ;  (« 
ft  nioLherless  hive  is  almost  always  assanlteil  by  stroogu 
GuloiiicH,  whicb,  aci^ming  to  have  an  instinctiTe  knowletifc 
of  its  or  J  ill  nil  ago,  h»st«n  to  take  possession  of  its  spoils; 
or,  II  il  eac-apc  the  Scylla  of  these  pitiless  |>lunderers,  it  V 
dathud  u|>on  a  more  mercilcM  Charybdia,  when  the  ni^ 
crcant  moths  find  <  ut  its  destitution. 

81  ff.  Tlie  iutroductioD  of  movable- frame  hivca  and  Ita- 
lian beoa,  nitb  the  new  syatum  of  management,  haa  done 
away  niih  the  fear  of  the  mulh.  It  Is  uo  longer  onnnnuB 
to  hear  bee-kcepcrs  a|icnlt  of  having  "gooit  luck"  or  "bad 
liiclt"  witb  thetr  bees ;  as  bees  are  now  managed,  toaxm 
or  failure  never  deponda  on  what  is  called  "  luck." 

To  OKe  acquatnted  with  (A«  hdbUa  of  ttc  moth,  the  fta^ 
keeper  who  is  coTiMantly  lamenting  ila  ravage*,  aerniu  almotl 
aa  murk  deluded  as  a  farmer  would  be,  who,  after  tearcKing 
diligently  for  his  cow,  and  finding  her  nearly  devoured  by 
carrion  worvu,  should  denounce  these  worthy  icavengert  a* 
the  primary  cause  of  her  untimely  end. 

The  bee-moth  has,  for  thousanda  of  years,  supported 
itself  on  the  labora  of  the  bee,  and  there  is  no  reaaon  to 
suppnac  that  it  will  ever  become  ex  terminated.  In  a  state 
of  nnture,  a  qiicentcsa  hive,  or  one  whose  inmatea  have 
died,  being  of  no  further  account,  the  miasioD  of  the  moth 
is  to  pither  up  ita  frngmcnts  that  nothing  may  be  loat. 

From  these  remarka,  the  bee-keeper  will  see  the  means 
on  which  he  must  rely,  to  protect  his  hives  from  the 
moth.  Knowing  that  strong  colonies  which  have  a  fertile 
queen,  can  take  care  of  themselves  In  almost  any  kind  of 
hive,  he  should  do  nil  he  can  to  keep  them  in  this  condition. 
They  will  thus  do  more  to  defend  themselves  than  if  he  de- 
voted the  whole  of  his  lime  to  fighting  the  moth.* 

•ln*i|>«l«io«l  bea-kaepen,  who  )m«eliia  that  a  oolanr  la  naadjr  ndaai 
whan  Uuf  flod  ■  hw  wanna,  aboold  (amambar  tkat  alBoat  araiy  aoloaf 

THB   BBK-MOTH.  471 

It  is  hardly  necessary,  after  the  preceding  remarks,  to 
say  much  upon  the  various  contrivances  to  which  some  re- 
sorted as  a  safeguard  against  the  bee-moth.  The  idea  that 
gauze-wire  doors,  to  be  shut  at  dusk  and  opened  again  at 
morning,  can  exclude  the  moth,  will  not  weigh  much  with 
those  who  have  seen  them  on  the  wing,  in  dull  weather,  long 
before  the  bees  have  ceased  their  work.  Even  if  they  could 
be  excluded  by  such  a  contrivance,  it  would  require,  on  the 
part  of  those  using  it,  a  regularity  almost  akin  to  that  of 
the  heavenly  bodies. 

An  ingenious  device  has  been  invented  for  dispensing 
with  such  close  supervision,  by  governing  the  entrances  of 
all  the  hives  by  a  long  lever-like  hen-roust,  so  that  they 
might  be  regularly  closed  by  the  crowing  and  cackling  tribe 
when  they  go  to  rest  at  night,  and  opened  again  when  they 
fly  from  their  perch  to  greet  the  merry  morn.  Alas  I  that 
so  much  skill  should  have  been  all  in  vain !  Some  chickens 
are  sleepy,  and  wish  to  retire  before  the  bees  have  com- 
pleted their  work,  while  others,  from  ill-health  or  laziness, 
have  no  taste  for  early  rising,  and  sit  moping  on  their 
roost,  long  after  the  cheerful  sun  has  purpled  the  glowing 
£^t.  Even  if  this  device  could  entirely  exclude  the  moth, 
it  could  not  save  a  colony  which  has  lost  its  queen.  The 
troth  is,  that  such  contrivances  are  equivalent  to  the  look 
put  upon  the  stable  door  after  the  horse  has  been  stolen ;  or, 
to  attempts  to  banish  the  chill  of  death  by  warm  covering, 
or  artificial  heat. 

The  prudent  bee-keeper,  remembering  that  **  prevention 
is  better  than  cure,  '*  will  take  pains  to  destroy  the  larvae  of 

(•^weially  blftek  bees)  hnweyer  strong  or  healthy,  has  some  of  these  enemlM 
lurking  about  its  premises. 

The  Ute  Mr.  U.  Qulnby,  of  New  York,  whose  common-sense  treatli* 
OQ  Bee-keepiog,  lately  revised  by  his  son-in-law,  L.  C.  Root,  will  richly  repay 
ptrosal,  la  of  opioioo  that  some  of  the  imperfect  bees  carried  oat  of  the  bira 
la  tbm  Spdng,  haTe  been  destroyed  by  the  worms .  which  ha?e  made  their  waj 
tkroigfa  tlia  eomb. 

The  cfltnnee  »bc»td  ■ 
■Bow  Bee  to  pMK  (S4S). 

SI  7.  Bms.     Tery  tew  birds  ve  foikd  of  bees.     Tte 

King-bird  (TyroKmtu  miuieapay,  whidi  deronrs  tbem  bj 
•cores,  u  said — when  hecsn  have hia  choice — to  eat(Mil;tb« 
drones  :  bot  u  be  catcbea  bees  on  tbe  blossonu — which  are 
oever  fre^aented  b;  these  fat  and  la^  gcntlemeii  —  the 
iadaitrinus  worken  most  often  fall  a  pnj  to  hia  fatal  snap. 
There  ia  good  reason  to  snspect  that  Uiia  gonrmand  caD 
distingafsb  between  ui  empty  bee  in  search  of  food,  and 
one  which,  retarning  laden  to  its  fragrant  home,  is'in  excel- 
lent condition   to    glide  —  already  sweetened — down  hia 

818.  Tbe  bee-keepers  of  England  comptaia  of  the  spai^ 
rows,  which  they  accuse  of  eating  bees.  If  these  birds 
add  thismischitf  toso  manj'  others  of  whioh  they  are  guilty, 
the  bee-kecper.i  fihould  find  some  means  of  getting  rid  of 
them.  In  the  Vo^ges  (France)  most  of  the  farmers  suspend 
earthen  pots  to  the  walls  of  their  bams  in  which  the  spar- 
rows make  thtir  nests.     Those  jug-shape  pots  areexamined 


proliiilT  b««awot 

•I,  bnl  DM  th* 

BIRDS.  475 

every  week  and  the  young  birds  are  killed  as  soon  as  they 
ar^  ready  to  fly  out,  and  are  put  into  the  frying-pan.  We 
have  seen  as  many  as  five  or  six  dozen  pots  on  the  same 
wall,  nearly  all  filled  with  nests,  for  sparrows  raise  many 
broods  every  year. 

In  Italy  the  consumption  of  these  birds  is  carried  on,  on  a 
large  scale.  Not  only  are  the  churches  riddled  with  thous- 
ands of  holes,  in  which  the  sparrows  make  their  nests,  but 
there  are,  at  the  road  crossings,  high  square  towers,  which 
are  built  for  this  purpose.  An  overseer  has  them  locked ; 
He  climbs  inside,  and  clips  the  wings  of  the  young,  to  com 
pel  them  to  stay  till  they  are  full  grown. 

During  the  Franco- Italian  war  against  Austria,  the  French 
soldiers  bought  the  young  sparrows,  which  they  found 
delicious  eating.  If  the  sparrows  destroy  our  bees,  can  we 
not  destroy  them?     It  is  better  to  eat  than  to  be  eaten ! 

If — as  in  the  olden  time  of  fables —  birds  could  be  moved 

by  human  language,  it  would  be  worth  while  to  post  up,  in 

the  vicinity  of  our  Apiaries,  the  old  Greek  poet's  address  to 

the  swallow: 

*'  Attic  maiden,  honey  fed, 

Chirping  warbler,  bears't  away 
Thou  the  busy  buzzing  bee, 

To  thy  callow  brood  a  prey  f 
Warbler,  thou  a  warbler  seize  ? 

Winged,  one  with  lovely  wings? 
Guest  thyself,  by  Summer  brought, 

Yellow  guests  whom  Summer  brings? 
Wilt  not  quickly  let  it  drop  ? 

Tis  not  fair;  indeed,  'tis  wrong, 
That  the  ceaseless  warbler  should 

Die  by  mouth  of  ceaseless  song. " 

810.  No  Apiarist  ought  ever  to  encourage  the  destruction 
of  any  birds,  except  the  too-plentiful  sparrows,  because  of 
their  fondness  for  bees.  Unless  we  can  check  the  custom 
of  destroying,  on  any  pretense,  our  insectivorous  birds^  we 


KXKUtKS  or    BEES. 

Shalt  8000,  Qot  onlj-  be  deprired  of  tbcir  i 
among  the  leafy  braaches,  but  shall  lament,  more  and  motf, 
tbe  JDcreaae  of  insects  (rom  irbose  ravagva  notliiiig  but 
thc9e  birds  can  protect  qb.  Let  those  who  can  enjoj  no 
music  made  by  these  winged  choristers  of  the  skies,  escrpt 
that  of  thdr  agtniaug  screams  as  tbey  fall  before  ihetx 
well  aimed  weapons,  and  flutter  ont  their  iQn»c«nt  llret  be- 
fore their  heartless  gaze,  drire  away,  as  tar  aa  they  please 
from  thdr  cruel  premises,  all  the  little  birds  that  they  can- 
not 'destroy,  and  tbey  will,  eventoAlly,  reap  the  trttita  of 
their  folly,  when  the  caterpillars  weave  their  destroying 
webs  over  their  teaOess  tre«s.  and  insects  of  aU  kinds  liol 
in  glee  on  Ihi?:r  t'^asre  !  h nrrvsts. 

820.  Taij  ■■■,.-.  ;-  .  iir  .Irones.  b"t  not  workers.  Onr.: 
we  noticed  a  rooster  seemingly  eating  bees  at  the  entrance 
of  a  hive.  The  bees  were  then  killing  their  drones  ( 192). 
On  approaching  the  hiye,  we  saw  him  carefnlly  pick 
ont  a  drone  from  among  the  bees,  shake  off  a  worker -bee 
which  had  clang  to  him  and  swallow  the  drone.  Young 
drones  can  be  fed  to  chickens,  who  soon  learn  to  eat  them 
greedily,  but  if  a  worker  bee  is  found  among  them  they  will 
shake  their  beads  at  her,  with  a  knowing  look  of  disgust. 
Young  ducks,  if  insufficiently  fed,  will  eat  bees  and  are 
often  killed  by  being  stung  while  swallowing  them. 

821.  Other  emkmies. — ^The  toad  is  a  well-known  deTonrer 
of  bees.  Sitting,  towards  evening,  under  a  hive,  he  will 
sweep  into  his  mouth,  with  his  swiftly-darting  tongue,  many 
a  late  retnrnius  bee,  as  it  falls,  heavily  laden,  to  the  ground : 
bill  as  be  is  aho  a  diligent  consumer  of  variou-t  injurious 
injects,  he  can  plead  equal  immunity  with  the  insectivorous 

It  may  seem  amazing  that  birds  and  toads  can  swallow 
bees  without  being  stung  to  death.  They  seldom,  however, 
meddle  with  any,  except  those  returning  fully  laden  to  their 
bives,  or  such  as,  bein^  awa^  trom  haoM,  are  indiapoaed  to 


reseat  an  iojaijr.  As  they  are  usually  swallowed  without 
being  crushed,  they  do  not  iastinctively  thrust  out  their 
stings,  and  before  they  can  recover  from  their  surprise, 
they  are  safely  entombed. 

822.  Bears  are  exceedingly  fond  of  honey ;  and  io  coun- 
tries  where  they  abound,  great  precautions  are  needed  to 
prevent  them  from  destroying  the  hives. 

la  that  quaint  but  admirably  common-sense  work,  entitled, 
"  Tha  Feminine  Monarchie,  utriUen  out  of  Experience,  by 
Charle$  Butler;  printed  in  Ike  year  1609,"  we  have  aa 
amusing  adventure,  related  by  a  Muscovite  ambassador  to 

"  A  neighbor  of  mine,"  laltb  be,  "  In  Rearchlng  tn  the  woods 
for  boney,  slipped  down  tnto  a  great  hollow  tree,  and  there  sunk 
Into  a  lake  of  honey  np  to  the  breast;  where— when  he  had  stuck 
fast  two  days  calling  and  crying  ont  In  va[n  for  belp,  because 
nobody  In  the  meanwblle  came  nigh  that  solitary  place  — at 
lengtb,  when  he  was  out  of  all  hope  of  life,  he  was  strangely 
delivered  by  the  means  of  a  great  bear,  which,  coming  hither 
about  the  same  business  that  he  did,  and  smelling  the  honey, 
stirred  wUb  hli  striving,  clambered  np  to  Ihe  top  of  the  tree, 
and  then  began  to  lower  hlmseir  down,  backwards.  Into  It.  The 
man  bethinking  himself,  and  knowing  that  the  worst  was  but 
death,  which  In  that  place  he  was  sure  of,  becllpt  the  bear  fast 
with  both  hands  about  the  loins,  and,  withal,  made  an  outcry  as 
lead  as  be  could.  The  bear  being  thus  suddenly  aOrigbted, 
what  with  the  handling  and  what  with  the  noise,  raade  up  again 
with  all  speed  possible.  The  man  held,  and  the  bear  pulled, 
nntll,  with  main  force,  he  had  drawn  him  out  of  the  mire ;  and 
then,  being  let  go.  away  he  trots,  more  afeard  than  hurt,  leaving 
the  smeared  swain  in  a  Joyful  fear." 

823.  The  braula  rxca  or  bee-louse,  exists  in  Italy  and 
other  warm  countries.  Dr.  Uubiiii  h:ia  seen  queens  so  com- 
pletely covered  with  tlicm,  that  only  iheir  legs  could  be  seen. 
These  Jlce,  whose  aeconii  name,  cceca,  means  blind,  have 
been  often  found  >>y  us  on  imi'orted  (lucens  on  their  arrival. 
They  are  so  large   that   they   can   cu£\\;j  \i«  ViCkc^q  o&  ^:!aA 

9:K.   Oimd  i/nfy.  la  Mvti«M>s(T91).   pot  up  ia  entw 

of  :^  .-^.  n.  .-c  4^  Mva»ar».  wHh  flaas  .oo  the  side,  adta 
ac^  rvn^::.;.  .  ia>i  wt>r«  i£  mt  for  ctegnater  cflst  of  pnidac- 
Ci-a.  U'i  :^v  i:J!'.-ii!':i  of  »fe  cr^ikipiXtaDon.  this  kiiMl 
wuu^a  ^<f  r3,id«ii  «xk.-itERT<HT.  Oik  objcctioa  to  it.  bv  Urge 
proiuv-er^,  .3  cnsc  ;:  L-aanot  ihrays  b«  kept  is  good  shape, 
tpunj  i^^  Tear  '.^  »noCQ<r,  owing  to  ttB  tatdtacy^  to"s*e«t." 
Sweaniig  Uki;^  pia>.-«  in  v-omb-hoaej- whick  haa  been  Malsd 

nr.  479 

by  tha  b«M  before  it  was  fall;  ripened  or  evApoiated 
(744),  daring  t  plentiful  honey  harvest.  Hie  changes  of 
temperature  in  Spring  and  Summer  cause  a  certain  amount 
of  fermentation  in  it,  exactly  as  in  the  housekeepers'  sealed 
preseirea,  when  not  sufficiently  heated  or  sweetened.  The 
result  is  a  bursting  of  the  cappioga,  by  the  pressure  of  the 
expanding  honey,  which  runs  out  and  over  the  comb  and 
renders  it  unsalable.  The  same  expansion  sometimes  talces 
place  in  granulated  extracted  honey  accompanied  by  a  slight 

827.  It  is  also  held,  by  some  leading  Apiarists,  that  the 
eel  Is,  although  sealed  are  not  moisture-proof,  and  that  comb- 
honey  gathers  water  from  the  air,  till  it  overfills  the  cell 
and  escapes  through  its  pores.  For  this  reason  they  keep 
their  comb-honey  in  a  warm  dry  room.  This  ia  a  good  thing 
to  do  in  every  case.  Honey  is  hygrometric,  and  whenever 
exposed,  gathers  moisture  rapidly,  so  that  when  kept  in 
a  damp  place,  a  tew  unsealed  or  damaged  cells  very  readily 
overflow,  with  watery'honey,  that  daubs  every  thing.  There- 
fore, whether  we  believe  that  the  sealed  cells  are  air-tight 
or  not  (263))  we  should  keep  our  honey  in  a  dry  place  at 
all  times. 

To  prevent  the  leaking  honey  in  sections  from  running 
out  of  a  crate  and  daubing  other  boxes,  a  sheet  of  strong 
manila  paper  should  be  placed  at  the  bottom  of  each  case, 
with  the   edges  folded  up  slightly,  say  half  an  inch. 

'*  Tbe  oaMS  for  shipping  and  retailing  honej,  should  be  light, 
and  glued  on  one  or  botti  Bidei.  llioH  holding  but  one  tier  ore 
belt.  The  Mctlons  should  reat  on  narrow  strips  of  wood  1  Inch 
thick,  tacked  to  the  bottom  or  the  case  over  n  sheet  or  roanlla 
paper.  This  la  to  preterve  tbe  boxes  from  being  daubed,  io  case 
the  boner  drips. 

>■  'iliese  eases  sboold  bo  In  readiness  before  the  bonej  Ih  readj 
to  be  taken  off. "  —  (Ouvbr  Fostkb). 

S28.  "Glazed  sections" — one  glass  on  eacli  sido  of 
Mcb  MCtioo— have  been  largely  sold  in  the  East;  but  this 

aoestr  a  QLASK.    tUmmm 



Ti  ij  ■■!■  lull  iii^M  ■■III  M  li  ■■ 

«f  g9>^  is  tTABst.  tkoa  WK  bawe  aC  [m  i  in  ■! 

SSflL  TtetainfalfeaiwcMBfaractnetadhMWTinoak 
bamta,  wiaefe  k««  «MCBBed  alcokoL  TWy  an  gnmnitd 
ia^^e,  with  sane  coMpaMtiM,  to  f  ti^  th«  ileahol  fnun 
joa^lsg  chFoogft  the  wood,  aad  tUs  gam,  or  ^ae,  prcTenta 
£Le  kaka-jg  of  hoiMT.  WUakj  bancfa  uc  oAea  nnfit  to 
cc!i:A:a  hoa-^y,  tn-  tbej  are  anaHf  thaticd  oa  the  inside, 
rad  mcte^  <:(  chArcoal  bH  iato  iha  hoaey  and  spcnJ  tti 
3pf«3ruio<.  W«  keep  oar  empty  boncia  in  a  dr;  pUc«. 
A-  £..<:)□  3j  illid.  th^T  mn  bailed  and  roQed  into  a  cool 
tn  I  dry  c«Iiu.  where  tb«T  Rinaia  until  the  boocj  selliog 
season.  «tt!<.'h  begicia  in  September,  or  October.  Any  dry 
room  wlII  do.  when  a  dry  cellar  is  not  at  band,  bat  a  cellar 
bie  i.  m  re  even   temperatare  wben    cold  weather  cornea. 

S--jme  Api vUts  use  cheap  syrap  banela,  made  ot  aoft  wood, 
wbich  &re  said  to  leak  less  than  oak  bands.  Messrs.  New- 
maa  ol  Chicago  t&re.  (or  yeara,  nunnfactored  soft  wood 
honey  kegs,  whioh  hare  proved  satJafactoTj  to  many  of  oar 
friends,  as  they  are  more  easily  handled  than  larger  barrels. 

ProfetBor  of  Entomology  at  the  Michigan  Agriculiunl  College; 
Author  of  "  T!u  Btt-keepera'  Ouide." 


They  will  do  very  well  when  the  honey  is  to  be  sold  at 
wholesale,  as  the  barrel  is  usually  lost  by  the  shipper ;  but 
we  have  an  objection  to  them  for  our  own  use.  We  gen- 
eraUy  have  to  take  the  honey  out  of  them  after  it  is  granu- 
lated, to  put  it  up  for  retail  trade ;  and  the  cheap  barrels  are 
so  easily  damaged,  by  taking  the  head  out,  that  they  cannot 
be  used  more  than  one  or  two  seasons,  while  good  iron- 
bound  oak  barrels  will  last  for  years,  and  will  never  leak,  if 
managed  properly.  To  take  the  head  out,  it  should  be 
marked,  with  a  chisel,  so  as  to  replace  it  afterwards  exactly 
in  the  same  position.  A  strong  gimlet  is  screwed  into  the 
middle  of  it,  for  a  handle.  After  the  hoops  have  been 
chased  off,  the  head  can  be  pulled  out  readily,  and  it  is 
replaced  in  the  same  manner,  when  the  barrel  is  empty. 

If  the  barrels  are  damp,  when  the  honey  is  put  in,  and 
are  removed  to  a  dry  place  afterwards,  they  will  soon  leak ; 
for  honey  does  not  keep  the  wood  from  drying  and  shrink- 
ing. Honey  barrels,  then,  should  not  be  treated  in  the 
same  way  as  wine  or  cider  barrels ;  and  swelling  them,  with 
steam,  or  hot  water,  previous  to  filling  them  with  honey, 
will  not  be  of  any  benefit,  unless  they  are  kept  damp  after- 

830.  In  October,  the  honey  of  the  July  crop  is  all  granu- 
lated, and  that  of  the  September  crop  is  beginning  to  gran- 
ulate. There  are  many  different  opinions  in  regard  to  the 
causes  of  granulation.  Some  think  that  it  is  effected  by 
the  action  of  light,  but  this  is  certainly  a  mistake,  for  our 
honey  only  sees  the  light  when  extracted,  and  is  then  kept 
in  the  dark  until  sold.  We  are  more  inclined  to  think  that 
it  is  the  action  of  cold  air  which  causes  granulation ;  for 
sealed  comb-honey  generally  remains  liquid.  The  extracted 
honey,  which  we  harvest,  always  granulates.  We  have  hand- 
led liquid  honey,  however,  several  times,  but  we  have  alway$ 
found  it  to  be  unripe  ;  and  have  laid  it  down  as  a  rule  for 

ooraelTes,  that  good  honey  should  be  granulated  after  Nov- 



ember.  We  speak  of  booe;  harvested  in  the  SltMimippI 
TsUey :  sacfa  as  clorer,  baaswood,  knot-ireed,  golden  rod, 
bocfcwbeat,  Spanish -needle,  etc. 

831-  Of  California  faonej,  we  can  eay  nothiag,  bsTing  J 
ncTer  handled  it.  Bat  ire  hare  handled  LouUiaaa  hooeji 
which,  we  were  told,  would  not  graimlate  before  a  year,  and 
we  had  $caxc«ly  hadit  three  weeks  in  our  cold  ctimate,  belora 
it  beean  to  graooUte.  TiM  only  ripe  honej  which  did  Dot 
graaalate,  waa  a  lot  of  Spanish— needle  bonej,  which  bad 
been  extracted  late  in  NoTember.  It  remained  liquid  until 
Eold.  a  month  or  two  later,  and  we  ascribed  its  not  granu- 
luinf;  to  the  late  barresting  of  it. 

83S.  Etcij  bee-keeper  has  notioed  that,  at  limes,  honey 
hardens  in  retj  coarse  and  irregular  granules,  that  look  like 
lumps  of  sugar,  and  have  no  adherence  with  one  anather, 
with  a  smaU  amount  of  liquid  honey  interposed  between 
tbem ;  uid  that  at  other  timea,  the  candying  ia  compact, 
and  can  be  compared  to  the  hardening  of  lard. 

The  first  kind  of  granulation  is  alwaya  produced  io  honey 
harvested,  likectoreror  basswood,  during  the  warm  months 
of  the  ^ ear;  wbile  the  soft  candying  is  prevalent  in  tbe 
hooey  extracted  in  the  Fall.  In  France,  coarsely  granulated 
hone_v  i^  beld  as  less  valuable  than  the  fine  grained  honey, 
and  theri.'  is  a  good  reason  for  this  preference,  for  tbe 
coarsely  grauulated  boney  camiot  be  kept  aa  welt  as  the  fine 

In  this  country  also,  coarsely  granulated  honey  sells  with 
less  faL'ility  —  especially  because  maoy  ignorant  |)erson9 
ima^ue  that  it  lias  been  adulterated  with  sugar,  and  that 
the  coarse  grains  are  lumps  of  sugar. 

We    think    lliat    this  coarse  granulation  is  the   result  of 
an  ag^egattou  of  particles,  whicb,  having   an  affinity  for 
each  othei',  unite,  while  tbe  honey  remains  liquid  in  Sum- 
In  such  houey,  the  liquid  parts  come  to  the  aurface,  and 


absorbing  moisture  from  the  air,  are  very  apt  to  become 
acid  by  fermenting.  But,  even  after  granulation,  it  can 
easily  be  brought  to  a  fine  grain  by  melting  it,  and  exposing 
it  to  the  cold  of  our  Northern  Winters.  Basswood  honey 
would  even  be  benefited  by  this,  as  it  would  lose  a  little  of 
its  too  strong  fiavor. 

Basswood  and  clover  honey  are  more  apt  to  ferment  than 
any  other  class  of  honey,  even  when  thoroughly  granulated, 
if  they  remain  exposed  to  the  heat  of  the  following  Sum- 
mer, and  it  is  advisable  to  keep  these  two  kinds  in  a  cool, 
dry  place  during  the  hot  weather.  A  damp  cellar  would 
be  objectionable,  since  honey  readily  absorbs  moisture  from 
the  air. 

833.  Those  bee-keepers  who  will  follow  our  methods,  of 
extracting  (751)  after  the  honey  crop,  will  have  but  little 
trouble  with  honey  fermenting,  even  if  they  have  to  keep 
it  through  the  following  Summer.  If  any  honey  should  fer- 
ment, however,  let  them  not  think  that  it  is  spoiled,  unless 
it  was  really  unripe  and  has  turned  quite  sour.  A  slight 
amount  of  alcoholic  ferment  can  be  evaporated  readily  by 
melting  the  honey  over  water,  when  the  ferment  escapes  in 
the  shape  of  foam.  As  this  fermentation  is  caused  by  the 
presence  of  unripe  honey,  some  of  our  friends  succeed  in 
entirely  preventing  it  by  melting  all  their  honey  immedi- 
<Uely  after  granulation.  The  melting  evaporates  all  excess 
of  moisture  contained  in  it,  and  we  highly  commend  this 

Mr.  C.  F.  Muth  of  Cincinnati,  whose  large  experience 
in  handling  honey  makes  him  a  high  authorit3%  ripens  all 
his  honey  by  keeping  it  in  open  vessels  in  a  dr}'  and  ven- 
tilated room,  for  a  month  or  two  after  cxtractinir. 

834.  Melting  Honey,  Honc}'  should  never  be  ])laced 
directly  over  a  fire  to  melt  it.  The  least  over-hcatino:  will 
evaporate  its  essential  oils,  and  give  it  the  burnt  taste  of 
dark  molasses  instead.     It  should  be  put  in  a  tin  or  copper 

r  to  Ok 

xr-  ■'.ii'^B.  ububLt"  k  jm>c  jmo^  iian  -^^  Itkd  paid  lor  ibe 
^ur*  ii'.ibf^      litn  T>aiC7  nuts  m  dik  v^  did  cai  iaet  long; 

ornr     Biii  wt  ver*  irfi  w-  uadst  onr  buiK7  &icme;  if  we 

tSi^  I. -t  •liu:  -.-.  iHiI  r.  Jar  Bnle  Aren't  sotiunf . 

'•iii'jvi'.  -jvs  rtfcO^^ri  e^-ET  tiomc  *eroafi  Bospicioafi-locddiig 
ii-.'i.f;     'w_T  -r'l.  tiic  ibt  lufiowii^  ■  ^teap  recipe  to  reeog- 

-  ful  :i  fc  «:iiilI  rii,:  »boiit  «mc  vbm*  trf  Oe  botwr  to  be 
M«M:',  1_  -a.t  v-t.  ■  J.  j.cxt  caeuxti  vsHT.  iftukc  UionxiFhlT. 
tft,.!*  ;:-*  i'j;/^v;  ii,ti:  hda  U>  Ute  Buxtnre  kV-nt  a  thimble- 

Tl.  ',?  j'V*^  i.'y^i.'.-  J?  tL(-  LfiitT  j(  pore  Xht  BolatioB  will  remiin 
ui,'.nt.v^«:<i.  tiKT  jr  kC'„>^riii*d  Willi  flBoose,  it  will  be  ttubid  mud 

■  'Jun  ,t  tJj^  u><:i^iiED6e<ibvii,«boiiejdeslenorPuis,  to  detect 

'Jl)»;  [ireKcnt  low  pri'»:B  hare  put  an  end  to  adult«r&tion, 
tur,  a  ptiT  ijTwl-.  f,f  fi'jvlhem  or  California  honey  can  now 
b4  twifjlit   a$  tluaply,  at  vrfiolctale,  as  t&€   vOe,  unheaUhf 


eompaund,  adorned  with  the  name  of  golden  \^  apj  golden 
drtp,  etc. 

887.  Bat  a  slight  prejudice  remains  in  Me  minds  of 
some  buyers,  against  honey,  unless  they  are  acquainted 
with  the  producer.  This  prejudice  has  been  helped  by  idle 
writers  whose  sensational  stories  found  their  way  in  the 
newspapers,  concerning  the  supposed  manufacture  of  arti- 
ficial comb-honey. 

Alas!  that  so  many  sensible  people  should  give  credit 
to  such  ridiculous  canards!  A  minute's  examination  of 
a  sealed  honey  comb,  will  convince  any  sensible  person 
of  the  utter  impossibility  of  its  artificial  manufacture.  Nev- 
ertheless, we  knew  of  grocers  who  bought  and  sold  beauti- 
ful comb-honey  believing  it  to  be  artificial,  on  the  strength 
of  those  newspaper  stories.  These  willful  and  silly  lies 
were  finally  put  an  end  to  by  an  authoritative  article  in  the 
**  American  Orocer  "  of  November  10th,  1886,  concerning 
manufactured  honey  and  manufactured  eggs.  We  quote  a 
few  passages  of  this  lengthy  article : 

**  Olucose  at  all  fit  for  adulteration  Is  worth  from  4  i  to  6  cents 
per  poand.  In  California,  excellent  honey  is  now  sold  for  3 
cents  ( * )  per  pound.  This  state  of  affairs  makes  it  more  feasible 
and  more  likely  that  glucose  should  be  adulterated  with  honey, 
than  that  honey  should  be  adulterated  with  glacose.  We  now  come 
to  artificial  comb-honey.  The  only  way  In  which  it  is  possible 
to  pat  a  sparious  article  of  comb-honey  on  the  market  would  be 
^by  feeding  the  bees  glucose  or  some  other  substitute;  and 
there  would  be  a  greater  probability  of  this  being  done  were  it  not 
for  the  fact  that  the  bees  must  consume  a  very  large  quantity  of 
honey  or  other  sweets  to  enable  them  to  secrete  a  very  small 
quantity  of  white  wax  from  which  the  comb  is  made. . . . 

^  Our  last  point  is  in  reply  to  the  newspaper  statements  that 
were  so  widespread  a  year  or  two  ago,  to  the  efl'ect  that  our  comb 

•  W«  hav»  b«fon  oar  eyoA  Uie  price-Ust  of  a  Sau  Diego,  Cal.  Arm.  who 
•And tactiMltd hoo«7  ( October  ist,  1886).  at  low  as  8)i  oeaU  per  pouod; 
vttliadtoPoaBtofliNrMnt.  on  car  load  lots. 

It  ii  K iBlrfcinIi  i1  ImpoMlbillljr, 
«M  wtB.  Is  ar  OflMl— ■  «2wi7i  Wirt  M.. . .  I  iMidli-  u«4 
mM.  that  tte  atet*  itiailii—  lepnrt  la  mc«4  ta  bogtn  mmb- 

atlj  •tital*«l   aMw  ovdcBcc  Iibhuii  «•  Pra£  Wlief,  io«f 

yean  aro.  acaiud  tt  by  wkat  kc  terme*!  i  -  acleDllflc  pleaaantrjr '. 

*■  !■  RKV4  U  Un  artlicUI  *,r^  I  bellcre  Uii  wlU  W  a  feal 

MtU  ion*  dlBeatl  U  ■eedtBrlub  Aan  maktng  artlSeUl  tioa«r- 

«i>mb.  vip^eitlly  if  thrm  artifirial   Pg)^  are  exp«etnd  to  bstdu 

f         v;    .T    -i  k»Te  >o<!oaely  tiecUrcd  Uiat  aacbcKP 

hickm*  dill  not  baveuij  featharaM 

them,  ibe  JDventioD  not  yet  being  ntlBcieDtly  'perfected',  etc" 

—  A.  I.  EooT. 

838-  The  granulation  of  koneg  was  objected  to  by  maay 
consumers,  at  first,  from  the  prejudiced  idea  tiut  grftoula- 
ted  honev  bad  been  mixed  with  sugar.  It  has  ceased  to  be 
an  o)>je;.'tion.  for,  in  oar  neighborhood,  nearly  all  honey 
coasumers  now  tnoiT  that  good  ripe  honey  generally  gran- 
ulates in  cold  weather.  But,  now  and  then,  a  person  is 
found  nbo  wants  liquid  honey,  or  oomb  honey,  thinking 
ttiat  no  other  is  pure. 

We  were  (old  that  the  judges  at  an  agricaltural  exposi- 
tion refused  to  give  a  pTemium  to  a  bee-keeper  for  his  honey, 
because  it  was  spoiled  by  granulating.  These  competent 
judges  probably  think  tiiat  water  is  spoiled  by  freezing,  for 
granulated  honey  if  carefully  melted  (834),  la  aa  good  aa 
before  hardening. 

830.  We  have  always  found  an  easy  sale  for  extracted 
honey  among  foreigners  —  especially  German  or  French ; 
as  tbey  have  been  used  to  granulated  strained  honey, 
which  has  been  produced  for  centuries  in  almost  all  parts  of 
Europe.     Some  of  them  ai«  va  w«AX  »j«\a«i.ii.ted  with  it,  tfcat 


they  prefer  it  to  the '  finest  comb-honey,  saying  that  comb 
is  not  made  to  be  eaten. 

Once,  haying  received  a  favor  from  a  French  farmer, 
living  a  short  distance  from  us,  we  selected  a  beiutiful 
large  comb  of  nicely  sealed  clover  honey,  while  extracting, 
and  sent  it  to  this  family  after  having  carefully  laid  it 
on  a  dish.  Much  to  our  astonishment,  we  learnt,  a  few 
days  after,  that  the  good  French  housewife  had  put  our 
nice  comb  in  a  clean  towel,  carefully  pressed  the  honey 
out,  and  melted  the  wax ;  and  besides,  that  she  was  very 
much  astonished  at  our  having  sent  comb  honey  to  her, 
when  we  had  such  nice  extracted  honey  on  hand.  The 
reader  may  readily  imagine  that  thenceforth  we  never  sent 
to  them  anj'thing  but  extracted  honey,  much  to  their  satis* 
faction  and  ours. 

Every  bee-keeper  who  understands  his  business,  should 
try  to  sell  his  honey  when  granulated,  explaining  to  his  cus- 
tomers that  adulterated  honey  does  not  granulate,  and 
that  granulation  is  the  best  proof  of  purity.  We  have 
these  words  printed  on  all  our  labels. 

840.  To  improve  the  present  prices  of  honey,  which  are 
in  some  cases  lower  than  the  prices  of  second  class  sweets, 
it  is  necessary  that  the  masses  should  be  induced  to